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2011

Bioethics

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi Dec 2011

The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal agencies follow some form of the policy. The Common Rule defines basic policies for conducting biomedical and social science research. Almost from the inception of the Common Rule social scientists have expressed concerns of the policy's medical framework of regulations having its applicability also to human research in …


The Role And Legal Status Of Health Care Ethics Committees In The United States, Diane E. Hoffmann, Anita J. Tarzian Oct 2011

The Role And Legal Status Of Health Care Ethics Committees In The United States, Diane E. Hoffmann, Anita J. Tarzian

Diane Hoffmann

Over a quarter of a century has passed since health care ethics committees (HCECs) in the United States received legal recognition as alternatives to the courts in resolving conflicts related to patient end-of-life care. By the mid to late 1980s HCECs had been established in over half of U.S. hospitals and had received a certain legitimacy in the health care system. Given their age and growth one could characterize them developmentally as emerging from adolescence and establishing themselves in young adult-hood. As a result, we might expect that they would have resolved the identify crisis characterizing the adolescent years. Yet, …


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2011-Winter 2012 Oct 2011

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2011-Winter 2012

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


New Frontiers Of Reprogenetics: Snp Profile Collection And Banking And The Resulting Duties In Medical Malpractice, Issues In Property Rights Of Genetic Materials, And Liabilities In Genetic Privacy., Stephanie Sgambati Sep 2011

New Frontiers Of Reprogenetics: Snp Profile Collection And Banking And The Resulting Duties In Medical Malpractice, Issues In Property Rights Of Genetic Materials, And Liabilities In Genetic Privacy., Stephanie Sgambati

Stephanie Sgambati

ABSTRACT

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the portions of our genetic makeup where human differ from each other. Mapping an individual’s profile creates a DNA fingerprint entirely unique to that individual. The primary purpose for the creation of SNP profiles has been validation of medical techniques used in reproductive medicine that require researchers to be able to definitively determine which embryo makes which baby- thus matching DNA fingerprints from infants to those from embryos. In spite of this seemingly narrow use, the potential value of the information contained in the SNP profile is enormous.

In this paper, I explore how …


The Return Of Quarantinism And How To Keep It In Check: From Wishful Regulations To Political Accountability, Giovanni De Grandis Aug 2011

The Return Of Quarantinism And How To Keep It In Check: From Wishful Regulations To Political Accountability, Giovanni De Grandis

Giovanni De Grandis

The return of infectious diseases has brought back a series of techniques for controlling the spread of disease labelled quarantinist measures. Since such measures typically infringe individual rights or privacy their use is subject to legal regulations and ethical scrutiny. Yet in some circumstances they can be very effective. After considering some case studies that show how epidemics are unique, fluid and affected by a multitude of contingent factors, it is argued that the legal and ethical guidelines may not be the best approach to discipline the use of quarantinist measures. An alternative model based on ex-post political accountability for …


A “Principled Resolution”: The Fulcrum For Bioethics Mediation, Nancy Neveloff Dubler Jul 2011

A “Principled Resolution”: The Fulcrum For Bioethics Mediation, Nancy Neveloff Dubler

Law and Contemporary Problems

The concept of a "principled resolution" is the foundation for bioethics mediation. Dubler presents the core bioethical principles that support the creation of principled resolutions as fulcrums for resolving disagreements in the healthcare setting. These disputes may arise among medical providers, between medical providers and patients, or among members of a patient's family and can be managed or resolved by bioethics mediation using the conceptual tool of a principled resolution.


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Spring-Summer 2011 Apr 2011

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Spring-Summer 2011

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Collateral Consequences, Genetic Surveillance, And The New Biopolitics Of Race, Dorothy E. Roberts Apr 2011

Collateral Consequences, Genetic Surveillance, And The New Biopolitics Of Race, Dorothy E. Roberts

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article is part of a Howard Law Journal Symposium on “Collateral Consequences: Who Really Pays the Price for Criminal Justice?,” as well as my larger book project, Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century (The New Press, 2011). It considers state and federal government expansion of genetic surveillance as a collateral consequence of a criminal record in the context of a new biopolitics of race in America. Part I reviews the expansion of DNA data banking by states and the federal government, extending the collateral impact of a criminal record—in the form …


Of Mice But Not Men: Problems Of The Randomized Clinical Trial, Samuel Hellman, Deborah Hellman Mar 2011

Of Mice But Not Men: Problems Of The Randomized Clinical Trial, Samuel Hellman, Deborah Hellman

Deborah Hellman

No abstract provided.


What Makes Genetic Discrimination Exceptional?, Deborah Hellman Mar 2011

What Makes Genetic Discrimination Exceptional?, Deborah Hellman

Deborah Hellman

No abstract provided.


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Winter 2011 Jan 2011

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Winter 2011

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Funding Stem Cell Research: The Convergence Of Science, Religion & Politics In The Formation Of Public Health Policy, Edward A. Fallone Jan 2011

Funding Stem Cell Research: The Convergence Of Science, Religion & Politics In The Formation Of Public Health Policy, Edward A. Fallone

Edward A Fallone

The controversy over the funding of stem cell research by the federal government is used as a case study for examining how policy choices are made in the field of public bioethics. This article examines the manner in which the decision to fund stem cell research has been influenced by the convergence of evolving scientific knowledge, conflicting religious values, and the role of elected officials in a representative democracy. The article begins by reviewing the current state of scientific knowledge concerning adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and the process of direct cell re-programming. Because each …


Researchers Without Borders?: Limiting Obligations Of Ancillary Care Through The Rescue Model, Michael Ulrich Jan 2011

Researchers Without Borders?: Limiting Obligations Of Ancillary Care Through The Rescue Model, Michael Ulrich

Faculty Scholarship

With the expansion of clinical research in developing countries, there is a need to explain obligations that researchers have to their subjects beyond those required by the study protocol. This paper outlines a model founded on the duty to rescue that provides ethical clarification of the obligations of ancillary care.


Preface To Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, And Big Business Re-Create Race In The Twenty-First Century, Dorothy E. Roberts Jan 2011

Preface To Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, And Big Business Re-Create Race In The Twenty-First Century, Dorothy E. Roberts

All Faculty Scholarship

Fatal Invention documents the emergence of a new biopolitics in the United States that relies on re-inventing race in biological terms using cutting-edge genomic science and biotechnologies. Some scientists are defining race as a biological category written in our genes, while the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries convert the new racial science into race-based products, such as race-specific medicines, ancestry tests, and DNA forensics, that incorporate false assumptions of racial difference at the genetic level. The genetic understanding of race calls for technological responses to racial disparities while masking the continuing impact of racism in a supposedly post-racial society. Instead, I …


Blood Transfusions, Jehovah’S Witnesses, And The American Patients’ Rights Movement, Charles Baron Dec 2010

Blood Transfusions, Jehovah’S Witnesses, And The American Patients’ Rights Movement, Charles Baron

Charles H. Baron

The litigation to protect Jehovah’s Witnesses from unwanted blood transfusions, which their theology considers a violation of the biblical prohibition against drinking blood, has produced important changes in both the right to refuse treatment and in the preferred treatment methods of all patients. This article traces the evolution of the rights of competent medical patients in the United States to refuse medical treatment. It also discusses the impact this litigation has had on the medical community’s realization that blood transfusions were neither as safe nor as medically necessary as medical culture posited.