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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Rationalizing Entity Law: Corporate Law And Alternative Entities (Part Ii), Joan Macleod Heminway Dec 2013

Rationalizing Entity Law: Corporate Law And Alternative Entities (Part Ii), Joan Macleod Heminway

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No abstract provided.


Lawyers And Precedent, Harlan G. Cohen Nov 2013

Lawyers And Precedent, Harlan G. Cohen

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Despite common references to the “invisible college of international lawyers,” and the doctrinal role granted to “the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations,” the role of lawyers, as lawyers, in the creation, development, and maintenance of the international legal order remains oddly underexplored. This short essay, prepared as part of a symposium on “The Role of Non-State Actors in International Law,” explores the role of lawyers as independent actors within international law. It argues that focusing on lawyers can help provide insights into how international law develops — specifically here, how and why a practice of precedent seems …


Acqui-Hiring, Gregg D. Polsky, John F. Coyle Nov 2013

Acqui-Hiring, Gregg D. Polsky, John F. Coyle

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Facebook, Google, and other leading technology companies in Silicon Valley have been buying start-up companies at a brisk pace. In many of these transactions, the buyer has little interest in acquiring the startup’s projects or assets. Instead, the buyer’s primary motivation is to hire some or all of the startup’s software engineers. These so-called “acqui-hires” represent a novel — and increasingly common — tool by which the largest and most successful technology companies in the world satisfy their intense demand for engineering talent.

To date, the acqui-hire has attracted no attention in the academic or professional legal literature. With this …


Policing The Immigration Police: Ice Prosecutorial Discretion And The Fourth Amendment, Jason A. Cade Nov 2013

Policing The Immigration Police: Ice Prosecutorial Discretion And The Fourth Amendment, Jason A. Cade

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A persistent puzzle in immigration law is how the removal adjudication system should respond to the increasing prevalence of violations of noncitizens’ constitutional rights by arresting officers. Scholarship in this area has focused on judicial suppression of unconstitutionally obtained evidence, typically by arguing that the Supreme Court should overrule its 1984 decision in INS v. Lopez-Mendoza not to enforce the exclusionary rule in civil immigration court. This Essay, in contrast, considers the role of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) attorneys in upholding the Fourth Amendment, taking as a launching point the recent exercise of prosecutorial discretion by ICE attorneys in …


No Child Left Behind - Representing Youth And Families In Truancy Matters, Dean Rivkin Nov 2013

No Child Left Behind - Representing Youth And Families In Truancy Matters, Dean Rivkin

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No abstract provided.


The (Somewhat) False Hope Of Comprehensive Planning, Michael Lewyn Oct 2013

The (Somewhat) False Hope Of Comprehensive Planning, Michael Lewyn

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Comprehensive planning at the municipal level, although useful in a variety of ways, is neither necessary nor sufficient to promote "smart" (that is, pedestrian and transit-oriented) growth. Comprehensive plans can be used to support sprawl as easily as to support smart growth, while smart growth may be promoted effectively through zoning reform or statewide legislation as well as through local planning.


Tax Credit Scholarship Programs And The Changing Ecology Of Public Education, Hillel Y. Levin Oct 2013

Tax Credit Scholarship Programs And The Changing Ecology Of Public Education, Hillel Y. Levin

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The traditional model of public education continues to be challenged by advocates of school choice. Typically associated with charter schools, magnet schools, and tuition voucher programs, these advocates have recently introduced a new school choice plan, namely tax credit scholarship programs. More than a dozen states have adopted such programs, and hundreds of millions of dollars are now diverted each year from public programs to private schools. These programs are poorly understood and under-studied by legal scholars. This Article assesses the place of these programs within the ecology of public education, considers the fundamentally different approaches states have taken to …


Reclaiming The Equitable Heritage Of Habeas, Erica J. Hashimoto Oct 2013

Reclaiming The Equitable Heritage Of Habeas, Erica J. Hashimoto

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Equity runs through the law of habeas corpus. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, prisoners in England sought the Great Writ primarily from a common law court — the Court of King’s Bench — but that court’s exercise of power to issue the writ was built around equitable principles. Against this backdrop, it is hardly surprising that modern-day habeas law draws deeply on traditional equitable considerations. Criticism of current habeas doctrine centers on the risk that its rules — and particularly the five gatekeeping doctrines that preclude consideration of claims — produce unfair results. But in fact four of these …


The End Of Cash, The Income Tax, And The Next 100 Years, Gregg D. Polsky, Jeffery H. Kahn Oct 2013

The End Of Cash, The Income Tax, And The Next 100 Years, Gregg D. Polsky, Jeffery H. Kahn

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The income tax is technologically very similar to the way it was in its early years, and technological developments have been at the margins of the income tax and have not affected its core elements. Still, technological improvements have made third-party reporting and withholding more efficient, which has allowed these mechanisms to become more pervasively used. Technology has also made it easier for taxpayers to substantiate their activities. These changes have facilitated the evolution of the incometax from its original class tax to the mass tax it is today.

