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Full-Text Articles in Law

"Academic Concerns"-Caring About Conversation In Canadian Common Law, Karen Crawley, Shauna Van Praagh Oct 2011

"Academic Concerns"-Caring About Conversation In Canadian Common Law, Karen Crawley, Shauna Van Praagh

Dalhousie Law Journal

The Supreme Court of Canada, in its 2001 decision in Cooper v Hobart, refined the test in Canadian common law for establishing a duty of care in the tort of negligence. Although aware of the complexities and ongoing challenges of the "duty of care" concept, the Supreme Court openly labelled these concerns as "academic." This article confirms these concerns as "academic," but insists that this label underlines their centrality not only to an understanding of the tort of negligence but to the nature and form of common law reasoning. By pointing to errors in the Supreme Court of Canada's judgment-errors …


The Impeachment Of The Judges Of The Nova Scotia Supreme Court, 1787-1793: Colonial Judges, Loyalist Lawyers, And The Colonial Assembly, Jim Phillips Oct 2011

The Impeachment Of The Judges Of The Nova Scotia Supreme Court, 1787-1793: Colonial Judges, Loyalist Lawyers, And The Colonial Assembly, Jim Phillips

Dalhousie Law Journal

In 1790 the Nova Scotia House of Assembly passed seven "articles of impeachment" against two ofthe colony's Supreme Courtjudges, the firstattempt bya British North American assembly to remove superior courtjudges. Although the impeachment failed when the British government rejected the charges, it is noteworthy nonetheless. The product of a dispute between newly arrived loyalist lawyers and a local elite of "old inhabitants, " it was at one and the same time a political struggle between the Assembly and the executive branch, and one that involved concerns about judicial competence. The impeachment crisis also demonstrates the close links between the judiciary …


No Longer "Naked And Shivering Outside Her Gates": Establishing Law As A Full-Time On-Campus Academic Discipline At Mcgill University Inthe Nineteenth Century, A J. Hobbins Oct 2011

No Longer "Naked And Shivering Outside Her Gates": Establishing Law As A Full-Time On-Campus Academic Discipline At Mcgill University Inthe Nineteenth Century, A J. Hobbins

Dalhousie Law Journal

Although Canada was a single province (1763-1791), subsequently divided into Upper and Lower Canada, legal education developed very differently in the two components. The Law Society of Upper Canada controlled legal education in Ontario until the second half of the twentieth century, while in Quebec, where the legal system was based on both civil and common law, university-based legal education began in the first half of the nineteenth century. This study examines how legal education developed at McGill University, moving from part-time teaching by professionals off-campus to an on-campus faculty taught by full-time academics by the end of the century …


Conceptions Of Borrowers And Lenders In The Canadian Payday Loan Regulatory Process: The Evidence From Manitoba And Nova Scotia, Freya Kodar Oct 2011

Conceptions Of Borrowers And Lenders In The Canadian Payday Loan Regulatory Process: The Evidence From Manitoba And Nova Scotia, Freya Kodar

Dalhousie Law Journal

Commentators characterize thinking aboutpaydayloans as falling into two general perspectives. In one theory payday loans respond to market demand and are a sensible choice for a consumer with limited assets, credit, or other support when an unexpected financial need arises. The opposing theory holds that the loans are usurious and exploit vulnerable low-income borrowers. In 2007, amendments were passed exempting payday loans from the application of the criminal interest rate provisions of the Criminal Code if they were made by companies licensed by a province with a regulatory scheme. The author examines how federal and provincial lawmakers and administrative decision-makers …


Revising Canada's Ethical Rules For Judges Returning To Practice, Stephen Ga Pitel, Will Bortolin Oct 2011

Revising Canada's Ethical Rules For Judges Returning To Practice, Stephen Ga Pitel, Will Bortolin

Dalhousie Law Journal

It has recently become more common for retired Canadian judges to return to the practice of law This development raises an array of ethical considerations and potential threats to the integrity of the administration of justice. Although most codes of legal ethics contemplate the possibility of former judges returning to practice, the rules on this particular topic are dated, under-analyzed, and generally inadequate. This article reviews the Canadian ethical rules that specifically relate to former judges and identifies their shortcomings. In doing so, the authors consider, for comparative purposes, Canadian ethical rules directed at former public officers who return to …


