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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson Dec 2013

Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson

Kenneth Lasson

SACRED COWS, HOLY WARS Exploring the Limits of Law in the Regulation of Raw Milk and Kosher Meat By Kenneth Lasson Abstract In a free society law and religion seldom coincide comfortably, tending instead to reflect the inherent tension that often resides between the two. This is nowhere more apparent than in America, where the underlying principle upon which the first freedom enunciated by the Constitution’s Bill of Rights is based ‒ the separation of church and state – is conceptually at odds with the pragmatic compromises that may be reached. But our adherence to the primacy of individual rights …


Reflections On The Newtown Shooting One Year Later, John J. Donohue Dec 2013

Reflections On The Newtown Shooting One Year Later, John J. Donohue

John Donohue

One year has passed since the horrific Newtown school shooting of December 14, 2012, and we have likely learned all that will be known about the tragic events of that day. As we reflect back on the event and the subsequent political and legislative responses, a few points should be noted.


Equidad Pensional Y Salario Base. La Interpretación Judicial Como Base De Inequidad, Fernando Castillo Cadena Dec 2013

Equidad Pensional Y Salario Base. La Interpretación Judicial Como Base De Inequidad, Fernando Castillo Cadena

Fernando Castillo Cadena

This paper addresses the current problem of interpretation of what should be understood as basic salary for the settlement of the pension bond type A mode 2, for members who move to individual savings scheme, showing how interpretations of the Constitutional Court and the Labor Appeal Chamber of the Supreme Court do not conform to the financial and economic content the law provides, and therefore, create problems of pension equity.


Fiscal Rules As An Instrument Of Fiscal Consolidation (Chosen Issues), Krystyna Niziol Dec 2013

Fiscal Rules As An Instrument Of Fiscal Consolidation (Chosen Issues), Krystyna Niziol

Bocconi Legal Papers

Chosen issues connected with fiscal rules will be analyzed in this paper. These rules can be used as an instrument of fiscal consolidation, which aim is to limit deficit and public debt. This issue is particularly important in times of a sovereign debt crisis, which many EU countries have to cope with. Regulations of the EU and Polish Fiscal Law concerning the analyzed issues will be discussed in this paper.


Us/Eu Trade For Cross-Border Alternative Societies Labor And Industrial Relations In The Transatlantic Free-Trade Agreement Guidelines, Michele Faioli Nov 2013

Us/Eu Trade For Cross-Border Alternative Societies Labor And Industrial Relations In The Transatlantic Free-Trade Agreement Guidelines, Michele Faioli

Michele Faioli

No abstract provided.


What Do We Worry About When We Worry About Price Discrimination? The Law And Ethics Of Using Personal Information For Pricing, Akiva A. Miller Nov 2013

What Do We Worry About When We Worry About Price Discrimination? The Law And Ethics Of Using Personal Information For Pricing, Akiva A. Miller

Akiva A Miller

New information technologies have dramatically increased sellers’ ability to engage in retail price discrimination. Debates over using personal information for price discrimination frequently treat it as a single problem, and are not sufficiently sensitive to the variety of price discrimination practices, the different kinds of information they require in order to succeed, and the different ethical concerns they raise. This paper explores the ethical and legal debate over regulating price discrimination facilitated by consumers’ personal information. Various kinds of “privacy remedies”—self-regulation, technological fixes, state regulation, and legislating private causes of legal action—each have their place. By drawing distinctions between various …


The Fable Of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, And Legal Policy, Avishalom Tor Nov 2013

The Fable Of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, And Legal Policy, Avishalom Tor

Avishalom Tor

Legal scholars have recently advanced a behavioral approach to the law and economics school of thought, replacing the traditionally assumed rational actor with an empirically based, boundedly rational decision maker. In response, advocates of traditional law and economics have asserted that boundedly rational behavior is of little significance for the analysis of economic activities in market environments, most notably because competitive pressures will eliminate such behavior. This article argues, however, that bounded rationality has important effects on the market even under conditions of intense competition. Through a study of the competition among new entrants into industry, this analysis examines the …


