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Frizzly Studies: Negotiating The Invisible Lines Of Race, Daniel J. Sharfstein Oct 2013

Frizzly Studies: Negotiating The Invisible Lines Of Race, Daniel J. Sharfstein

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In 1927 a Radcliffe graduate student named Caroline Bond Day began researching her anthropology master’s thesis on mixed-race families in the United States. The subject had personal resonance for Day, who was a fixture of colored society in Atlanta and had a complexion that defied easy categorization. To gather data for her thesis, she wrote to dozens of men and women in her large circle of friends, among them civil rights leaders such as W. E. B. Du Bois, John Hope, and Walter White. She asked for exhaustive genealogies, with estimates of blood proportions— Negro, white, Indian—for each ancestor. She …


Changing The Costs: A Rational Choice Perspective On African Americans' Healthcare Consumption Decisions, Nicole Langston Oct 2013

Changing The Costs: A Rational Choice Perspective On African Americans' Healthcare Consumption Decisions, Nicole Langston

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This paper makes the case for racial disparities in the consumption of healthcare and advocates for a large-scale cost-benefit change for healthcare practitioners and the African American community to ensure efficient consumption of healthcare by African American patients. Part I explores the history of African Americans and the healthcare system, arguing the history of this interaction fuels many of the present-day decisions not to consume healthcare. Part II explores the current racial differences in healthcare treatment and outcomes for African Americans in order to lay the framework for racially disparate treatment in America's healthcare system. Part III of this paper …


Trends In Environmental Law Scholarship 2008-2012, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Linda K. Breggin, Jacob P. Byl, Lynsey R. Gaudioso, Seamus T. Kelly Aug 2013

Trends In Environmental Law Scholarship 2008-2012, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Linda K. Breggin, Jacob P. Byl, Lynsey R. Gaudioso, Seamus T. Kelly

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The Environmental Law and Policy Annual Review (ELPAR) is published by the Environmental Law Institute's (ELI's) Environmental Law Reporter in partnership with Vanderbilt University Law School. ELPAR provides a forum for the presentation and discussion of the best ideas about environmental law and policy from the legal academic literature. As part of the article selection process each year, Vanderbilt University Law School students assemble and review the environmental law articles published during the previous academic year. In this Article, we draw on the results of the ELPAR article selection process to report on trends in environmental legal scholarship for academic …


The Environmental Cost Of Misinformation: Why The Recommendation To Use Warm Water For Handwashing Is Problematic, Amanda R. Carrico, Micajah Spoden, Kenneth A. Wallston, Michael P. Vandenbergh Jul 2013

The Environmental Cost Of Misinformation: Why The Recommendation To Use Warm Water For Handwashing Is Problematic, Amanda R. Carrico, Micajah Spoden, Kenneth A. Wallston, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Multiple government and health organizations recommend the use of warm or hot water in publications designed to educate the public on best practices for washing one’s hands. This is despite research suggesting that the use of an elevated water temperature does not improve handwashing efficacy, but can cause hand irritation. There is reason to believe that the perception that warm or hot water is more effective at cleaning one’s hands is pervasive, and may be one factor that is driving up unnecessary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. We examine handwashing practices and beliefs about water temperature using a survey …


Opting Out Among Women With Elite Education, Joni Hersch Jun 2013

Opting Out Among Women With Elite Education, Joni Hersch

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Whether highly educated women are exiting the labor force to care for their children has generated a great deal of media attention, even though academic studies find little evidence of opting out. This paper shows that female graduates of elite institutions have lower labor market involvement than their counterparts from less selective institutions. Although elite graduates are more likely to earn advanced degrees, marry at later ages, and have higher expected earnings, there is little difference in labor market activity by college selectivity among women without children and women who are not married. But the presence of children is associated …


Reclaiming Equality To Reframe Indigent Defense Reform, Lauren Sudeall Apr 2013

Reclaiming Equality To Reframe Indigent Defense Reform, Lauren Sudeall

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Equal access to resources is fundamental to meaningful legal representation, yet for decades, equality arguments have been ignored in litigating indigent defense reform. At a time when underfunded indigent defense systems across the country are failing to provide indigent defendants with adequate representation, the question of resources is even more critical. Traditionally, advocates seeking indigent defense reform have relied on Sixth Amendment arguments to protect the rights of indigents in this context; however, the Sixth Amendment approach suffers from a number of shortcomings that have made it a poor tool for systemic reform, including its exclusive focus on attorney performance …