The Justiciability Of Climate Change: Acomparison Of Us And Canadian Approaches, Hugh Wilkins Oct 2011

The Justiciability Of Climate Change: Acomparison Of Us And Canadian Approaches, Hugh Wilkins

Dalhousie Law Journal

Climate change-related disputes, which often include novel, complex,or politically sensitive matters, have experienced a mixed reception by the courts. Defendants both in Canada and the United States have raised the issue of justiciabilitythe question of whether a matter is of the quality or state of being appropriate or suitable for review by a court-with some success in attempts to have these cases summarily dismissed. The author reviews the types ofclimate change cases that have been launched, examines the US and Canadian laws of justiciability analyzes the.paths in which the caselaw regarding justiciability in these countries is headed, and suggests how …


"No Sinecure": William Young As Attorney General Of Nova Scotia, 1854-1857, William H. Laurence Oct 2011

"No Sinecure": William Young As Attorney General Of Nova Scotia, 1854-1857, William H. Laurence

Dalhousie Law Journal

Focusing on the tenure (1854-1857) of William Young, this article examines the legal work of nineteenth-century Nova Scotian attorneys general. Although he served without the benefit of an established justice department, Young fulfilled a wide range of duties and completed an impressive volume of work, which required knowledge of both public and private law, and which demanded advocacy advisory, solicitorial, and legislative drafting skills. This article argues that though Young's performance as a Crown prosecutor received the most public attention, his accomplishments outside the criminal courtroom, especially those relating to the administration ofjustice and legislative development, had the most significant …


Overcoming The Digital Tsunami In E-Discovery: Is Visual Analysis The Answer?, Victoria L. Lemieux, Jason R. Baron Jun 2011

Overcoming The Digital Tsunami In E-Discovery: Is Visual Analysis The Answer?, Victoria L. Lemieux, Jason R. Baron

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

New technologies are generating potentially discoverable evidence in electronic form in ever increasing volumes. As a result, traditional techniques of document search and retrieval in pursuit of electronic discovery in litigation are becoming less viable. One potential new technological solution to the e-discovery search and retrieval challenge is Visual Analysis (VA). VA is a technology that combines the computational power of the computer with graphical representations of large datasets to enable interactive analytic capabilities. This article provides an overview of VA technology and how it is being applied in the analysis of e-mail and other electronic documents in the field …


The Internet And Protection Of Children Online: Time For Change, Jill Scott Jun 2011

The Internet And Protection Of Children Online: Time For Change, Jill Scott

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This article explores the risks for children online and their privacy, with particular focus on the implications of widespread collection, use and retention of data about them. It touches on international standards and national laws that impact Internet activities and the special risk to children’s privacy in today’s ubiquitous computing environment. This is a complex topic that transcends national boundaries and involves both legal and policy issues confronting governments across the world.

Section I provides a brief outline of the online risks for children arising from the scope of data collection and the regulatory challenges of the Internet as it …


Location-Based Services And Privacy, Teresa Scassa, Anca Sattler Jun 2011

Location-Based Services And Privacy, Teresa Scassa, Anca Sattler

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

In this paper we begin by describing location-based services, their evolution and their future directions. We then outline privacy issues raised by such services. In Part III we consider how current Canadian data protection laws apply to location-based services, and indicate where such laws fall short of addressing the full range of issues raised by location-based services. Part IV of the paper explores some technological methods to address the privacy challenges raised by location-based services. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations.


Electronic Discovery- Sedona Canada Is Inadequate On Records Management - Here's Sedona Canada In Amended Form, Ken Chasse Jun 2011

Electronic Discovery- Sedona Canada Is Inadequate On Records Management - Here's Sedona Canada In Amended Form, Ken Chasse

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

A paper record can exist without its records system; an electronic record cannot. To use, corrupt, or destroy a paper record, one needs physical access to the records system wherein it is stored. But to use, corrupt, or destroy an electronic record one merely needs electronic access to its records system, from anywhere. Therefore any set of rules or principles for controlling the use of electronic records for any purpose, including electronic discovery, should incorporate the established policies and practices of electronic records management.

