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Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence And Suicide Bombing, Murad Ismayilov Oct 2010

Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence And Suicide Bombing, Murad Ismayilov

Journal of Strategic Security

This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts …


Eriksonian Identity Theory In Counterterrorism, Cally O'Brien Oct 2010

Eriksonian Identity Theory In Counterterrorism, Cally O'Brien

Journal of Strategic Security

Certain terrorists come from unexpected backgrounds. They give up comfortable lives and opportunities in order to wage jihad. Their existence has puzzled various theorists since they came to light. This article will explain how a theory of psychosocial identity formation created by Erik Erikson and his student James Marcia may explain this phenomenon. It will also explain how Erikson's theoretical legacy has contributed to current attempts at increasing moderation in the Middle East through education. Many of those attempts reflect ideas that are drawn from Eriksonian theory, although they are not typically described in Eriksonian terms. Meanwhile, while some theorists …


Political Terrorism: An Historical Case Study Of The Italian Red Brigades, Major Victor H. Sundquist Oct 2010

Political Terrorism: An Historical Case Study Of The Italian Red Brigades, Major Victor H. Sundquist

Journal of Strategic Security

As the world's governments become increasingly engulfed in economic and political strife, international leaders should step back and understand what historical realities enabled political extremism to surface in particular regions of the world. More important, these leaders need to recognize what past governments did to counter these movements. Global communities are currently witnessing a dynamic trend of populous uprisings that in some cases, like Greece and the United States, have the potential to severely disrupt the activities of local governments. Consequently, it behooves leaders to reflect upon historical precedence in order to avoid repeating the same mistakes of our forefathers. …


Cover & Front Matter Oct 2010

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Book Reviews, Edward M. Roche, John Coale, Keely M. Fahoum, Leland Erickson, Mark J. Roberts, Millard E. Moon, Ed.D., Colonel (Ret.) Oct 2010

Book Reviews, Edward M. Roche, John Coale, Keely M. Fahoum, Leland Erickson, Mark J. Roberts, Millard E. Moon, Ed.D., Colonel (Ret.)

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Appeal Of The Taliban In Pakistan, Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi Oct 2010

Understanding The Appeal Of The Taliban In Pakistan, Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

Journal of Strategic Security

This article briefly explores the economics of the "Talibanization" of Pakistan within descriptive and contextual paradigms, while attempting to find a best solution to counter rising militancy in the context of realities facing the population on the ground. One such solution is the National Pakistani Counter Terrorism and Extremism Strategy (NACTES), designed to curb Taliban financing in Pakistan. The strategy is being drafted by National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA), the nascent homeland security coordination body set up by the state as the primary public organ entrusted with counterterrorism, counter-extremism, and de-radicalization efforts of the state.


Social Cohesion And Islamic Radicalization: Implications From The Uighur Insurgency, Tong Zhao Oct 2010

Social Cohesion And Islamic Radicalization: Implications From The Uighur Insurgency, Tong Zhao

Journal of Strategic Security

This article starts with a critical review of the current literature on the Islamic radicalization and Uighur insurgency in Xinjiang, pointing out that existing literature focuses too narrowly on certain aspects of the Uighur insurgency, and is insufficient to explain the causal mechanism of the insurgency and Islamic radicalization. Built upon historical evidence, this article uses sociological analysis to explore the structural changes in the Uighur community over the past decades, and demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of social cohesion theory in identifying the key causal variables which underlie and determine the course of Uighur insurgency and Islamic radicalization. The …


Cover & Front Matter Jul 2010

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges, Elizabeth Zolotukhina May 2010

Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges, Elizabeth Zolotukhina

Journal of Strategic Security

On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in …


Book Reviews, Edward J. Hagerty, Daniel Masters, Mark J. Roberts, Leland Ericson May 2010

