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2009

Development

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Smes, Open Innovation And Ip Management: Advancing Global Development, Stanley P. Kowalski Dec 2009

Smes, Open Innovation And Ip Management: Advancing Global Development, Stanley P. Kowalski

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] Micro-Small-Medium Enterprises (abbreviated herein henceforth as “SMEs”) are global drivers of technological innovation and economic development. Perhaps their importance has been somewhat eclipsed by the mega-multinational corporate entities. However, whereas the corporations might be conceptualized as towering sequoia trees, SMEs represent the deep, broad, fertile forest floor that nourishes, sustains and regenerates the global economic ecosystem.

[. . .]

Broadly recognized as engines of economic and global development, SMEs account for a substantial proportion of entrepreneurial activity in both industrialized and developing countries. Indeed, their role as dynamos for technological and economic progress in developing countries is critical and cannot be underemphasized ...


Public Use, Public Choice, And The Urban Growth Machine: Competing Political Economies Of Takings Law, Daniel A. Lyons Dec 2009

Public Use, Public Choice, And The Urban Growth Machine: Competing Political Economies Of Takings Law, Daniel A. Lyons

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Kelo decision has unleashed a tidal wave of legislative reforms ostensibly seeking to control eminent domain abuse. But as a policy matter, it is impossible to determine what limits should be placed upon local government without understanding how cities grow and develop, and how local governments make decisions to shape the communities over which they preside. This Article examines takings through two very different models of urban political economy: public choice theory and the quasi-Marxist Urban Growth Machine model. These models approach takings from diametrically opposite perspectives, and offer differing perspectives at the margin regarding proper and improper condemnations ...


Operatively White: Exploring The Significance Of Race And Class Through The Paradox Of Black Middle-Classness, Audrey Mcfarlane Oct 2009

Operatively White: Exploring The Significance Of Race And Class Through The Paradox Of Black Middle-Classness, Audrey Mcfarlane

All Faculty Scholarship

The black–white paradigm has been the crucial paradigm in racial geography of land use, housing and development. Yet it is worthwhile to consider that, in this context, distinctions based on race are accompanied by a powerful, racialized discourse of middle class versus poor. The black–white paradigm in exclusionary zoning, for example, involves the wealthy or middle-class white person (we need not even use the term white) protesting against or displacing the poor black person. (we also need not even use the term black). Another example of the racialized discourse of middle class versus poor is in the urban-gentrification ...


A Long And Winding Road: The Doha Round Negotiation In The World Trade Organization, Sungjoon Cho Sep 2009

A Long And Winding Road: The Doha Round Negotiation In The World Trade Organization, Sungjoon Cho

Sungjoon Cho

This article provides a concise history of the Doha Round negotiation, analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful deal. The article observes that the nearly decade long negotiational stalemate is symptomatic of the diametrically opposed beliefs on the nature of the Round between developed and developing countries. While developed countries appear to be increasingly oblivious of Doha’s exigency, i.e., as a “development” round, developing countries vehemently condemn the developed countries’ narrow commercial focus on the Doha Round talks. It will not be easy to untie this Gordian knot since both Worlds tend to think that ...


A Long And Winding Road: The Doha Round Negotiation In The World Trade Organization, Sungjoon Cho Sep 2009

A Long And Winding Road: The Doha Round Negotiation In The World Trade Organization, Sungjoon Cho

All Faculty Scholarship

This article provides a concise history of the Doha Round negotiation, analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful deal. The article observes that the nearly decade long negotiational stalemate is symptomatic of the diametrically opposed beliefs on the nature of the Round between developed and developing countries. While developed countries appear to be increasingly oblivious of Doha’s exigency, i.e., as a “development” round, developing countries vehemently condemn the developed countries’ narrow commercial focus on the Doha Round talks. It will not be easy to untie this Gordian knot since both Worlds tend to think that ...


