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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Who Framework Convention On Tobacco Control As An International Standard Under The Tbt Agreement?, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski Nov 2012

The Who Framework Convention On Tobacco Control As An International Standard Under The Tbt Agreement?, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski

Lukasz A Gruszczynski

In this article Lukasz Gruszczynski argues that there are good grounds for considering the Guidelines to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (‘FCTC’) relevant international standards under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (‘TBT Agreement’). The structure of the article is as follows: (1) Part I provides an overview of the relevant sections of the TBT Agreement and its ambiguities with respect to defining an international standard; (2) Part II sets out the aims, purpose and governance structure of the FCTC; (3) In light of the overviews of the TBT Agreement and the FCTC, Part III then considers whether ...


Re-Tuning Tuna? Appellate Body Report In Us – Tuna Ii, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski Sep 2012

Re-Tuning Tuna? Appellate Body Report In Us – Tuna Ii, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski

Lukasz A Gruszczynski

Under the TBT Agreement, a labelling requirement can be qualified as a technical regulation, and not as a standard, even if it does not constitute a precondition for placing a product for sale on the relevant market. Examination of “no less favourable treatment” under Article 2.1 requires determining whether a measure modifies the conditions of competition in the relevant market to the detriment of imported like products, and whether such detrimental impact stems exclusively from a legitimate regulatory distinction rather than reflecting discrimination against the group of imported like products. The evaluation of whether a measure is more trade-restrictive ...


Trips And Bits: An Essay On Compulsory Licenses, Expropriation, And International Arbitration, Peter B. Rutledge Jun 2012

Trips And Bits: An Essay On Compulsory Licenses, Expropriation, And International Arbitration, Peter B. Rutledge

Scholarly Works

This essay examines the potential for arbitration to resolve disputes between private companies and developing countries over the propriety of compulsory licenses. At bottom, my thesis is that arbitration supplies the medium through which to mediate the tension between the profit-seeking goals of private multinational companies and the development goals of foreign nations, especially in the developing world. The compulsory license debate raises a clash of fundamental interests between the patent holder, the patent holder’s state, and the host state. Arbitration can play an important role in balancing those interests, albeit a highly unusual one. Arbitration provides an essential ...


International Arbitral Appeals: What Are We So Afraid Of? , Erin E. Gleason Mar 2012

International Arbitral Appeals: What Are We So Afraid Of? , Erin E. Gleason

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article will explore the advantages of instituting appellate mechanisms in investor-state disputes and international commercial arbitration. Part II begins with a review of the WTO Appellate Body's development and workings, followed by an analysis of other appellate procedures for international trade law arbitration, including the MERCOSUR system's Permanent Court and the Grain and Feed Trade Association's appeals process. Part III examines the current methods for reviewing investor-state arbitration awards under ICSID and NAFTA. Part III goes on to advocate for the creation of an Appeals Facility, separate from current arbitral institutions, which would be empowered to ...


Renewing Healthy Competition: Compulsory Licenses And Why Abuses Of The Trips Article 31 Standards Are Most Damaging To The United States Healthcare Industry, Jon Matthews Jan 2012

Renewing Healthy Competition: Compulsory Licenses And Why Abuses Of The Trips Article 31 Standards Are Most Damaging To The United States Healthcare Industry, Jon Matthews

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


Jus Post Bellum In Iraq: The Development Of Emerging Norms For Economic Reform In Post Conflict Countries, Christina C. Benson Jan 2012

Jus Post Bellum In Iraq: The Development Of Emerging Norms For Economic Reform In Post Conflict Countries, Christina C. Benson

Richmond Journal of Global Law & Business

Finally emerging from decades of conflict and isolation, Iraq has endured three devastating wars, the demise of the Saddam Hussein regime, the end of international economic sanctions, and the protracted process of approving a constitution and forming a new democratically elected government. The nation’s emergence from war, and efforts to build the foundations of stable governance and economic growth, provides a fascinating case study for analyzing new international norms promoting the “rule of law” in post-conflict countries.

This paper addresses arguments that early legal and economic reforms implemented by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and the Iraqi Interim Government ...


Cleared For Landing: Airbus, Boeing, And The Wto Dispute Over Subsidies To Large Civil Aircraft, Jeffrey D. Kienstra Jan 2012

Cleared For Landing: Airbus, Boeing, And The Wto Dispute Over Subsidies To Large Civil Aircraft, Jeffrey D. Kienstra

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Competition between Airbus and Boeing in the large civil aircraft industry grew contentious as Airbus began to overtake Boeing in its long-held position as the world‘s leading producer of large civil aircraft. Airbus and Boeing had also each embarked on multi-billion dollar investments into the development of new aircraft, further raising the stakes. The United States and European Communities in turn increasingly scrutinized the subsidies provided by their counterpart to its respective aircraft manufacturer. This conflict over subsidies, which had persisted between the United States and European Communities since the inception of Airbus in 1970, reached a head in ...