A Dilemma Of Doctrinal Design: Rights, Identity And The Work-Family Conflict, Lauren Sudeall Apr 2013

A Dilemma Of Doctrinal Design: Rights, Identity And The Work-Family Conflict, Lauren Sudeall

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This symposium article suggests that with regard to the work-family conflict, we may have exhausted doctrine’s potential in setting a constitutional foundation for women to be treated as equals in the workplace and requiring that they not be discriminated against in the event that they decide to start a family. For purposes of this piece, those accomplishments constitute the first phase or “first generation” of progress. This article is concerned with how doctrine relates to “second generation” issues arising from the work-family conflict: how to balance work and family once some initial level of equality has been achieved; how to …


Is High-Altitude Mountaineering Russian Roulette?, Edward K. Cheng Mar 2013

Is High-Altitude Mountaineering Russian Roulette?, Edward K. Cheng

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Whether the nature of the risks associated with climbing high-altitude (8000 m) peaks is in some sense “controllable” is a longstanding debate in the mountaineering community. Well-known mountaineers David Roberts and Ed Viesturs explore this issue in their recent memoirs. Roberts views the primary risks as “ objective ” or uncontrollable, whereas Viesturs maintains that experience and attention to safety can make a significant difference. This study sheds light on the Roberts-Viesturs debate using a comprehensive dataset of climbing on Nepalese Himalayan peaks. To test whether the data is consistent with a constant failure rate model (Roberts) or a decreasing …


Making Money: Leverage And Private Sector Money Creation, Margaret M. Blair Jan 2013

Making Money: Leverage And Private Sector Money Creation, Margaret M. Blair

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009, practitioners and theorists in law, finance, and economics are rethinking our theories about how the financial sector influences the real economy. In particular, they are reexamining the linkages among financial innovation, supply of credit and money, monetary policy, bubbles, financial stability, and economic growth. One of the key issues that is being reconsidered is the dynamics of how banks and other financial institutions drive credit creation and credit allocation, and how these factors, in turn affect the performance of the macroeconomy. In this article, I argue that, by providing an alternative …


Plea Bargains That Waive Claims Of Ineffective Assistance - Waiving Padilla And Fry, Nancy J. King Jan 2013

Plea Bargains That Waive Claims Of Ineffective Assistance - Waiving Padilla And Fry, Nancy J. King

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This essay addresses the growing use and enforcement of terms in plea agreements by which a defendant waives his right to attack his plea agreement on the basis of constitutionally deficient representation during negotiations leading to the agreement. Contrary to other commentators and some courts, I argue that the Constitution does not forbid the enforcement of such a waiver, and review steps a judge may have to take in order to ensure that a defendant’s express waiver of the right to effective representation during plea bargaining is knowing and voluntary. I also argue that although the Constitution does not prohibit …


Being Pragmatic About Forensic Linguistics, Edward K. Cheng Jan 2013

Being Pragmatic About Forensic Linguistics, Edward K. Cheng

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article aims to provide some legal context to the Authorship Attribution Workshop (“conference”). In particular, I want to offer some pragmatic observations on what courts will likely demand of forensic linguistics experts and tentatively suggest what the field should aspire to in both the short and long run.


Should New Zealand Adopt Say On Pay?, Randall Thomas, Susan Watson Jan 2013

Should New Zealand Adopt Say On Pay?, Randall Thomas, Susan Watson

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Liberty's Safety Net, Suzanna Sherry Jan 2013

Liberty's Safety Net, Suzanna Sherry

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

I am honored and humbled by the breadth and depth of the responses to my essay on judicial activism, including Richard Epstein's very generous introduction. Each of the contributors has packed a tremendous amount of insight and information into an impossibly limited number of words, and the comments will be extremely useful as I go forward with the project of turning the original essay into a book. My essay might be characterized as a rhetorical call to arms, an undifferentiated embrace of judicial activism. Three of the commentators provide very helpful substantive support for the call to arms, and two …