A Troubled Path To Private Property: Agricultural Land Law In Russia, Ira Kenneth Lindsay Aug 2009

A Troubled Path To Private Property: Agricultural Land Law In Russia, Ira Kenneth Lindsay

Ira Kenneth Lindsay

When the Soviet Union collapsed many observers hoped that decollectivization would improve the infamously inefficient Soviet agricultural sector and raise collective farm workers out of poverty. The initial results of market reform in Russian agriculture were a severe disappointment in both respects. Under Putin, Russia has finally allowed agricultural land to be bought and sold. The effects of this latest reform have been less than was hoped by supporters or feared by opponents. Russia’s experience with land reform suggests that while private ownership of farmland may offer significant advantages, successful land reform requires much more than the creation of ...


Piercing The Veil: Using Microfinance Initiatives To Promote Female Entrepreneurship In Muslim Countries, Patrick F. Madden Jul 2009

Piercing The Veil: Using Microfinance Initiatives To Promote Female Entrepreneurship In Muslim Countries, Patrick F. Madden

Patrick F. Madden

This paper argues that microfinance initiatives are an attractive aid mechanism to promote gender equality in Muslim countries because such initiatives both alleviate poverty and provide women with economic empowerment without violating Muslim customary banking laws. By promoting female entrepreneurship, microfinance initiatives are, perhaps, the most effective means of achieving the Millennium Development goal of gender equality without upsetting the Islamic governments or the prospective borrowers.


Slides: Agricultural Resilience And Urban Growth: A Closer Look, William R. Travis Jun 2009

Slides: Agricultural Resilience And Urban Growth: A Closer Look, William R. Travis

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: William R. Travis, Department of Geography, Center for Science & Technology Policy Research, CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder

30 slides


Slides: Integrated Policy, Planning, And Management Of Water Resources, Robert Wilkinson Jun 2009

Slides: Integrated Policy, Planning, And Management Of Water Resources, Robert Wilkinson

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Robert Wilkinson, Ph.D., Director of the Water Policy Program, Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California-- Santa Barbara

60 slides


Development And Outcomes Of Investment Treaty Arbitration, Susan Franck Jun 2009

Development And Outcomes Of Investment Treaty Arbitration, Susan Franck

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The legitimacy of investment treaty arbitration is a matter of heated debate. Asserting that arbitration is unfairly tilted toward the developed world, some countries have withdrawn from World Bank dispute resolution bodies or are taking steps to eliminate arbitration. In order to assess whether investment arbitration is the equivalent of tossing a two-headed coin to resolve investment disputes, this article explores the role of development status in arbitration outcome. It first presents descriptive, quantitative research about the developmental background of the presiding arbitrators who exert particular control over the arbitration process. The article then assesses how (1) the development status ...


Redevelopment Condemnations: A Blight Or A Blessing Upon The Land, Harold L. Lowenstein Apr 2009

Redevelopment Condemnations: A Blight Or A Blessing Upon The Land, Harold L. Lowenstein

Missouri Law Review

Eminent domain has been a hot topic in legal circles since the U.S. Supreme Court's opinion in Kelo v. City of New London. Issues such as fair compensation, public use, and the role of government in economic development have been discussed widely. The focus of this article, however, is somewhat different. This article seeks to provide a practical analysis for the sensitive issue of eminent domain, specifically for situations in which the government seeks to acquire real property via eminent domain in order to foster private redevelopment. The power to take private property, conferred by the Constitution and ...


Dubai's New Intellectual Property-Based Economy: Prospects For Development Without Dependency, Amir Khoury Jan 2009

Dubai's New Intellectual Property-Based Economy: Prospects For Development Without Dependency, Amir Khoury

Amir Khoury

The Emirate of Dubai has, as a result of deliberate policy actions, been able to reinvigorate, indeed to reinvent, its Intellectual Property Potential. That is to say Dubai has boosted its ability to be the originator (and creator) of intellectual property subject-matter, rather than merely a consumer thereof. Dubai has achieved the two conditions through which an intellectual property régime becomes a valuable national asset for a country with an initially low Intellectual Property Potential; namely a structured regulatory framework coupled with effective infrastructure-related action. Dubai's undertakings in the intellectual property sphere go to show that even a country ...


