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2011

Common law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Law And Lawyers In The U.S.: The Hero-Villain Dichotomy, Judith A. Mcmorrow Oct 2011

Law And Lawyers In The U.S.: The Hero-Villain Dichotomy, Judith A. Mcmorrow

Judith A. McMorrow

Lawyers in U.S. culture are often presented in either an extremely positive or extremely negative light. Although popular culture exaggerates and oversimplifies the 'good v. bad' dynamic of lawyers, this dichotomy provides important insights into the role attorneys play in the U.S. legal system, the boundaries of legal ethics, and the extent to which the U.S. legal system is relied upon to address our society's great moral and social dilemmas.


"Academic Concerns"-Caring About Conversation In Canadian Common Law, Karen Crawley, Shauna Van Praagh Oct 2011

"Academic Concerns"-Caring About Conversation In Canadian Common Law, Karen Crawley, Shauna Van Praagh

Dalhousie Law Journal

The Supreme Court of Canada, in its 2001 decision in Cooper v Hobart, refined the test in Canadian common law for establishing a duty of care in the tort of negligence. Although aware of the complexities and ongoing challenges of the "duty of care" concept, the Supreme Court openly labelled these concerns as "academic." This article confirms these concerns as "academic," but insists that this label underlines their centrality not only to an understanding of the tort of negligence but to the nature and form of common law reasoning. By pointing to errors in the Supreme Court of Canada's judgment-errors …


Information Sharing In A Common Law Of Sentencing: A Skeptic's Guide, Ryan W. Scott Aug 2011

Information Sharing In A Common Law Of Sentencing: A Skeptic's Guide, Ryan W. Scott

Ryan W. Scott

For decades, prominent scholars and judges have called for the development of a “common law of sentencing” in the United States. One strand of scholarship stresses the information sharing function of the common law: sentencing judges need access to a body of written opinions that reveals how other courts have handled similar cases. The idea is that, fueled by better information, case-by-case common law reasoning will promote inter-judge consistency and rationality in sentencing law. This Article takes a skeptical view, identifying three sets of challenges for an information-sharing approach. First, there are daunting information-collection challenges. A healthy common law depends …


Rudolf Callmann And The Misappropriation Doctrine In The Common Law Of Unfair Competition, Christopher Wadlow Jul 2011

Rudolf Callmann And The Misappropriation Doctrine In The Common Law Of Unfair Competition, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

Rudolf Callmann (1892-1976) is a central figure for unfair competition lawyers in both the German civil law and the Anglo-American common law traditions. When he emigrated from Germany to America in the 1930s he was already the author of substantial works on trade marks, unfair competition, and cartel law. In the United States he composed the monumental Callmann on Unfair Competition, Trademarks and Monopolies. This article examines his invocation of the 1918 decision of the Supreme Court in International News Service v Associated Press as the basis for a reformulated common law of unfair competition, eschewing a purely tortious conception …


Treatment Injury In New Zealand, Stephen Todd Jun 2011

Treatment Injury In New Zealand, Stephen Todd

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The New Zealand accident compensation scheme makes provision for the payment of compensation to the victims of personal injury that is caused by medical treatment, but at the same time it bars actions for damages based upon such injury. This article gives a brief overview of the scheme as a whole and its relation- ship with the common law, and then focuses on the particular provisions governing medical injury. It includes discussion of the extent of the statutory cover, problems of causation, the operation of the medical scheme in practice, costs and funding, and issues of accountability. It ends with …


Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power May 2011

Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power

Garrett Power

It served as an axiom of Maryland’s constitutional history that settlers carried with them the “rights of Englishmen” when they crossed the Atlantic. In 1642 the Assembly of Maryland Freemen declared Maryland’s provincial judges were to follows the law of England. Maryland’s 1776 Declaration of Independence left a legal lacuna--- what were to be the laws and public institutions of this newly created sovereign entity? This paper considers the manner in which the sovereign state of Maryland filled the void.