Judges And Their Emotions, Terry A. Maroney Jan 2013

Judges And Their Emotions, Terry A. Maroney

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In a contribution to this Symposium on Law and Emotion: Re-Envisioning Family Law, Phillip Shaver and his co-authors succinctly encapsulate contemporary psychological theory on interpersonal attachment -- primarily parent-child attachment and its role in creating lifelong attachment patterns -- and seek to outline the relevance of such research for both social policy and law. This Comment demonstrates that many areas of family law already seek to cultivate and reward attachment. But attachment is not and cannot be the sole-or even, perhaps, the most important-factor driving most legal determinations. Recognizing the importance of secure attachment does not answer difficult questions about …


Preemption Under The Controlled Substances Act, Robert A. Mikos Jan 2013

Preemption Under The Controlled Substances Act, Robert A. Mikos

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

States are conducting increasingly bold experiments with their marijuana laws, but questions linger over their authority to deviate from the federal Controlled Substances Act. The CSA bans marijuana outright, and commentators have assumed that Congress sought to preempt all state laws that might somehow conflict with the CSA. Under the preemption rule now in vogue, state marijuana reforms are preempted if they either require someone to violate the CSA or, more controversially, if they pose an obstacle to Congress’s objective of eradicating marijuana. Seeking to avoid such conflicts, government officials have scuttled a number of important state marijuana reforms. This …


A Pox On Both Your Houses, Suzanna Sherry Jan 2013

A Pox On Both Your Houses, Suzanna Sherry

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

As Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins celebrates its 75th anniversary, it is becoming more apparent that it is on a collision course with itself. The Court keeps trying – and failing – to sort out the tensions within the Erie doctrine and between it and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The Court’s latest Erie decision, Shady Grove, was yet another attempt to separate substance from procedure and navigate the strait between the Rules of Decision Act and the Rules Enabling Act. It was a disaster, in large part because of the internal incoherence of the Erie doctrine itself and …


Carrots & Sticks: How Vcs Induce Entrepreneurial Teams To Sell Startups, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried Jan 2013

Carrots & Sticks: How Vcs Induce Entrepreneurial Teams To Sell Startups, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Venture capitalists (VCs) usually exit their investments in a startup via a trade sale. But the entrepreneurial team – the startup’s founder, other executives, and common shareholders – may resist a trade sale. Such resistance is likely to be particularly intense when the sale price is low relative to VCs’ liquidation preferences. Using a hand-collected dataset of Silicon Valley firms, we investigate how VCs overcome such resistance. We find, in our sample, that VCs give bribes (carrots) to the entrepreneurial team in 45% of trade sales; in these sales, carrots total an average of 9% of deal value. The overt …


An Empirical Assessment Of Corporate Environmental Crime-Control Stragies, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Sally S. Simpson, Carole Gibbs, Melissa Rorie, Lee Ann Slocum, Mark A. Cohen Jan 2013

An Empirical Assessment Of Corporate Environmental Crime-Control Stragies, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Sally S. Simpson, Carole Gibbs, Melissa Rorie, Lee Ann Slocum, Mark A. Cohen

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Corporate illegality is often attributed to greed by corporate managers and insufficient legal safeguards. Underlying this argument is an explicit critique of corporate crime regulatory systems. Yet there is little systematic investigation of the relative merits of different types or components of crime-control strategies; research comparing more punitive command-and- control strategies with self-regulatory approaches is particularly lacking. In this Article, we assess these crime prevention-and-control mechanisms in the context of individual and situational risk factors that may increase the likelihood of illegal behavior in the environmental arena. We use data drawn from two groups of business managers who participated in …


Harmonizing Distributed Energy And The Endangered Species Act, J.B. Ruhl Jan 2013

Harmonizing Distributed Energy And The Endangered Species Act, J.B. Ruhl

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This Article explores the intersection of utility-scale wind power development and the Endangered Species Act, which thus far has not been as happy a union as one might expect. Part I provides background on how the ESA and wind power have met in policy, permitting, and litigation. Part II then examines whether wind power (and other renewable energy sources) can and should receive a green pass under the ESA given its unquestioned climate change mitigation benefits, concluding that doing so would face a host of legal and policy concerns. Part III then outlines a model for administrative innovation of ESA …