Carving Out Policy Autonomy For Developing Countries In The World Trade Organization: The Experience Of Brazil And Mexico, Alvaro Santos Jan 2012

Carving Out Policy Autonomy For Developing Countries In The World Trade Organization: The Experience Of Brazil And Mexico, Alvaro Santos

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Although liberal trade and development scholars disagree about the merits of the World Trade Organization (WTO), they both assume that WTO legal obligations restrict states’ regulatory autonomy. This article argues for relaxing this shared assumption by showing that, despite the restrictions imposed by international economic law obligations, states retain considerable flexibility to carve out policy autonomy. The article makes three distinct contributions. First, it analyzes how active WTO members can, through litigation and lawyering, influence rule interpretation to advance their interests. Second, the article redefines the concept of “legal capacity” in the WTO context and introduces the term “developmental legal ...


One (Firm) Is Not Enough: A Legal-Economic Analysis Of Ec-Fasteners, Chad P. Brown, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2012

One (Firm) Is Not Enough: A Legal-Economic Analysis Of Ec-Fasteners, Chad P. Brown, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The WTO’s Appellate Body (AB) dealt with a number of issues for the first time in the Report of EC-Fasteners. Importantly, the AB discussed the consistency of the European Union (EU) regulation with the multilateral rules on the conditions for deviating from the obligation to calculate individual dumping margins. Although China formally won the argument, the AB may have opened the door to treat China as a non-market economy (NME) even beyond 2016 when China’s NME-status was thought to expire under the terms of China’s 2001 WTO Accession Protocol. The AB further dealt with numerous other issues ...


Arbitrating Trade Disputes (Who's The Boss?), Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2012

Arbitrating Trade Disputes (Who's The Boss?), Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

World Trade Organization (“WTO”) dispute settlement has attracted a lot of interest over the years and there is a plethora of academic papers focusing on various aspects of this system. Paradoxically, there is little known about the identity of the WTO judges: since, at the end of the day, the WTO has evolved into the busiest forum litigating state-to-state disputes. There are many writings regarding the appointment process in other international tribunals. At the risk of doing injustice to many papers on this issue, we should mention the following works: Terris et al. look at various courts and especially those ...


China And Sustainable Development In Latin America, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2011

China And Sustainable Development In Latin America, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez

China’s growing economic engagement with Latin America has sparked both popular and scholarly debate. Some scholars contend that China is a rising imperial power scouring the globe for natural resources, exploiting less powerful nations, and rejecting international environmental agreements that would curb its profligate consumption of the world’s natural resources. Others applaud China’s unorthodox development strategies and portray China as a model worthy of emulation. This article interrogates both narratives and examines the environmental and developmental implications of China’s rise for Latin America. The article discusses China's bilateral trade and investment agreements with Latin American ...


China's Engagement With Latin America: Partnership Or Plunder?, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2011

China's Engagement With Latin America: Partnership Or Plunder?, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez

The emergence of China as a significant economic force in Latin America has sparked both optimism and alarm. With titles such as 'The Coming China Wars' and 'The Dragon in the Backyard,' recent books and articles depict China as a rising imperial power scouring the globe for natural resources and as a competitive threat to Latin America. Other studies applaud China’s pragmatic, unorthodox development strategies and portray China as a successful model for developing countries. The competing narratives about China’s rise do agree on one thing: China has become a formidable force in the developing world whose influence ...


The Global Food System, Environmental Protection, And Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2011

The Global Food System, Environmental Protection, And Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez

The global food system is exceeding ecological limits while failing to meet the nutritional needs of a large segment of the world’s population. While law could play an important role in facilitating the transition to a more just and ecologically sustainable food system, the current legal framework fails to regulate food and agriculture in an integrated manner. The international legal framework governing food and agriculture is fragmented into three self-contained regimes that have historically operated in isolation from one another: international human rights law, international environmental law, and international trade law. International trade law has taken precedence over human ...


Customary Rules Of Interpretation In The Practice Of Wto Dispute Settlement Bodies, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski Dec 2011

Customary Rules Of Interpretation In The Practice Of Wto Dispute Settlement Bodies, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski

Lukasz A Gruszczynski

The WTO dispute settlement bodies tend to follow the instructions of Articles 31-33 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT). The customary rules that are embodied in these articles constitute a point of reference for both the panels and the Appellate Body in their interpretation of WTO provisions. This paper identifies a number of cases, however, where the dispute settlement bodies appear to deviate from the holistic approach promoted by the VCLT. In particular, these include instances of extensive reliance on text (to the exclusion of other elements such as context and purpose), application of a sequential ...


'You Don't Miss Your Water 'Til Your River Runs Dry': Regulating Industrial Supply Shortages After 'China-Raw Materials', Chin Leng Lim, J. H. Senduk Dec 2011

'You Don't Miss Your Water 'Til Your River Runs Dry': Regulating Industrial Supply Shortages After 'China-Raw Materials', Chin Leng Lim, J. H. Senduk

Chin Leng Lim

Global industrial production depends on stable access to raw inputs. Food price volatility has emerged as a major concern for Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20), while we are hearing new calls for bringing global disciplines to resource cartels like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Supply chains that make up globalized production recently demonstrated their potential fragility when Chinese sovereign intervention threatened to bring Japan’s high-tech manufacturing to its knees by cutting off its supplies. These wide-ranging issues are now being addressed under the umbrella of trade regulation. As a result, we ...