Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2009

Criminal law

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 68

Full-Text Articles in Law

Judging Genes: Implications Of The Second Generation Of Genetic Tests In The Courtroom, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg Dec 2009

Judging Genes: Implications Of The Second Generation Of Genetic Tests In The Courtroom, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg

Karen H. Rothenberg

The use of DNA tests for identification has revolutionized court proceedings in criminal and paternity cases. Now, requests by litigants to admit or compel a second generation of genetic tests – tests to confirm or predict genetic diseases and conditions – threaten to affect judicial decision-making in many more contexts. Unlike DNA tests for identification, these second generation tests may provide highly personal health and behavioral information about individuals and their relatives and will pose new challenges for trial court judges. This article reports on an original empirical study of how judges analyze these requests and uses the study results …


“Aspectos Jurídicos Del Delito De Trata De Personas En Colombia: Aportes Desde El Derecho Internacional, Derecho Penal Y Las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales”, Andres Barreto, Beatriz Londoño, Antonio Varon, Andrea Mateus Dec 2009

“Aspectos Jurídicos Del Delito De Trata De Personas En Colombia: Aportes Desde El Derecho Internacional, Derecho Penal Y Las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales”, Andres Barreto, Beatriz Londoño, Antonio Varon, Andrea Mateus

Andres Barreto

La preocupación por el fenómeno de la trata de personas en el escenario internacional ha sido una constante para los Estados desde mediados del siglo XIX. En Colombia la legislación que condena el delito empezó su recorrido desde el Código Penal de 1980, en donde se castigaba con penas de prisión de 2 a 6 años a todo aquel que promoviere la entrada o salida del país de mujer o menor de edad para ejercer la prostitución. Sin embargo, la complejidad de las redes criminales de este crimen transnacional empezó a evidenciar que la trata no solo se cometía sobre …


Race And The Doctrine Of Self Defense: The Role Of Race In Determining The Proper Use Of Force To Protect Oneself, Richard Klein Nov 2009

Race And The Doctrine Of Self Defense: The Role Of Race In Determining The Proper Use Of Force To Protect Oneself, Richard Klein

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Accountability For Property Crimes And Environmental War Crimes: Prosecution, Litigation, And Development, Mark A. Drumbl Nov 2009

Accountability For Property Crimes And Environmental War Crimes: Prosecution, Litigation, And Development, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

None available.


Race And The Doctrine Of Self Defense: The Role Of Race In Determining The Proper Use Of Force To Protect Oneself, Richard Klein Nov 2009

Race And The Doctrine Of Self Defense: The Role Of Race In Determining The Proper Use Of Force To Protect Oneself, Richard Klein

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


How (Not) To Think Like A Punisher, Alice G. Ristroph Oct 2009

How (Not) To Think Like A Punisher, Alice G. Ristroph

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article examines the several and sometimes contradictory accounts of sentencing in proposed revisions to the Model Penal Code. At times, sentencing appears to be an art, dependent upon practical wisdom; in other instances, sentencing seems more of a science, dependent upon close analysis of empirical data. I argue that the new Code provisions are at their best when they acknowledge the legal and political complexities of sentencing, and at their worst when they invoke the rhetoric of desert. When the Code focuses on the sentencing process in political context, it offers opportunities to deploy both practical wisdom and empirical …


R' Blake Brown, A Trying Question: The Jury In Nineteenth-Century Canada, Mary Stokes Oct 2009

R' Blake Brown, A Trying Question: The Jury In Nineteenth-Century Canada, Mary Stokes

Dalhousie Law Journal

In a 1984 review essay on the inter-relationship(s) oflaw and society in English criminal law historiography, Doug Hay observed that "in history, there is no 'background,"" His point was that there are an infinite number ofbackgrounds, all of which are moving and changing, often in non-linear fashion, at different paces, either in counter-point or direct dialogue with the foreground which is the immediate subject ofexposition. Legal historians who put their topics "in context" by treating the background as static are now fortunately few, at least when this background is conceived of as social or economic. But as Hay observed, the …