Social Information Processing And Aggressive Behavior: A Transactional Perspective, Reid G. Fontaine, Kenneth A. Dodge Jan 2009

Social Information Processing And Aggressive Behavior: A Transactional Perspective, Reid G. Fontaine, Kenneth A. Dodge

Reid G. Fontaine

Chapter has no abstract


The Evolution Of The Anti-Corruption Industry In The Third Wave Of Anti-Corruption Work, Bryane Michael Jan 2009

The Evolution Of The Anti-Corruption Industry In The Third Wave Of Anti-Corruption Work, Bryane Michael

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Work on anti-corruption has changed significantly in the mid-1990s -- reflecting a "third wave" of anti-corruption work. If the first and second waves of anti-corruption work reflected the marketisation of anti-corruption projects, the third wave reflects the direct cross-border co-operation between law enforcement agencies (particularly in the European Union). The first part of this paper reviews the literature and the data we consulted in our (rather informal) study. The second part traces the evolution of the anti-corruption industry across time – showing the beginning of each new wave as a “structural break” in the organisational structure of project delivery. The observation of ...


The Arctic: A Race For Resources Or Sustainable Ocean Development, Tavis Potts, Clive Schofield Jan 2009

The Arctic: A Race For Resources Or Sustainable Ocean Development, Tavis Potts, Clive Schofield

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

The Arctic Ocean is a semi-enclosed sea surrounded by five coastal states: Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway (Svalbard), the Russian Federation and the United States of America (Figure 1). Since the planting of a Russian flag on the sea-bed at the North Pole in August 2007 there have been renewed efforts by the other Arctic Ocean littoral states to reinforce their claims in the region. This, combined with the dramatic decrease in the extent of summer sea-ice, means that the Arctic has become a focus of global media, scientific and government attention. Much of this Arctic narrative has been decidedly alarmist ...


Compliance Review: A Study Undertaken To Support The Development Of A Regional Mcs Strategy For Pacific Oceanic Fisheries, Quentin A. Hanich, Colin Brown, Ben M. Tsamenyi, Marcel Kroese, Duncan Soutar, Christian Mcdonald Jan 2009

Compliance Review: A Study Undertaken To Support The Development Of A Regional Mcs Strategy For Pacific Oceanic Fisheries, Quentin A. Hanich, Colin Brown, Ben M. Tsamenyi, Marcel Kroese, Duncan Soutar, Christian Mcdonald

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

The achievement of FFA members’ regional goals for their tuna fisheries depends heavily upon the effective implementation by national governments of a comprehensive range of MCS measures. In support of this, FFA members have established various regional MCS measures that provide a framework to enable effective management and control of the region’s tuna fisheries. However, problematic implementation at the national level continues to undermine the ability of FFA members and the secretariat to fully implement these initiatives and effectively monitor and control the region’s tuna fisheries, thereby threatening their returns. While some FFA members have developed strong MCS ...


Safeguarding The Stocks: A Report On Analytical Projects To Support The Development Of A Regional Mcs Strategy For Pacific Oceanic Fisheries, Duncan Soutar, Quentin A. Hanich, Mark Korsten, Tim Jones, Jack Mccaffrie Jan 2009

Safeguarding The Stocks: A Report On Analytical Projects To Support The Development Of A Regional Mcs Strategy For Pacific Oceanic Fisheries, Duncan Soutar, Quentin A. Hanich, Mark Korsten, Tim Jones, Jack Mccaffrie

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

This report sets out the results of five analytical projects undertaken to support the development of a Regional MCS Strategy for Pacific oceanic fish stocks. The overarching purpose of the Strategy is to support a management regime and associated measures that will ensure the long term sustainability of oceanic fish stocks and associated economic benefits flowing from them to Pacific Island Countries. Extensive consultation was undertaken in support of the projects including visits by the project team to 16 of the 17 FFA member nations, direct consultation with staff from key regional institutions (e.g. WCPFC, SPC, USP), as well ...