The Common Law Of Disability Discrimination, Mark C. Weber Mar 2011

The Common Law Of Disability Discrimination, Mark C. Weber

Mark C. Weber

In many cases alleging race and sex discrimination, plaintiffs append common law claims to cases asserting federal or state statutory causes of action. In other race and sex cases, plaintiffs put forward these common law claims without making any federal or state statutory claims. Less frequent, and much less frequently discussed by scholars, are common law claims for conduct constituting disability discrimination. Nevertheless, there are sound theoretical and practical reasons to develop a common law of disability discrimination. On the theoretical side of the discussion, federal statutory disability discrimination claims are not exclusive, and the common law can both draw …


From Climate Change And Hurricanes To Ecological Nuisances: Common Law Remedies For Public Law Failures? , Stephen M. Johnson Mar 2011

From Climate Change And Hurricanes To Ecological Nuisances: Common Law Remedies For Public Law Failures? , Stephen M. Johnson

Georgia State University Law Review

Over the past few years, there has been a minor renaissance in the use of common law actions, especially public and private nuisance, to address environmental problems not being adequately addressed by public law, such as climate change and natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina. Ever since the explosion of public law in response to environmental problems in the 1970s, the common law has provided remedies for personal injury and property damage that are not available under public law, and avenues of relief for problems that were ignored by public law. The common law and public law should not, however, be …


Reconsidering Rogers: Re-Examining Causation Under The Federal Employers' Liability Act, Jonathan Keim Jan 2011

Reconsidering Rogers: Re-Examining Causation Under The Federal Employers' Liability Act, Jonathan Keim

Jonathan Keim

The Supreme Court will soon determine whether the Federal Employers’ Liability Act (FELA), which provides railroad employees with quasi-common law remedies for injuries suffered on the job, requires a plaintiff to show that her injury was proximately caused by railroad negligence. In 1957, in Rogers v. Missouri Pacific R. Co., the Supreme Court reversed almost 50 years of case law requiring proof of proximate causation. Now, more than 50 years after that, the question has returned to the Supreme Court. This article summarizes the history of railroad injuries and recovery under the FELA, reviews the pre- and post-Rogers case law, …


Overcoming Under-Compensation And Under-Deterrence In Intentional Tort Cases: Are Statutory Multiple Damages The Best Remedy?, Stephen J. Shapiro Jan 2011

Overcoming Under-Compensation And Under-Deterrence In Intentional Tort Cases: Are Statutory Multiple Damages The Best Remedy?, Stephen J. Shapiro

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article advocates that states' statutes make greater and more systematic use of multiple damages by extending them to a much broader range of intentional, wrongful conduct. Part II of this Article will explain why extra-compensatory relief is called for when tortious conduct is intentional or malicious. Part III will compare punitive damages, attorney fees, and treble or other multiple damages as possible sources of additional relief. Part IV will focus on multiple damages. The Article will examine the range of existing state statutes and discuss why and how those statutes might be extended to a broader range of wrongful …


Public Nuisance At The Crossroads: Policing The Intersection Between Statutory Primacy And Common Law, Richard O. Faulk, John S. Gray Jan 2011

Public Nuisance At The Crossroads: Policing The Intersection Between Statutory Primacy And Common Law, Richard O. Faulk, John S. Gray

Richard Faulk

Public nuisance is at the “crossroads” in California. The California lead paint litigation may be the end – or a new beginning – of mass tort proceedings against product manufacturers based upon public nuisance, as opposed to traditional strict product liability. The controversy lies squarely at the intersection of statutory and common law – an interchange that has grown increasingly more complex since California’s laws were codified in 1850, and since public nuisance was codified as a tort in 1872. The dispute is framed by this singular legal history and the complex jurisprudence the state has developed to simultaneously empower …


Custom, Enactment And Legal Order: A Natural Law Account, Stephen Hall Jan 2011

Custom, Enactment And Legal Order: A Natural Law Account, Stephen Hall

Stephen Hall

There has been, especially since the Second World War, a massive increase in the volume of enacted legislation in virtually all developed jurisdictions. This phenomenon is usually accounted for by a need to keep abreast of the requirements of the common good in increasingly complex societies. Paradoxically, however, this perpetually increasing mass of legislation adds to legal uncertainty and tends to subvert the rule of law. Customary law (including the common law) is usually a more suitable instrument for dealing with the requirements of the common good in complex and dynamic societies. We need to (re-)discover customary law and restore …


Finding Possession: Labor, Waste And The Evolution Of Property, Jill M. Fraley Jan 2011

Finding Possession: Labor, Waste And The Evolution Of Property, Jill M. Fraley

Scholarly Articles

Although possession has long been intimately linked to labor, recent historical work on land claims during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries suggests that the clash of divergent legal cultures of possession drove the two apart. This clash yielded an American concept of possession much more deeply connected to industrialization than the traditional understanding of labor. By providing evidence of how our concept of labor was industrialized, this article questions the outcomes in modem possession cases, particularly as they impact development and environmental preservation in rural areas.