The Presumption Of Patentability, Sean B. Seymore Jan 2013

The Presumption Of Patentability, Sean B. Seymore

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

When the Framers of the United States Constitution granted Congress the authority to create a patent system, they certainty did not envision a patent as an a priori entitlement. As it stands now, anyone who files a patent application on anything is entitled to a presumption of patentability. A patent examiner who seeks to challenge patentability faces the dual burden of building a prima facie case of unpatentability and carrying the ultimate burden of proof. Thus, from the outset, an applicant is in a very good position; but the examiner’s limited resources, time pressures, and production goals tip the scales …


Federal Preemption And Clean Energy Floors, Jim Rossi, Thomas Hutton Jan 2013

Federal Preemption And Clean Energy Floors, Jim Rossi, Thomas Hutton

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Federal policies regarding renewable and clean energy often lack clear definition, are incomplete, and are scattered across multiple statutes and agencies. Yet at the same time, recent decisions of both federal agencies and courts have attributed a preemptive effect to federal statutes that threatens to hobble innovation in renewable and clean energy policy by subnational regulators. One consequence of this approach is that most significant policies promoting clean and renewable energy are channeled toward subsidies from the federal fisc, rather than diverse policies undertaken independently by state governments or regional customers and suppliers. This Article argues that, contrary to many …


How Modern Choice Of Law Helped To Kill The Private Attorney General, Erin O'Connor Jan 2013

How Modern Choice Of Law Helped To Kill The Private Attorney General, Erin O'Connor

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

It is a great honor to be asked to deliver the second Annual Brainerd Currie Lecture at Mercer University School of Law. Brainerd Currie was an immensely influential law professor who is recognized as the leading scholar of conflict of laws in the twentieth century. Mercer has the distinction of being both Currie's law school alma mater as well as his first academic appointment, probably the two most significant intellectual influences on any scholar. More recently, Mercer has attracted other influential conflicts scholars and cheerleaders of the topic, including Dean Gary Simson, Larry Ribstein, Hal Lewis, and Bruce Posnak, among …


Book Review: Burden Of Proof: A Review Of Math On Trial, Paul H. Edelman Jan 2013

Book Review: Burden Of Proof: A Review Of Math On Trial, Paul H. Edelman

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In Math on Trial, Leila Schneps and Coralie Col­ mez write about the abuse of mathematical argu­ ments in criminal trials and how these flawed arguments "have sent innocent people to prison" (p. ix). Indeed, people "saw their lives ripped apart by simple mathematical errors." The purpose of focusing on these errors, despite mathematics' "relatively rare use in trials" (p. x), is "that many of the common mathematical fallacies that pervade the public sphere are perfectly represented by these trials. Thus they serve as ideal illustrations of these errors and of the drastic consequences that faulty reasoning has on real …


Corporate Personhood And The Corporate Persona, Margaret M. Blair Jan 2013

Corporate Personhood And The Corporate Persona, Margaret M. Blair

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court held in Citizens United v. FEC that restrictions on corporate political speech were unconstitutional because of the First Amendment rights granted corporations as a result of their status as "persons" under the law. Following this decision, debate has been rekindled among legal scholars about the meaning of "corporate personhood." This debate is not new. Over the past two centuries, scholars have considered what corporate personhood means and entails. This debate has resulted in numerous theories about corporate personhood that have come into and out of favor over the years, including the "artificial person" theory, …


Reconceptualizing The Burden Of Proof, Edward K. Cheng Jan 2013

Reconceptualizing The Burden Of Proof, Edward K. Cheng

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The preponderance standard is conventionally described as an absolute probability threshold of 0.5. This Essay argues that this absolute characterization of the burden of proof is wrong. Rather than focusing on an absolute threshold, the Essay reconceptualizes the preponderance standard as a probability ratio and shows how doing so eliminates many of the classical problems associated with probabilistic theories of evidence. Using probability ratios eliminates the so-called Conjunction Paradox, and developing the ratio tests under a Bayesian perspective further explains the Blue Bus problem and other puzzles surrounding statistical evidence. By harmonizing probabilistic theories of proof with recent critiques advocating …