While further technological advances might improve the federal income tax, it …


Rediscovering The Sawyer Solution: Bundling Risk For Protection And Profit, Jeffrey W. Stempel Oct 2013

Rediscovering The Sawyer Solution: Bundling Risk For Protection And Profit, Jeffrey W. Stempel

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No abstract provided.


Tales Of A Fourth Tier Nothing, A Response To Brian Tamanaha's Failing Law Schools, Lucille Jewel Oct 2013

Tales Of A Fourth Tier Nothing, A Response To Brian Tamanaha's Failing Law Schools, Lucille Jewel

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This is a paper written in response to Professor Brian Tamanaha’s Failing Law Schools. Much of the book is laudable for highlighting the serious structural, policy, and moral issues confronting legal education today. However, I disagree with several of Professor Tamanaha’s ideas for reforming our system. In this paper, I write from the perspective of a tenured legal writing professor teaching at a for-profit fourth tier school, in fact, one of the schools that Tamanaha repeatedly implies are the problem and not the solution for the legal education crisis.

Part One addresses the idea, which dates back to 1921, that …


Addressing Shortfalls In Traditional Legal Education: Ut's Concentrations And Capstones And Waller Lansden's Schola2juris Program, George Kuney, Joseph Watson Oct 2013

Addressing Shortfalls In Traditional Legal Education: Ut's Concentrations And Capstones And Waller Lansden's Schola2juris Program, George Kuney, Joseph Watson

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Law school’s traditional educational model needs to be revamped. The traditional law firm’s summer associate model needs restructuring. Some might say they are both broken. Across the country, educators, and commentators are talking about legal education reforms and leading law firms are confronting how to improve the age-old mechanism for recruiting law students.

In the recent past, the legal employment landscape provided no incentive for law firms to question their traditional recruiting practices. The traditional law-firm recruitment model — the summer-associate program — is often little more than a glorified summer camp for some of the most highly educated — …


Legal Form, Style, And Etiquette For Email, George Kuney Oct 2013

Legal Form, Style, And Etiquette For Email, George Kuney

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No abstract provided.


Willful Blindness, Plausible Deniability, And Tippee Liability: Sac, Steven Cohen, And The Court's Opinion In Dirks, Joan Macleod Heminway Oct 2013

Willful Blindness, Plausible Deniability, And Tippee Liability: Sac, Steven Cohen, And The Court's Opinion In Dirks, Joan Macleod Heminway

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Is the principal of a securities trading firm able to remain ignorant about the source of information used in trading on the principal's behalf and avoid liability for insider trading under U.S. law? This short essay explores that question using the SAC Capital Advisors, L.P. and Steven Cohen as an example case, reflecting on the law established by the Supreme Court in its opinion in Dirks v. SEC in light of both the Second Circuit opinion in SEC v. Obus and changes, occasioned by Regulation FD, in the nature of securities analysts’ work and the overall information entrepreneurialism of market …


The Indefinite Quarantine: A Public Health Review Of Chronic Inconsistencies In Sexually Violent Predator Statutes, Isaac ("Zack") D. Buck Oct 2013

The Indefinite Quarantine: A Public Health Review Of Chronic Inconsistencies In Sexually Violent Predator Statutes, Isaac ("Zack") D. Buck

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Fifteen years after the Supreme Court’s decision in Kansas v. Hendricks upheld their constitutionality, sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes exist in 20 states and the federal code. Committing sex offenders indefinitely in an effort to protect the public, SVP statutes have survived academic criticism and mushrooming expense, targeting society’s most unpopular subjects and unpalatable crimes. In upholding the statutes against constitutional attack in Hendricks, the Court relied upon the state’s demonstrable power to preventively detain individuals during public health emergencies – analogous to the civil detention model of quarantine – to establish the state’s unquestioned right to involuntarily commit sex …


A More Cost Effective Model For Legal Education, Jack Graves Sep 2013

A More Cost Effective Model For Legal Education, Jack Graves

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In his most recent book, Richard Susskind focuses on three primary drivers of change in the market for legal services: (1) the “more-for-less” challenge; (2) the “liberalization” of the regulatory environment; and (3) the effective use of “information technology.” These same three drivers provide the keys to unlocking a more efficient and effective system of legal education. The price of a legal education must be significantly reduced at the vast majority of law schools, and we must deliver a better education at this reduced price. Together, these two objectives comprise the obvious, yet daunting, “more-for-less” challenge we face as educators. …