The "Common-Law Regime" Of Foreign Sovereign Immunity: The Actual Possession Rule In Admiralty, David J. Bederman Jan 2011

The "Common-Law Regime" Of Foreign Sovereign Immunity: The Actual Possession Rule In Admiralty, David J. Bederman

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

It has been a long-standing rule in admiralty that in order for a foreign sovereign to assert immunity in U.S. courts, the res that is the object of the maritime claim must be in the actual possession of the foreign state at the time the case is brought. Inasmuch as Samantar recognized the existence of a "common-law regime" that preexisted the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA), this Article examines whether the actual possession rule remains in force today. The FSIA codified the actual possession rule in its provisions for the handling of admiralty claims against foreign sovereigns, but this has …


The Immunity Of State Officials Under The Un Convention On Jurisdictional Immunities Of States And Their Property, David P. Stewart Jan 2011

The Immunity Of State Officials Under The Un Convention On Jurisdictional Immunities Of States And Their Property, David P. Stewart

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The U.S. Supreme Court decided in Samantar v. Yousuf that claims of immunity by individual foreign officials in U.S. courts will be determined not under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act but instead under the common law, drawing on principles of international law. The 2004 UN Convention on the Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Properties represents the most recent and comprehensive international thinking on the question of jurisdictional immunities of foreign states and their officials in foreign courts. Under the Convention, individual representatives of a state acting in that capacity are entitled to the same immunities as the state itself. …


Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power Jan 2011

Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power

Legal History Publications

It served as an axiom of Maryland’s constitutional history that settlers carried with them the “rights of Englishmen” when they crossed the Atlantic. In 1642 the Assembly of Maryland Freemen declared Maryland’s provincial judges were to follows the law of England. Maryland’s 1776 Declaration of Independence left a legal lacuna--- what were to be the laws and public institutions of this newly created sovereign entity? This paper considers the manner in which the sovereign state of Maryland filled the void.


Abolishing State Trademark Registrations, Lee Ann Lockridge Jan 2011

Abolishing State Trademark Registrations, Lee Ann Lockridge

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Dog That Caught The Car: Observations On The Past, Present, And Future Approaches Of The Office Of The Legal Adviser To Official Acts Immnunities, John B. Bellinger Iii Jan 2011

The Dog That Caught The Car: Observations On The Past, Present, And Future Approaches Of The Office Of The Legal Adviser To Official Acts Immnunities, John B. Bellinger Iii

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Supreme Court's decision in Samantar v. Yousuf vindicated the position of the State Department's Office of the Legal Adviser, which had long argued that the immunities of current and former foreign government officials in U.S. courts are defined by common law and customary international law as articulated by the Executive Branch, rather than by the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976. But the decision will place a burden on the Office of the Legal Adviser, which will now be asked to submit its views on the potential immunity of every foreign government official sued in the United States. The …


The American Law Institute’S New Principles Of Aggregate Litigation, Sam Issacharoff, Carolyn Kuhl, Francis Mcgovern, Stephanie Middleton, John Beisner Jan 2011

The American Law Institute’S New Principles Of Aggregate Litigation, Sam Issacharoff, Carolyn Kuhl, Francis Mcgovern, Stephanie Middleton, John Beisner

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Ramirez-Peyro V. Holder: Protecting Mexican Informants From Themselves, David Seth Yohay Jan 2011

Ramirez-Peyro V. Holder: Protecting Mexican Informants From Themselves, David Seth Yohay

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Towards A Convention For The International Sale Of Real Property: Challenges, Commonalities, And Possibilities, Christopher K. Odinet Jan 2011

Towards A Convention For The International Sale Of Real Property: Challenges, Commonalities, And Possibilities, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

In a world that is increasingly global in scope, society has come to view the ever-growing body of international commercial laws as being exceptionally important. This is evidenced through the adoption of several high profile pieces of legislation over the past several decades: International Interest in Mobile Equipment - Study LXXI, the EU’s Draft Common Frame of Reference, the EU Directives on Consumer Protection, and, most noteworthy of all, the Convention for the International Sale of Goods (CISG).

As raised by Professors Sprankling, Coletta, and Mirow, what has been conspicuously absent from this growing body of laws is an international …


First Amendment Investigations And The Inescapable Pragmatism Of The Common Law Of Free Speech, Lawrence Rosenthal Jan 2011

First Amendment Investigations And The Inescapable Pragmatism Of The Common Law Of Free Speech, Lawrence Rosenthal

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Trust And Fiduciary Duty In The Early Common Law, David J. Seipp Jan 2011

Trust And Fiduciary Duty In The Early Common Law, David J. Seipp

Faculty Scholarship

Trust is an expectation that others will act in one’s own interest. Trust also has a specialized meaning in Anglo-American law, denoting an arrangement by which land or other property is managed by one party, a trustee, on behalf of another party, a beneficiary.1 Fiduciary duties are duties enforced by law and imposed on persons in certain relationships requiring them to act entirely in the interest of another, a beneficiary, and not in their own interest.2 This Essay is about the role that trust and fiduciary duty played in our legal system five centuries ago and more.