Statutory Interpretation From The Inside--An Empirical Study Of Congressional Drafting, Delegation, And The Canons: Part I, Lisa Schultz Bressman, Abbe R. Gluck Jan 2013

Statutory Interpretation From The Inside--An Empirical Study Of Congressional Drafting, Delegation, And The Canons: Part I, Lisa Schultz Bressman, Abbe R. Gluck

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

What role should the realities of the legislative drafting process play in the theories and doctrines of statutory interpretation and administrative law? The ongoing debates frequently turn on empirical assumptions about how Congress drafts and what interpretive rules Congress knows, but there has been almost no testing of whether any of these assumptions reflect legislative reality. We have attempted to fill that void. This is the first of two Articles reporting the results of the most extensive empirical study to date — a survey of 137 congressional counsels drawn from both parties, both chambers of Congress and spanning multiple committees …


Patient Awareness And Approval For An Opt-Out Genomic Biorepository, Ellen Wright Clayton, Kyle B. Brothers, Matthew J. Westbrook, M. Francis Wright, John A. Myers, Daniel R. Morrison, Jennifer L. Madison, Jill M. Pulley Jan 2013

Patient Awareness And Approval For An Opt-Out Genomic Biorepository, Ellen Wright Clayton, Kyle B. Brothers, Matthew J. Westbrook, M. Francis Wright, John A. Myers, Daniel R. Morrison, Jennifer L. Madison, Jill M. Pulley

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Aim: In this study, we sought to assess patient awareness and perceptions of an opt-out biorepository. Materials & methods: We conducted exit interviews with adult patients and parents of pediatric patients having their blood drawn as part of their clinical care at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (TN, USA). Results: 32.9% of all patients and parents of pediatric patients report having heard of the opt-out biorepository, while 92.4% approve of this research effort based on a brief description. Awareness that leftover blood could be used for research increased among adult patients during the study period, from 34.3 to 50.0%. Conclusion: These …


Seeking Genomic Knowledge: The Case For Clinical Restraint, Ellen Wright Clayton, Wylie Burke, Susan Brown Trinidad Jan 2013

Seeking Genomic Knowledge: The Case For Clinical Restraint, Ellen Wright Clayton, Wylie Burke, Susan Brown Trinidad

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Genome sequencing technology provides new and promising tests for clinical practice, including whole genome sequencing, which measures an individual's complete DNA sequence, and whole exome sequencing, which measures the DNA for all genes coding for proteins. These technologies make it possible to test for multiple genes in a single test, which increases the efficiency of genetic testing. However, they can also produce large amounts of information that cannot be interpreted or is of limited clinical utility. This additional information could be distracting for patients and clinicians, and contribute to unnecessary healthcare costs. The potential for genomic sequencing to improve care …


Putting Desert In Its Place, Christopher Slobogin, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein Jan 2013

Putting Desert In Its Place, Christopher Slobogin, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Based on an impressive array of studies, Paul Robinson and his coauthors have developed a new theory of criminal justice, which they call empirical desert. The theory asserts that, because people are more likely to be compliant with a legal regime that is perceived to be morally credible, a criminal justice system that tracks empirically derived lay views about how much punishment is deserved is the most efficient way of achieving utilitarian goals, or at least is as efficient at crime prevention as a system that focuses solely on deterrence and incapacitation. This Article describes seven original studies that test …


Rehnquist And Panvasive Searches, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2013

Rehnquist And Panvasive Searches, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In the history of the Supreme Court, William Rehnquist may have been the least friendly justice toward the view that the Fourth Amendment should be read expansively. Even he, however, might have interpreted the amendment to place more restrictions on modern law enforcement techniques than current caselaw does. Relying on a 1974 article authored by Rehnquist, this essay, written for a symposium on Rehnquist and the Fourth Amendment, describes his views on the types of requirements the Fourth Amendment imposes on the police, how decriminalization can protect privacy, and most importantly, why Rehnquist might have been willing to regulate surveillance …