The Scope Of The General Utilities Repeal, Don Leatherman Sep 2013

The Scope Of The General Utilities Repeal, Don Leatherman

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More than a quarter of a century ago, Congress repealed the General Utilities doctrine, authorizing Treasury to issue regulations to prevent circumvention of the repeal. Although Treasury has issued several sets of regulations in response, it has never systematically defined the scope of the repeal. Instead, the regulations and other administrative guidance more selectively attack concerns raised by the repeal, almost all of which arise because of the dual nature of stock: A corporate shareholder can choose to treat a subsidiary’s stock as a separate asset or, in certain cases, as an indirect interest in subsidiary assets, a choice facilitated …


A Survey Of The Section 336(E) Regulations, Don Leatherman Sep 2013

A Survey Of The Section 336(E) Regulations, Don Leatherman

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Under § 336(e), if one corporation owns an affiliated interest in the stock of a second corporation and sells, exchanges, or distributes all of that stock, Congress has authorized a regulatory election to treat the transfer of the second corporation’s stock as a disposition of its assets, thereby avoiding recognized gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or distribution of that stock. Congress added § 336(e) to the Code in the Tax Reform Act of 1986, intending that it be implemented using "principles similar to those of section 338(h)(10)." Thus, § 336(e) has a purpose similar to § 338(h)(10), offering …


Contested Meanings Of Freedom: Workingmen's Wages, The Company Store System, And The Godcharles V. Wigeman Decision, Laura Phillips Sawyer Jul 2013

Contested Meanings Of Freedom: Workingmen's Wages, The Company Store System, And The Godcharles V. Wigeman Decision, Laura Phillips Sawyer

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In 1886, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court struck down a law that prohibited employers from paying wages in company store scrip and mandated monthly wage payments. The court held that the legislature could not prescribe mandatory wage contracts for legally competent workingmen. The decision quashed over two decades of efforts to end the “truck system.” Although legislators had agreed that wage payments redeemable only in company store goods appeared antithetical to the free labor wage system, two obstacles complicated legislative action. Any law meant to enhance laborers’ rights could neither favor one class over another nor infringe any workingman’s ability to …


With Apologies To Paxton Blair, Peter B. Rutledge Jul 2013

With Apologies To Paxton Blair, Peter B. Rutledge

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Much has been written on the forum non conveniens doctrine, yet I nonetheless believe that recent developments in related areas still enable scholars to offer an original perspective on the subject. In this brief essay, I advance the following thesis: the forum non conveniens doctrine developed in response to a specific set of doctrines and specific social phenomena. The waning of some of those doctrines have diminished though not altogether eliminated the need for forum non conveniens, which always has had a suspect status following Erie’s declaration that there is “no federal general common law.” While it is most certainly …


Functioning Just Fine: The Unappreciated Value Of The Supreme Court Confirmation Process, Lori A. Ringhand, Paul M. Collins Jr. Jul 2013

Functioning Just Fine: The Unappreciated Value Of The Supreme Court Confirmation Process, Lori A. Ringhand, Paul M. Collins Jr.

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Scholars, politicians, and legal commentators from across the ideological spectrum seem to agree that the U.S. Supreme Court confirmation process is broken and needs to be fixed. Reform proposals vary, but share a common assumption that if we do not do something the legitimacy of the Court will be at risk.

This Article presents an alternative view, arguing that the confirmation process is in fact functioning just fine. The way we confirm Supreme Court nominees today is not perfect, but nor is it all that bad. If there is a crisis facing the high Court today, it lies not in …


A Conflict Primacy Model Of The Public Board, Usha Rodrigues Jul 2013

A Conflict Primacy Model Of The Public Board, Usha Rodrigues

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e board of directors is the theoretical fulcrum of the corporate form: Statutes task the board with managing the corporation. Yet in the twentieth century, CEOs and other executives came to dominate the real-world control of the corporation. In light of this transformation, in the 1970s Melvin E. Eisenberg proposed reconceiving the board as an independent monitor. Eisenberg’s monitoring board is now the dominant regulatory model of the board. Recently two different visions of the board of directors have emerged. Stephen Bainbridge’s “director primacy” model calls directors “Platonic guardians,” and Margaret Blair and Lynn Stout’s “team production model” characterizes them …


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jul 2013

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

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In 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, deciding an issue of first impression, held that a party that enters a consent order to settle potential liability under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is not entitled to pursue a cost recovery action against other potentially responsible parties under section 1073 of the Act, but may only seek contribution from those parties under section 113(f) of the Act. The court also affirmed a decision by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Manage- ment to approve an exploration plan for oil and gas drilling in …


Book Review: Reimagining Child Soldiers In International Law And Policy By Mark A. Drumbl., Diane Marie Amann Jul 2013

Book Review: Reimagining Child Soldiers In International Law And Policy By Mark A. Drumbl., Diane Marie Amann

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Book review of Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy by Mark A. Drumbl(New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012).