Book Reviews, Edward J. Hagerty, Daniel Masters, Mark J. Roberts, Leland Ericson

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


The Multiple Faces Of Effective Grand Strategy, Bryan N. Groves May 2010

The Multiple Faces Of Effective Grand Strategy, Bryan N. Groves

Journal of Strategic Security

Effective national leaders throughout history have deliberately developed grand strategies and successfully implemented them to attain their political goals, while also integrating and accomplishing economic, social, defense, and sometimes religious objectives. Not all leaders have been successful, however, as this process is immensely complex and can be adversely affected by the actions of other leaders around their region and the world. It bears examination, then, to determine what factors contribute to successful grand strategies and why many leaders fail to reach their stated ends. This article utilizes a historic case study approach and explores three key areas of grand strategy: …


Indian Involvement In Afghanistan In The Context Of The South Asian Security System, Melanie Hanif May 2010

Indian Involvement In Afghanistan In The Context Of The South Asian Security System, Melanie Hanif

Journal of Strategic Security

This article focuses on the regional requirements for a pacification of Afghanistan. For this purpose, Afghanistan is analytically "reframed" as part of South Asia. The hypothesis is that India is the only regional actor that might possess both the incentives and the capabilities to deal with the negative security externalities emanating from Afghanistan.In South Asia, material characteristics such as the delineation of the region and its power polarity are unclear. India's role within the region is even more controversial. By examining India's role within its security environment, this paper will suggest how this lack of clarity could be remedied. In …


U.S. Response To Terrorism: A Strategic Analysis Of The Afghanistan Campaign, Valentina Taddeo May 2010

U.S. Response To Terrorism: A Strategic Analysis Of The Afghanistan Campaign, Valentina Taddeo

Journal of Strategic Security

This article examines the U.S. response to global terrorism and its campaign in Afghanistan from 2001 to today. The aim of this article is first to understand the fallacies, missteps, and misunderstandings of the U.S. approach in Afghanistan. Second, the analysis evaluates the lessons learnt and some possible strategies for achieving long-term stability and security in Afghanistan. In particular, the analysis focuses on the different strategies adopted by the United States and their achievements. Despite a first victory over the Taliban regime, the initial approach was focused on the enemy only and it lacked long-term planning, paving the way to …


North Korea And Support To Terrorism: An Evolving History, Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr. May 2010

North Korea And Support To Terrorism: An Evolving History, Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

Journal of Strategic Security

The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea) support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.


The Weakest Link: The Risks Associated With Social Networking Websites, Yosef Lehrman May 2010

The Weakest Link: The Risks Associated With Social Networking Websites, Yosef Lehrman

Journal of Strategic Security

The relatively rapid rise in popularity of social networking services is now well known. MySpace, Twitter, and Facebook have become well known sites and terms. According to the Web traffic tracking site Alexa.com, as of December 2009, Facebook had 350 million registered users, MySpace just under 475 million, and Twitter 44.5 million. Many people think very little of posting prodigious amounts of personal information on social networking sites, not realizing that this information puts them at risk. Specifically, those in the law enforcement and military communities may not realize that information posted on these sites can compromise operational security and …


Small To Mid-Size Sporting Events: Are We Prepared To Recover From An Attack?, Brian M. Harrell, Konrad Crockford, Pierre Boisrond, Sarah Tharp-Hernandez, Suzanne Parker May 2010

Small To Mid-Size Sporting Events: Are We Prepared To Recover From An Attack?, Brian M. Harrell, Konrad Crockford, Pierre Boisrond, Sarah Tharp-Hernandez, Suzanne Parker

Journal of Strategic Security

This article describes a fictional deadly attack by a lone-wolf terrorist during a high school football event in a small town, here in the United States. The authors begin by describing an attack and then focus on the response from the medical community, city, county, state, and federal government officials. Next, the authors make several recommendations on what actions are needed to develop an effective plan to combat terrorist activities during a small- to mid-size sports event. Among the actions needed, the authors focus on the following: response planning, emergency action plan, incident command, policies and procedures, and security staff …


Geographic Trajectories Of Al-Qaida And Taliban Terrorist Groups In Pakistan, Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi Mar 2010