As to cost, rules of electronic discovery are needed with which to punish par- ties with …


Tax Implications For Non-Residents Conducting E-Commerce In Canada, Mike Nienhuis Jun 2011

Tax Implications For Non-Residents Conducting E-Commerce In Canada, Mike Nienhuis

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper focuses on taxation issues faced by non-resident e-commerce companies with no sustained presence in Canada apart from a web site. The tax liability of foreign corporations with a Canadian subsidiary, a physical Canadian office, or Canadian-based employees or agents will not be considered, even though there is substantial overlap in some of the relevant issues. By e-commerce companies we refer broadly to any firms conducting their primary business — whether business- to-business (B2B) or business-to-consumer (B2C) — by means of the internet.

In the first section we outline the framework for Canada’s taxation of non-residents conducting business in …


Institutional Liability In The E-Health Era, James Williams, Craig Kuziemsky Jun 2011

Institutional Liability In The E-Health Era, James Williams, Craig Kuziemsky

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper examines the jurisprudence on institutional liability for medical er- ror. We argue that the existing jurisprudence relies on assumptions that have been made obsolete by technological advances. In particular, we concentrate on the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health care domain. As we demonstrate, the use of these tools does not merely increase efficiency and support new health care functions; among other effects, ICT can have a profound influence on how health care practitioners make observations, exercise judgment and perform tasks. These tools influence human capabilities (at both the individual and systems level) in …


Prohibiting Medical Method Patents: A Criticism Of The Status Quo, Mark S. Wilke Jun 2011

Prohibiting Medical Method Patents: A Criticism Of The Status Quo, Mark S. Wilke

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

Methods of medical treatment are not patentable in Canada. This means that inventions involving the performance of surgery, administration of medicine, or extraction of fluids or tissue for diagnostic tests cannot directly be protected under the current patent regime. However, this prohibition is not an absolute ban. Many medical innovations are patentable, including surgical tools and devices, drugs and other chemical compounds, medical “uses”, diagnostic assays and methods of treat- ing “natural” conditions. The practical reality is that the distinction between what is and what is not patentable is poorly defined. This uncertainty presents a steep challenge for inventors and …


L'Impact D'Internet Sur Les Paradigmes De La Régulation De L'Audiovisuel, Gilles De Saint Exupéry Jun 2011

L'Impact D'Internet Sur Les Paradigmes De La Régulation De L'Audiovisuel, Gilles De Saint Exupéry

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

Nous nous intéresserons particulièrement à la mutation du paradigme de la régulation de l’audiovisuel classique13 dû à plusieurs facteurs: pour être diffuseur sur les ondes hertzienne il fallait être titulaire d’une licence accordé par l’Etat, sur Internet tout le monde peut l’être à sa guise. Les moyens techniques et financiers ne sont plus une barrière à l’ entrée, le nombre de joueurs qui e ́ tait jusque-là restreint devient, en théorie, incalculable. Le mécanisme de responsabilité mis en place est remis en cause, par la dilution des frontières, l’anonymat, ou l’insolvabilité des diffuseurs. Les modèles d’affaires doivent être revus, le …


Direct-To-Consumer Advertising Of Pharmaceuticals On Television: A Charter Challenge, Elvina C. Chow Jun 2011

Direct-To-Consumer Advertising Of Pharmaceuticals On Television: A Charter Challenge, Elvina C. Chow

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The Supreme Court of Canada has consistently wrestled with the conflict between legislation designed to protect consumers’ health and the constitutional guarantee of the fundamental freedom of expression. This paper investigates the justification for the current regulatory framework for pharmaceutical advertising on television. Aware that the provisions in the FDA are able to withstand Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter) scrutiny, several possible policy initiations are nevertheless proposed.

The paper is divided into five separate sections. Having first introduced DTCA of pharmaceuticals on television in Section I, I will now turn to a more comprehensive examination of DTCA in Canada …


Lessons From Bilski, Haewon Chung Jun 2011

Lessons From Bilski, Haewon Chung

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

In this paper, I will examine how the U.S. and Canadian courts have approached the patentability of intangible inventions and discuss whether any lessons can be learned from the U.S.’s patent dilemma. In section 2, I will review the American jurisprudence on patentability of intangible inventions. In section 3, I will discuss the potential impact Bilski may have on the American jurisprudence. Section 4 will assess the Canadian jurisprudence on patentability of intangible inventions. In section 5, I will discuss the Federal Court of Canada’s decision in Amazon/FCC. I argue that based on recent events in the American jurisprudence, Canadian …