Ranks And Rivals: A Theory Of Competition, Avishalom Tor, Stephen M. Garcia, Richard Gonzalez Nov 2013

Ranks And Rivals: A Theory Of Competition, Avishalom Tor, Stephen M. Garcia, Richard Gonzalez

Avishalom Tor

Social comparison theories typically assume a comparable degree of competition between commensurate rivals on a mutually important dimension. In contrast, however, the following set of studies reveals that the degree of competition between such rivals depends on their proximity to a standard. Studies 1-3 test the prediction that individuals become more competitive and less willing to maximize profitable joint gains when they and their commensurate rivals are highly ranked (e.g., #2 vs. #3) than when they are not (e.g., #202 vs. #203). Studies 4-6 then generalize these findings, showing that the degree of competition increases not only for high ranks …


The Methodology Of The Behavioral Analysis Of Law, Avishalom Tor Nov 2013

The Methodology Of The Behavioral Analysis Of Law, Avishalom Tor

Avishalom Tor

This article examines the behavioral analysis of law, meaning the application of empirical behavioral evidence to legal analysis, which has become increasingly popular in legal scholarship in recent years. Following the introduction in Part I, this Article highlights four central propositions on the subject. The first, developed in Part II, asserts that the efficacy of the law often depends on its accounting for relevant patterns of human behavior, most notably those studied by behavioral decision scientists. This Part therefore reviews important behavioral findings, illustrating their application and relevance to a broad range of legal questions. Part III then argues that …


Rankings, Standards, And Competition: Task Vs. Scale Comparisions, Avishalom Tor, Stephen M. Garcia Nov 2013

Rankings, Standards, And Competition: Task Vs. Scale Comparisions, Avishalom Tor, Stephen M. Garcia

Avishalom Tor

Research showing how upward social comparison breeds competitive behavior has so far conflated local comparisons in task performance (e.g. a test score) with comparisons on a more general scale (i.e. an underlying skill). Using a ranking methodology (Garcia, Tor, & Gonzalez, 2006) to separate task and scale comparisons, Studies 1–2 reveal that an upward comparison on the scale (e.g. being surpassed in rank), rather than in the mere task (e.g., being outperformed), is necessary to generate competition among rivals proximate to a standard (e.g. ranked #3 vs. 4, near “the top”); rivals far from a standard (e.g. ranked #203 vs. …


Incentives To Create Under A "Lifetime-Plus-Years" Copyright Duration: Lessons From A Behavioral Economic Analysis For Eldred V. Ashcroft, Avishalom Tor, Dotan Oliar Nov 2013

Incentives To Create Under A "Lifetime-Plus-Years" Copyright Duration: Lessons From A Behavioral Economic Analysis For Eldred V. Ashcroft, Avishalom Tor, Dotan Oliar

Avishalom Tor

In this Article, we highlight for the first time some of the significant but hitherto unrecognized behavioral effects of copyright law on individuals' incentives to create and then examine the implications of our findings for the constitutional analysis of Eldred v. Ashcroft. We show that behavioral biases - namely, individuals' optimistic bias regarding their future longevity and their subadditive judgments in circumstances resembling the extant rule of copyright duration - explain the otherwise puzzling lifetime-plus-years basis for copyright protection given to individual authors, and reveal how this regime provides superior incentives to create. Thus, insofar as the provision of increased …


Behavioral Antitrust: A New Approach To The Rule Of Reason After Leegin, William J. Rinner, Avishalom Tor Nov 2013

Behavioral Antitrust: A New Approach To The Rule Of Reason After Leegin, William J. Rinner, Avishalom Tor

Avishalom Tor

The Supreme Court’s recent decision in Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., which replaced the longstanding per-se rule against resale price maintenance (RPM) with a rule of reason approach, has resurrected the debate over RPM. Legal and economic proponents of this practice again point to its potential procompetitive benefits, while RPM detractors emphasize its possible anticompetitive consequences. Despite their disagreements regarding the overall RPM evaluation, however, scholars, the Court, and the limited empirical data appear near-unanimous in agreeing that such arrangements can either increase or decrease efficiency. Consequently, the RPM debate predominantly revolves around theoretical assertions regarding the …