Blurring The Lines: Maritime Joint Development And The Cooperative Management Of Ocean Resources, Clive H. Schofield Jan 2009

Blurring The Lines: Maritime Joint Development And The Cooperative Management Of Ocean Resources, Clive H. Schofield

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

The first part of the paper examines the significant extension in coastal State jurisdiction offshore and outlines progress in the delimitation of maritime boundaries worldwide. Some of the problems associated with lack of maritime boundary delimitation and the resultant large zones of overlapping maritime claims are then highlighted. Progress in the cooperative management of ocean resources through maritime joint development zones is then reviewed.


Hedging To Safety: A Political Economy Of Derivatives, Risk And Agriculture In The Developing World, Sasha Coler Breger Bush Jan 2009

Hedging To Safety: A Political Economy Of Derivatives, Risk And Agriculture In The Developing World, Sasha Coler Breger Bush

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It has become common for researchers and international development institutions to recommend the use of derivative instruments to developing country farmers and policymakers as a means of insuring agricultural incomes against the threats posed by volatile global commodity prices. Despite such enthusiasm, very little research to date examines whether or not derivative instruments actually can deliver income support to agricultural producers who face commodity price risk. This dissertation evaluates these recommendations, focusing upon the potential income security benefits of hedging with futures instruments for coffee farmers in Mexico, Brazil and Uganda during the 1998-2002 coffee crisis. The three-part quantitative and ...


Consideration Of The Protection Of Persons In The Event Of Disasters By The International Law Commission, Arnold Pronto Jan 2009

Consideration Of The Protection Of Persons In The Event Of Disasters By The International Law Commission, Arnold Pronto

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

Recent disasters of epic proportions, such as the Asian Tsunami of 2004, and the accompanying response by the international community, have given rise to renewed interest in the legal aspects of disaster relief activities.


Modernization Of New York's Land Use Laws Continues To Meet Growing Challenges Of Sustainability, Patricia E. Salkin, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2009

Modernization Of New York's Land Use Laws Continues To Meet Growing Challenges Of Sustainability, Patricia E. Salkin, Jessica A. Bacher

Scholarly Works

There has never been a more challenging time to practice land use planning and zoning law in New York. With goals of sustainability at the forefront of the land use regulatory agenda, this brief account of recent developments in land use law highlights some discernable trends, namely: the modernization and increased flexibility of New York State planning and zoning enabling acts, the inspired local initiatives and lethargic State response to affordable housing issues, and the increasing impact of alternative energy systems on local regulatory schemes.

Part I of this article explores the impacts on community development caused by the many ...


Migration, Development, And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa R. Pruitt Jan 2009

Migration, Development, And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa R. Pruitt

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this Essay provides an overview of the rural-to-urban migration phenomenon, a trend the author calls the urban juggernaut. This Part includes a discussion of forces compelling the migration, and it also considers consequences for those who are left behind when their family members and neighbors migrate to cities. Part II explores women's roles in food production in the developing world, and it considers the extent to which international development efforts encourage or entail urbanization. Part III attends to the potential of human rights for this population, analyzing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of ...


Rebuilding The Public-Private City: Regulatory Taking's Anti-Subordination Insights For Eminent Domain And Redevelopment, Audrey Mcfarlane Jan 2009

Rebuilding The Public-Private City: Regulatory Taking's Anti-Subordination Insights For Eminent Domain And Redevelopment, Audrey Mcfarlane

All Faculty Scholarship

The eminent domain debate, steeped in the language of property rights, currently lacks language and conceptual space to address what is really at issue in today's cities: complex, fundamental disagreements between market and community about Development. The core doctrinal issue presented by development is how can we acknowledge the subordination of citizens who happen to live in areas that are attractive to wealthier citizens. In particular, how should we address the political process failure reflected in the privatized methods of decisionmaking that typify redevelopment? The conceptual language and analytical construct for appropriately addressing these issues come from critical race ...