Collective Bargaining In The Shadow Of The Charter Cathedral: Union Strategies In A Post B.C. Health World, Michael Macneil Apr 2011

Collective Bargaining In The Shadow Of The Charter Cathedral: Union Strategies In A Post B.C. Health World, Michael Macneil

Dalhousie Law Journal

For the first twenty-five years after the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms was enacted, it appeared that it would have little impact on Canadian labour laws. The Supreme Court of Canada took the view that the guarantee of freedom of association in the Charter did not include a right to strike and did notprovide protection for collective bargaining. Common law rules regulating picketing did not come within the scope of the Charter's rules on freedom of expression. Academic commentators were divided on whether this was a good or a bad thing, some espousing the hope that the Charter could …


Wrongful Termination Claims In The Supreme Court Of Canada: Coming Up Short, Dianne Pothier Apr 2011

Wrongful Termination Claims In The Supreme Court Of Canada: Coming Up Short, Dianne Pothier

Dalhousie Law Journal

The author concludes that the Supreme Court of Canada's narrow interpretations in Wal-Mart and Honda undermine the purposes of collective bargaining and human rights legislation, respectively Wal-Mart involves an unfair labour practice complaint following the closing of a store in Jonquibre, Quebec. The author contests the analysis of the Supreme Court of Canada, as being far removed from the context of the real difficulties in dealing with determined anti-union employers, instead facilitating statutory evasion. Honda involves a claim for wrongful dismissal, where the issue at the Supreme Court of Canada level is one of remedy, premised on the dismissal amounting …


Charting The Boundaries Of Labour Law: Innis Christie And The Search For An Integrated Law Of Labour Market Regulations, Harry Arthurs Apr 2011

Charting The Boundaries Of Labour Law: Innis Christie And The Search For An Integrated Law Of Labour Market Regulations, Harry Arthurs

Dalhousie Law Journal

What an honour it is to deliver the first Innis Christie lecture in labour and employment law. My career and Innis' developed in parallel. Our very first publications dealt with tort liability for strikes; our early research dealt with collective labour law; we worked together on a labour law casebook; we both shuffled sideways from labour law into administrative law and lurched from there into legal ethics; we both became labour mediators and arbitrators and then-a logical progression-deans of law. Finally, we both worked on government policy studies, starting with the Woods Task Force in the mid-1960s, though Innis became …


Employee Pension Rights And The False Promise Of Trust Law, Elizabeth Shilton Apr 2011

Employee Pension Rights And The False Promise Of Trust Law, Elizabeth Shilton

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article explores the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of Canada on employment pension trusts. I argue that the Court's 1994 decision in Schmidt v. Air Products, which embraced trust law as a tool for resolving pension surplus ownership disputes, held out the promise that courts would use fiduciary principles to shape pension rights for employees and protect those rights against employer self-interest. That promise has failed to bear much fruit. Since Schmidt, the Court has moved away from a conception of trust law as a fetter on employer power towards a flexible conception in which employer trust obligations are …


Non-Majority Union Representation Conforms To Ilo Freedom Of Association Principles And (Potentially) Promotes Inter-Union Collaboration: New Zealand Lessons For Canada, Mark Harcourt, Helen Lam Apr 2011

Non-Majority Union Representation Conforms To Ilo Freedom Of Association Principles And (Potentially) Promotes Inter-Union Collaboration: New Zealand Lessons For Canada, Mark Harcourt, Helen Lam

Dalhousie Law Journal

North American union certification violates workers' freedom of association, a fundamental human right well established by the International Labour Organization (ILO); by denying workers the right to be represented when a majority of their co-workers does not favour a union. In Canada, the Supreme Court has drawn on ILO standards to recognize a constitutional right to bargain collectively and organize as part of freedom of association under section 2(d) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. However, such recognition of the ILO principles has, as yet, to translate into legislation that would provide non-exclusive, non-majority union representation, at least in …


Why The Right-Freedom Distinction Matters To Labour Lawyers-And To All Canadians, Brian Langille Apr 2011

Why The Right-Freedom Distinction Matters To Labour Lawyers-And To All Canadians, Brian Langille