Sexual Violence Against Men And Women In War: A Masculinities Approach, Valorie K. Vojdik Jul 2013

Sexual Violence Against Men And Women In War: A Masculinities Approach, Valorie K. Vojdik

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Rape and sexual violence against men in war remains largely invisible, yet pervasive across time and place. The silence around male rape raises critical questions about male bodies, gender, and power that have been largely ignored by legal scholars and international courts. While feminist and human rights scholars have theorized rape of women as a weapon of war, they have largely ignored sexual violence against men. Following the mass rape of women in former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, international tribunals recognized that sexual violence against women can constitute a weapon of war and a crime against humanity. In both conflicts, men …


The Plea Bargain Crisis For Noncitizens In Misdemeanor Court, Jason A. Cade Jun 2013

The Plea Bargain Crisis For Noncitizens In Misdemeanor Court, Jason A. Cade

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This Article considers three factors contributing to a plea-bargain crisis for noncitizens charged with misdemeanors: 1) the expansion of deportation laws to include very minor offenses with little opportunity for discretionary relief from removal; 2) the integration of federal immigration enforcement programs with the criminal justice system; and 3) the institutional norms in non-federal lower criminal courts, where little attention is paid to evidence or individual equities and where bail and other process costs generally outweigh perceived incentives to fight charges. The Article contends that these factors increase the likelihood that a noncitizen’s low-level conviction will not reliably indicate guilt …


A Glass Half Full Look At The Changes In The American Legal Market, Benjamin H. Barton Jun 2013

A Glass Half Full Look At The Changes In The American Legal Market, Benjamin H. Barton

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The American legal profession finds itself in the midst of dizzying changes. What was once viewed as a brief downturn now looks like a much more substantial restructuring and downsizing. The main commentators on these trends have been those most likely to be affected: law professors and corporate lawyers, and they have largely presented these trends as disastrous. This Essay argues that while these changes will be painful in the near term, they will prove beneficial overall.

The obvious reason for optimism is that America will be significantly better off if we spend less on legal services. Whatever else the …


Adequately Representing Groups, Elizabeth Chamblee Burch May 2013

Adequately Representing Groups, Elizabeth Chamblee Burch

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Adequate representation and preclusion depend on whether the courts treat a litigant as part of a group experiencing an aggregate harm or as a distinct person suffering individual injuries. And though a vast literature about adequate representation exists in the class-action context, it thins dramatically when contemplating other forms of group litigation, such as parens patriae actions and multidistrict litigation. As class actions have gradually fallen into disfavor and attorneys and commentators seek alternative means for resolving group harms, the relative clarity of Rule 23 wanes. How should courts evaluate adequate representation in parens patriae actions and in multidistrict litigation? …


Securities Law's Dirty Little Secret, Usha Rodrigues May 2013

Securities Law's Dirty Little Secret, Usha Rodrigues

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Securities law’s dirty little secret is that rich investors have access to special kinds of investments—hedge funds, private equity, private companies—that everyone else does not. This disparity stems from the fact that, from its inception, federal securities law has jealously guarded the manner in which firms can sell shares to the general public. Perhaps paternalistically, the law assumes that the average investor needs the protection of the full panoply of securities regulation and thus should be limited to buying public securities. In contrast, accredited—i.e., wealthy— investors, who it is presumed can fend for themselves, have the luxury of choosing between …


In Search Of Safe Harbor: Suggestions For The New Rule 506(C), Usha Rodrigues May 2013

In Search Of Safe Harbor: Suggestions For The New Rule 506(C), Usha Rodrigues

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I devote most of this essay to exploring how, exactly, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) should go about providing guidelines to implement the statutory requirement that issuers have a reasonable belief that a purchaser is accredited. The SEC has proposed rules, but these rules merely restate what Congress has already required, thus sidestepping Congress’s direction that the agency itself articulate some verification methods. Taking the SEC’s decidedly amorphous proposal to task, I recommend that the SEC offer two nonexclusive safe harbors for issuers to guide them in determining whether a natural person is an accredited investor. The paragraphs below …