Law, Bubbles, And Financial Regulation, Erik F. Gerding Nov 2013

Law, Bubbles, And Financial Regulation, Erik F. Gerding

Erik F. Gerding

This introductory chapter of the book "Law, Bubbles, and Financial Regulation" outlines how financial regulation can fail when it is needed the most. The dynamics of asset price bubbles weaken financial regulation just as financial markets begin to overheat and the risk of crisis spikes. At the same time, the failure of financial regulations adds further fuel to a bubble.

This book examines the interaction of bubbles and financial regulation through over three centuries of history of financial crises. This perspective reveals that law is crucial to the story of bubbles and that the legal history of the current global …


Comment On Jana Singer's Alimony And Efficiency, Margaret F. Brinig Nov 2013

Comment On Jana Singer's Alimony And Efficiency, Margaret F. Brinig

Margaret F Brinig

No abstract provided.


The Neglected Political Economy Of Eminent Domain, Nicole Stelle Garnett Nov 2013

The Neglected Political Economy Of Eminent Domain, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Nicole Stelle Garnett

This Article challenges a foundational assumption about eminent domain - namely, that owners are systematically undercompensated because they receive only fair market value for their property. The Article shows that, in fact, scholars have overstated the undercompensation problem because they have focused on the compensation required by the Constitution, rather than on the actual mechanics of eminent domain. The Article examines three ways that Takers (i.e., non-judicial actors in the eminent domain process) minimize undercompensation. First, Takers may avoid taking high-subjective-value properties. Second, Takers frequently must pay more compensation in the form of relocation assistance. Third, Takers and property owners …


La Patentes Como Límite A La Innovación Tecnológica, Alejandro Pérez Y Soto Dominguez, Katherine Flórez Pinilla Nov 2013

La Patentes Como Límite A La Innovación Tecnológica, Alejandro Pérez Y Soto Dominguez, Katherine Flórez Pinilla

Alejandro Pérez y Soto Dominguez

El presente artículo analiza, desde el marco de la Escuela Austriaca, la propiedad intelectual reflejada en las patentes, entendidas como un mecanismo del legislador para incentivar una conducta empresarial que propenda por la innovación y el desarrollo tecnológico. Se tomó como caso las patentes en el sector farmacéutico, obteniendo a partir de éste evidencia empírica la corroboración de las hipótesis de la escuela, por medio de un análisis teórico a la luz de los problemas identificados alrededor de la patente, tales como: discriminación de precios, investigación parcializada en ciertas enfermedades, poder de mercado ilimitado, barreras al desarrollo tecnológico nacional, altos …


Strategic Default In Joint Liability Groups: Evidence From A Natural Experiment In India, Xavier Gine, Karuna Krishnaswamy, Alejandro Ponce Nov 2013

Strategic Default In Joint Liability Groups: Evidence From A Natural Experiment In India, Xavier Gine, Karuna Krishnaswamy, Alejandro Ponce

Alejandro Ponce

Despite the high repayment rates claimed by microcredit programs around the world, some groups of borrowers eventually default and are subsequently disbanded. Exposure to common shocks and strategic default are reasons for the deterioration in group repayment but identification of the precise mechanism is difficult. In this paper we exploit an announcement issued by the Anjuman Committee of a town in southern India banning all Muslims from repaying their microfinance loans. Using administrative data we find that borrowers in Muslim-dominated groups have higher default rates after the announcement compared to the same borrowers with loans in Hindu-dominated groups. We conclude …


Coase Minus The Coase Theorem--Some Problems With Chicago Transaction Cost Analysis, Pierre Schlag Nov 2013

Coase Minus The Coase Theorem--Some Problems With Chicago Transaction Cost Analysis, Pierre Schlag