Geographic Trajectories Of Al-Qaida And Taliban Terrorist Groups In Pakistan, Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

Journal of Strategic Security

Though Western analysts tend to mention al-Qaida and Taliban in Pakistan in the same context, the dynamics of their relationship are far more complex than a cursory examination would reveal. The context of this relationship is best understood within the overarching paradigm of militant activities of post 9/11 Taliban and al-Qaida remnants in Pakistan's tribal areas, where these groups flourish. The military struggle in Afghanistan has significantly influenced the formation of a loosely structured alQaida/Taliban "nexus" that was forged in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), particularly Waziristan. In order to survive the ongoing North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military …


Global Risk Of Nuclear Terrorism, Emily Diez, Terrance Clark, Caroline Zaw-Mon Mar 2010

Global Risk Of Nuclear Terrorism, Emily Diez, Terrance Clark, Caroline Zaw-Mon

Journal of Strategic Security

The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD) as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim …


Strategic Asymmetric Deception And Its Role In The Current Threat Environment, Seth A. Gulsby Mar 2010

Strategic Asymmetric Deception And Its Role In The Current Threat Environment, Seth A. Gulsby

Journal of Strategic Security

President Bill Clinton's Secretary of Defense, William Cohen, once stated that the post-Cold War world of the 1990s was a "paradox [where] American military superiority actually increase[d] the threat of... attack against [the U.S.] by creating incentives for adversaries to challenge us asymmetrically." He was alluding to the fact that the Cold War's closure was supposed to bring about a situation that encouraged peace, nation-building, and unilateral comfort for the United States. The reality that America has come to know is quite different, and some might even argue that, given the option, many people would return to a security situation …


Toward A New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, And Mexico, Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodríguez Sumano, Todd S. Hataley Mar 2010

Toward A New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, And Mexico, Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodríguez Sumano, Todd S. Hataley

Journal of Strategic Security

The term "perimeter defense" has come back into vogue recently, with regard to security strategies for North America. The United States' concern primarily with the terrorist threat to its homeland subsequent to September 11, 2001 (9/11) is generating this discussion with its immediate neighbors of Mexico and Canada (and to some extent some Caribbean nations—the "third border"). The concept is simply that by pushing defenses out to the "perimeter" nations, then security will be enhanced, since the United States visions itself as more vulnerable to international terrorism than its neighbors. However, Canada and Mexico have not been very happy about …


Cover & Front Matter Mar 2010

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Variance, Violence, And Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model Of Terrorism, John A. Sautter Mar 2010

Variance, Violence, And Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model Of Terrorism, John A. Sautter

Journal of Strategic Security

Much of the debate surrounding contemporary studies of terrorism focuses upon transnational terrorism. However, historical and contemporary evidence suggests that domestic terrorism is a more prevalent and pressing concern. A formal microeconomic model of terrorism is utilized here to understand acts of political violence in a domestic context within the domain of democratic governance.This article builds a very basic microeconomic model of terrorist decision making to hypothesize how a democratic government might influence the sorts of strategies that terrorists use. Mathematical models have been used to explain terrorist behavior in the past. However, the bulk of inquires in this area …


Book Reviews, Timothy Hsia, Sheldon Greaves, Donald J. Goldstein Mar 2010

Book Reviews, Timothy Hsia, Sheldon Greaves, Donald J. Goldstein

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Intelligence And Its Role In Protecting Against Terrorism, Richard J. Hughbank, Don Githens Mar 2010

Intelligence And Its Role In Protecting Against Terrorism, Richard J. Hughbank, Don Githens

Journal of Strategic Security

The art and science of gathering critical operational intelligence has been defined in many ways and is beyond our needs for this writing. Throughout the course of history, many wars have been fought depending heavily on various forms of intelligence. During our most recent actions in the War on Terror, intelligence analysis has played a critical role in both offensive and defensive operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. With such varying fact-finding techniques available and utilized in the defense of our country, it has become an arduous task to collect, decipher, package, prioritize, disseminate, and act upon everything that comes down …