Dalhousie Law Journal

This lecture is about very basic legal ideas such as rights, freedoms, and the distinction between them. It makes the argument that clear thinking about these basic ideas is required and that when these ideas are neglected we have a recipe for real legal confusion. More than that, a failure to attend to these basic concepts and their relationship can produce, as it has in recent Supreme Court of Canada Charter cases on "Freedom of Association," a real threat to the fundamental freedoms of all Canadians


Gimme Shelter, Robert Leckey Apr 2011

Gimme Shelter, Robert Leckey

Dalhousie Law Journal

Highlighting the family home's significance as shelter this paper challenges the prevailing view of the demands of the equality guarantee in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms regarding unmarried cohabitants. In Nova Scotia (Attorney General) v. Walsh, the Supreme Court of Canada rejected the claim that it was discriminatory to restrict rules dividing matrimonial property to married couples. By contrast, on many views it is discriminatory to exclude cohabitants from a support obligation. Scholars and judges assume that Walsh upholds all statutory rules regarding married spouses and their property, including measures protecting the family home as shelter But Walsh …


Ifit's Reusable Why Not Reuse It? The Reuse Of Single Use Medical Devices, Brian Wilson Apr 2011

Ifit's Reusable Why Not Reuse It? The Reuse Of Single Use Medical Devices, Brian Wilson

Dalhousie Law Journal

The reprocessing and subsequent reuse of medical devices labelled by the manufacturer as 'single-use only' is a cost cutting strategy employed by many healthcare centres. However, attempting to extend the life of a device labelled as 'single-use only' raises a number of unique concerns surrounding the issue of legal liability specifically who should bear responsibility if someone suffers harm as a result of a reprocessed single-use device. Following an overview of the current regulatory environment, the potential tortious liability attaching to those who may be implicated in the reprocessing chain is discussed. Specifically, this paper examines the duty and standard …


Peter Aucoin, Mark D.Jarvis &Lori Turnbull, Democratizing The Constitution: Reforming Responsible Government, Gregory Tardi Apr 2011

Peter Aucoin, Mark D.Jarvis &Lori Turnbull, Democratizing The Constitution: Reforming Responsible Government, Gregory Tardi

Dalhousie Law Journal

In the aftermath of the Prorogation of Parliament on December 4, 2008, upon the advice of Prime Minister Stephen Harper to then Governor General Michaelle Jean, a particular theme in Canadian literature about governance has flourished. This theme is the influence ofconstitutionalism, democracy and legitimacy on government and politics. In the view of many scholars there is a serious imbalance between the executive branch on one hand and the legislative branch on the other. The sense ofimbalance has generated proposals for changes to the practice of Westminster-style parliamentary democracy in the service of democratic legitimacy.


Sharing The Spotlight: Co-Authored Reasons On The Modern Supreme Court Of Canada, Peter J. Maccormick Apr 2011

Sharing The Spotlight: Co-Authored Reasons On The Modern Supreme Court Of Canada, Peter J. Maccormick

Dalhousie Law Journal

When the Supreme Court of Canada delivers its reasons forjudgment, the normal expectation (the rare "By the Court" decision aside) is that the judgment of the Court-unanimous or majority or even plurality-will be designated as having been delivered by one specific judge. ("The reasons of A, B, C and D were delivered by B.") But in recent decades, the practice has developed for two or more judges to share this formal designation; co-authorships currently account for one judgment (and, for that matter one set of minority reasons) in every ten. This article explores this practice, unusual among comparable national high …


Twenty Years Of Student Scholarship: Celebrating The Dalhousie Journal Of Legal Studies, Kim Brooks, Mark Lewis Jan 2011

Twenty Years Of Student Scholarship: Celebrating The Dalhousie Journal Of Legal Studies, Kim Brooks, Mark Lewis

Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies

In the case of the Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies that person was its first editor-in-chief, Ryerson Symons. In the production of the first volume, released in 1992, he was joined by an 11-person board of directors, a 30-person editorial board, a 10-person notes and comments editorial committee, a 12-person book reviews editorial committee, a large number of managers and assistants, five founding patrons, and a six-member advisory board. A lot of people were persuaded that the Journal had merit. I might continue on the theme of identifying the characteristics of successful projects. If a good project has an early …