Pierre Schlag

In law as well as economics, the most well-known aspect of Coase’s “The Problem of Social Cost,” is the Coase Theorem. Over the decades, that particular notion has morphed into a crucial component of Chicago law and economics—namely, transaction cost analysis. In this Article, I deliberately bracket the Coase Theorem to show that “The Problem of Social Cost” contains far more interesting and unsettling lessons—both for law as well as for economics. Indeed, while Coase’s arguments clearly target the Pigouvian attempts to “improve on the market” through government correctives, there is, lurking in those arguments, a much more profound critique …


Patentes Como Límite A La Innovación Tecnológica, Katherine Florez Pinilla, Alejandro Perez Y Soto Domínguez Nov 2013

Patentes Como Límite A La Innovación Tecnológica, Katherine Florez Pinilla, Alejandro Perez Y Soto Domínguez

KATHERINE FLOREZ PINILLA

El presente artículo pretende analizar, desde el marco de la Escuela Austriaca, la propiedad intelectual reflejada en las patentes, entendidas como un mecanismo del legislador para incentivar una conducta empresarial que propenda por la innovación y el desarrollo tecnológico. Se tomó como caso las patentes en el sector farmacéutico, obteniendo a partir de éste evidencia empírica la corroboración de las hipótesis de la escuela, por medio de un análisis teórico a la luz de los problemas identificados alrededor de la patente, tales como: discriminación de precios, investigación parcializada en ciertas enfermedades, poder de mercado ilimitado, barreras al desarrollo tecnológico nacional, …


An Economic Approach To Collective Rights And Their Means Of Supply: The Case Of Right To "The Enjoyment Of A Healthy Environment" And The Right To "Rational Management And Use Of Natural Resources" [En Español], Daniel A. Monroy Nov 2013

An Economic Approach To Collective Rights And Their Means Of Supply: The Case Of Right To "The Enjoyment Of A Healthy Environment" And The Right To "Rational Management And Use Of Natural Resources" [En Español], Daniel A. Monroy

Daniel A Monroy C

This paper has two main objectives (i) Demonstrate that the defining characteristic of collective rights related to non-excludable of the benefits derived from the "means" of supply and the material "objects" of rights, is consistent with the microeconomic defining characteristic of so-called "public goods" and "commons " (together we call these as non-excludable resources). On the other hand, (ii) Demonstrate that when we analyze the collective rights as non-excludable resources this aims important omitted challenges by traditional legal doctrine related with the adequate supply of collective rights, this happens because the problems of the -Olsonian- logic of collective action. For …


Penalty Defaults In Family Law: The Case Of Child Custody, Margaret F. Brinig Oct 2013

Penalty Defaults In Family Law: The Case Of Child Custody, Margaret F. Brinig

Margaret F Brinig

This paper considers whether an amendment to state divorce laws that strengthens its joint custody preference operates as a traditional default rule, specifying what most divorcing couples would choose or as a penalty default rule the parties will attempt to contract around.

While the Oregon statutes that frame our discussion here, like most state laws, do not state an explicit preference for joint custody, shared custody is certainly encouraged by Section 107.179, which refers cases in which the parties cannot agree on joint custody to mediation and by Section 107.105, which requires the court to consider awarding custody jointly. In …


"Money Can't Buy Me Love": A Contrast Between Damages In Family Law And Contract, Margaret F. Brinig Oct 2013

"Money Can't Buy Me Love": A Contrast Between Damages In Family Law And Contract, Margaret F. Brinig

Margaret F Brinig

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property Defenses, Alex Stein, Gideon Parchomovsky Oct 2013

Intellectual Property Defenses, Alex Stein, Gideon Parchomovsky

Alex Stein

This Article demonstrates that all intellectual property defenses fit into three conceptual categories: general, individualized, and class defenses. A general defense challenges the validity of the plaintiff’s intellectual property right. When raised successfully, it annuls the plaintiff’s right and relieves not only the defendant, but also the entire world of the duty to comply with it. An individualized defense is much narrower in scope: Its successful showing defeats the specific infringement claim asserted by the plaintiff, but leaves the plaintiff’s right intact. Class defenses form an in-between category: They create an immunity zone for a certain group of users to …


Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao Oct 2013

Efficient Breach In The Common European Sales Law (Cesl), Wenqing Liao

Wenqing Liao

In the classic economic theory, it is suggested that contract law should be structured in such a way that efficient breaches (i.e. those increasing social welfare) would be promoted. The default remedy of expectation damages was justified on this cognition. Nowadays, more and more suspects and critiques are raised against the so called simple efficient breach model. The aim of this paper is to re-sketch the theory of efficient breach and to compare the consequences resulting from economic analysis with the remedy rules of the Common European Sales Law (CESL). It is proposed that the doctrine of efficient breach has …


The Commons, Capitalism, And The Constitution, George Skouras Oct 2013

The Commons, Capitalism, And The Constitution, George Skouras

George Skouras

Thesis Summary: the erosion of the Commons in the United States has contributed to the deterioration of community and uprooting of people in order to meet the dynamic demands of capitalism. This article suggests countervailing measures to help remedy the situation.


How To Avoid Another Shutdown, David Gamage, David Louk Oct 2013

How To Avoid Another Shutdown, David Gamage, David Louk

David Gamage

No abstract provided.


Should The Commercial Landlord Have A Duty To Mitigate Damages After The Tenant Abandons?: A Legal And Economic Analysis, David Crump Oct 2013

Should The Commercial Landlord Have A Duty To Mitigate Damages After The Tenant Abandons?: A Legal And Economic Analysis, David Crump

David Crump

When a commercial tenant abandons the premises, the landlord’s costs continue. Does the landlord, then, have the burden of mitigating damages for a suit against the tenant? Two different rules apply in different states. Some states, including Pennsylvania, put the burden of mitigation on the breaching party: the commercial tenant. Other states, however, put the burden entirely on the non-breaching party: the landlord. Texas follows this latter approach, placing the burden solely on the innocent party and not on the breaching party. The Texas rule, which puts the burden of mitigation on the non-breaching commercial landlord, has serious disadvantages. First, …


The Limitations Of An Economic Agency Cost Theory Of Trust Law, Lee-Ford Tritt Oct 2013

The Limitations Of An Economic Agency Cost Theory Of Trust Law, Lee-Ford Tritt

Lee-ford Tritt

Should the donor's specific interests or potentially conflicting theoretical economic principles control the creation and administration of trusts? In a highly influential article advancing an agency cost framework for trust law, Harvard Law Professor Robert Sitkoff suggests retooling trust law to focus on wealth maximization and to minimize costs stemming from an assumed misalignment of the interests between deemed "principals" and "agents" within the trust setting. An agency cost theory of trust law, however, reduces the complex, highly idiosyncratic, and emotionally charged nature of trust law into a simple business relationship. Given the special nature of trust law and practice-where …


Beyond Finality: How Making Criminal Judgments Less Final Can Further The Interests Of Finality, Andrew Chongseh Kim Oct 2013

Beyond Finality: How Making Criminal Judgments Less Final Can Further The Interests Of Finality, Andrew Chongseh Kim

Andrew Chongseh Kim

Courts and scholars commonly assume that granting convicted defendants more liberal rights to challenge their judgments would harm society’s interests in “finality.” According to conventional wisdom, finality in criminal judgments is necessary to conserve resources, encourage efficient behavior by defense counsel, and deter crime. Thus, under the common analysis, the extent to which convicted defendants should be allowed to challenge their judgments depends on how much society is willing to sacrifice to validate defendants’ rights. This Article argues that expanding defendants’ rights on post-conviction review does not always harm these interests. Rather, more liberal review can often conserve state resources, …


The Death Penalty, John J. Donohue Oct 2013

The Death Penalty, John J. Donohue

John Donohue

A system of punishment involving the execution of individuals convicted of a capital crime.

The issue of the death penalty has been an area of enormous academic and political ferment in the United States over the last forty years, with the country flirting with abolition in the 1970s, followed by a period of renewed use of the death penalty, and then a period of retrenchment, reflected in a declining number of death sentences and executions and a recent trend leading six states to abolish the death penalty in the last six years. Internationally, there is a steady movement away from …