Canada's Evolving Tax Treaty Policy Toward Low-Income Countries, Kim Brooks Jan 2009

Canada's Evolving Tax Treaty Policy Toward Low-Income Countries, Kim Brooks

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Relative to at least some high-income countries, Canada has been willing to negotiate tax treaties that leave greater jurisdiction to tax (ie. more source jurisdiction) to low-income countries in its tax treaties. Nevertheless, Canada's tax treaty policy has not been overwhelmingly generous. This essay takes as its starting point Alex Easson's 1988 paper, The Evolution of Canada's Tax Treaty Policy Since the Royal Commission on Taxation. Focusing on the evolution of Canada's tax treaty policy since 1988, the essay examines three aspects of Canada's tax treaties that might increase the scope for source-based taxation by ...


The Human Rights Potential Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Christiana Ochoa, Patrick Keenan Jan 2009

The Human Rights Potential Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Christiana Ochoa, Patrick Keenan

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In April, 2008, World Bank president, Robert Zoellick, called for sovereign wealth funds to invest one percent of their capital in Africa. The result will be the International Finance Corporation's Sovereign Funds Initiative and is an attempt to nurture the potential of sovereign wealth funds to contribute to economic development and improved well-being in a number of countries in Africa and elsewhere. This article explores the actual potential of the Sovereign Funds Initiative to realize its desired goals. After exploring and demonstrating the disappointing effects of natural resource wealth, development aid and foreign direct investment on some developing countries ...


Migration, Development And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa Pruitt Dec 2008

Migration, Development And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

This Article explores the potential of international development efforts and human rights law to enhance the livelihoods of rural women in the developing world. In particular, the Article takes up the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which enumerates in Article 14 specific rights for rural women as a class. Pruitt’s focus here is on Article 14’s guarantees in relation to land ownership, education, development planning, access to credit, marketing facilities and technology, and other rights that are linked closely to women’s role as the architects of food security. While CEDAW ...


Vultures, Hyenas, And African Debt: Private Equity And Zambia (Private Equity Symposium), Olufunmilayo B. Arewa Dec 2008

Vultures, Hyenas, And African Debt: Private Equity And Zambia (Private Equity Symposium), Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

A 2007 U.K. court case involving Donegal, a private equity fund, and the Republic of Zambia, has contributed to an ongoing debate about the operation of so-called vulture funds in African and other developing countries. Donegal sued Zambia for more than fifty-five million U.S. dollars in connection with a debt owed by Zambia to Romania for Zambia’s acquisition of agricultural machinery from Romania pursuant to a credit agreement dated April 17, 1979. Donegal acquired the Zambian debt from Romania in 1999 at some eleven percent of face value. Although the Donegal court explicitly limited its scrutiny to ...


Loneliness As A Partial Mediator Of The Relation Between Low Social Preference In Childhood And Anxious/Depressed Symptoms In Adolescence, Reid Griffith Fontaine, Chongming Yang, Virginia Salzer Burks, Kenneth A. Dodge, Joseph M. Price, Gregory S. Pettit, John E. Bates Dec 2008

Loneliness As A Partial Mediator Of The Relation Between Low Social Preference In Childhood And Anxious/Depressed Symptoms In Adolescence, Reid Griffith Fontaine, Chongming Yang, Virginia Salzer Burks, Kenneth A. Dodge, Joseph M. Price, Gregory S. Pettit, John E. Bates

Reid G. Fontaine

This study examined the mediating role of loneliness (assessed by self-report at Time 2; Grade 6) in the relation between early social preference (assessed by peer report at Time 1; kindergarten through Grade 3) and adolescent anxious/depressed symptoms (assessed by mother, teacher, and self-reports at Time 3; Grades 7–9). Five hundred eighty-five boys and girls (48% female; 16% African American) from three geographic sites of the Child Development Project were followed from kindergarten through Grade 9. Loneliness partially mediated and uniquely incremented the significant effect of low social preference in childhood on anxious/depressed symptoms in adolescence, controlling ...