The Alien Tort Statute And The Law Of Nations, Bradford R. Clark, Anthony J. Bellia Jr. Jan 2011

The Alien Tort Statute And The Law Of Nations, Bradford R. Clark, Anthony J. Bellia Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Courts and scholars have struggled to identify the original meaning of the Alien Tort Statute (ATS). As enacted in 1789, the ATS provided "[t]hat the district courts... shall... have cognizance... of all causes where an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States." The statute was rarely invoked for almost two centuries until, in the 1980s, lower federal courts began reading the statute expansively to allow foreign citizens to sue other foreign citizens for violations of modern customary international law that occurred outside the United States. In 2004 …


Foreward: Erie's Gift, Jay Tidmarsh Jan 2011

Foreward: Erie's Gift, Jay Tidmarsh

Journal Articles

Sometimes described as "one of the modem cornerstones of our federalism," Erie stands at its narrowest for a simple proposition: When a federal court decides a claim whose source is state law, the court must apply the same substantive common-law rules that a state court would apply to the claim. Dictated by statute, by policy, and by the Constitution, this result seems "superbly right" to many. Indeed, Erie's narrow holding is not controversial today.


Law "In" And "As" History: The Common Law In The American Polity, 1790-1900, Kunal Parker Jan 2011

Law "In" And "As" History: The Common Law In The American Polity, 1790-1900, Kunal Parker

Articles

No abstract provided.


The New Common Law Courts, Culture, And The Localization Of The Model Penal Code, Anders Walker Jan 2011

The New Common Law Courts, Culture, And The Localization Of The Model Penal Code, Anders Walker

All Faculty Scholarship

Few tropes in American law teaching are more firmly entrenched than the criminal law division between Model Penal Code and common law states. Yet, even a cursory look at current state codes indicates that this bifurcation is outmoded. No state continues to cling to ancient English common law, nor does any state adhere fully to the Model Penal Code. In fact, those states that adopted portions of the Code have since produced a substantial body of case law – what this article terms “new common law” – transforming it. Taking the controversial position that criminal law pedagogy is antiquated, this …


Melms V. Pabst Brewing Co. And The Doctrine Of Waste In American Property Law, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 2011

Melms V. Pabst Brewing Co. And The Doctrine Of Waste In American Property Law, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Melms v. Pabst Brewing Co. may be the most important decision ever rendered by an American court concerning the law of waste. Unless your specialty is property law, that might not be enough to stir your interest. The doctrine of waste, after all, does not loom very large in public consciousness these days.

Nevertheless, waste has held a peculiar fascination for property theorists. The reason, I think, is that it touches directly on an important line of division in how we think about property. Does property exist primarily to protect the subjective expectations that particular owners have in particular things? …


Common Law And Statute Law In Administrative Law, Jack M. Beermann Jan 2011

Common Law And Statute Law In Administrative Law, Jack M. Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

The largely statutory appearance of U.S. administrative law be surprising in light of the existence of the federal A Procedure Act of 1946 (APA).1 The APA, including its a amendments, is a relatively comprehensive guide to much of law in the United States. It contains the procedures agencies to follow in both rulemaking and adjudication and provisions on the availability and scope of judicial review of agency action. As includes open meeting and open file requirements as well as negotiated rulemaking and legislative review of agency rules generally held view that federal courts should not make com should act only …


Laying To Rest An Ancien Régime: Antiquated Institutions In Louisiana Civil Law And Their Incompatibility With Modern Public Policies, Christopher K. Odinet Jan 2011

Laying To Rest An Ancien Régime: Antiquated Institutions In Louisiana Civil Law And Their Incompatibility With Modern Public Policies, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

Man faces unprecedented challenges as he barrels through the twenty-first century. The world is now approaching a population of seven billion people, concentrated largely in crowded, overdeveloped urban centers. Global climate change is predicted to cause massive population displacement related to the disappearance of coastal lands and to create dire food shortages within the coming decade. Increasingly, societies are forced to make systemic adaptations to handle the strain of these modern-day crises. Governments must be innovative and adaptive in their efforts to protect the public. When the fundamental goals and objectives of society alter, the law should be modified to …