Changing Tides: A Lesser Expectation Of Privacy In A Post 9-11world, Derek M. Alphran Sep 2009

Changing Tides: A Lesser Expectation Of Privacy In A Post 9-11world, Derek M. Alphran

derek m Alphran

Abstract: Derek Alphran, Associate Professor The War on Terror is changing society’s views about the Fourth Amendment. To what extent should the American public believe that privacy should be subject to greater restrictions for the greater good? Should the Katz test be viewed differently in light of concerns about the need for surveillance in light of post 9/11 domestic terrorist threats? What is a reasonable search under the today’s changing expectation of privacy. This article addresses these questions examines how the Katz standard has changed historically and examines whether the special needs exception should be expanded to include domestic terror …


Appellate Review Of Sentences: Reconsidering Deference, Michael O'Hear Aug 2009

Appellate Review Of Sentences: Reconsidering Deference, Michael O'Hear

Michael O'Hear

For the past three decades, the national debate on sentencing policy has focused on the strengths and weaknesses of mandatory guidelines, with guidelines proponents arguing that unfettered judicial discretion at sentencing violates rule-of-law values. However, the number of states with mandatory guidelines, never a majority, has been declining in recent years, and even the federal system switched from mandatory to advisory guidelines in 2005. The trend away from mandatory guidelines has prompted renewed interest in the potential for appellate review of sentences to address rule-of-law concerns. But the appellate courts themselves have long resisted robust review on the ground that …


Looking For Trouble: Framing And The Dignitary Interest In The Law Of Self-Defense, Margaret Raymond Aug 2009

Looking For Trouble: Framing And The Dignitary Interest In The Law Of Self-Defense, Margaret Raymond

Margaret Raymond

This article addresses when an actor can be denied a claim of self-defense based on the fact that, at an earlier point in time, she could have avoided the ultimate violent encounter in which she resorted to the use of lethal force. The article analyzes the issue as a problem of “framing,” relying on research from the area of cognitive psychology to point out the critical importance of the framing of an issue to its ultimate resolution. It then identifies a persistent error in the writing of many scholars about this problem. While most commentators assert that the law draws …


Modes Of Discretion In The Criminal Justice System, Roger Fairfax Aug 2009

Modes Of Discretion In The Criminal Justice System, Roger Fairfax

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Debacle: How The Supreme Court Has Mangled American Sentencing Law And How Justice Sotomayor Might Help Fix It, Frank O. Bowman Jul 2009

Debacle: How The Supreme Court Has Mangled American Sentencing Law And How Justice Sotomayor Might Help Fix It, Frank O. Bowman

Frank O. Bowman III

This Article argues that the line of Supreme Court Sixth Amendment jury right cases that began with McMillan v. Pennsylvania in 1986, crescendoed in Blakely v. Washington and United States v. Booker in 2004-2005, and continues in 2009 in cases such as Oregon v. Ice, has been a colossal judicial failure. First, the Court has failed to provide a logically coherent, constitutionally based answer to the fundamental question of what limits the Constitution places on the roles played by the institutional actors in the criminal justice system. It failed to recognize that defining, adjudicating and punishing crimes implicates both the …


Dancing The Texas Two-Step: What Does Rothgery V. Gillespie County Mean For The Sixth Amendment Right To Counsel In South Carolina, Carla J. Patat Jul 2009

Dancing The Texas Two-Step: What Does Rothgery V. Gillespie County Mean For The Sixth Amendment Right To Counsel In South Carolina, Carla J. Patat

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reconciling The South Carolina Death Penalty Statute With The Sixth Amendment, Thomas W. Traxler Jr. Jul 2009

Reconciling The South Carolina Death Penalty Statute With The Sixth Amendment, Thomas W. Traxler Jr.

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Politics Of Law And Film: Introduction To Symposium On Legal Outsiders In American Film, Jessica M. Silbey Jun 2009

The Politics Of Law And Film: Introduction To Symposium On Legal Outsiders In American Film, Jessica M. Silbey

Jessica Silbey

The articles collected in this Symposium Issue on Legal Outsiders in American Film are examples of a turn in legal scholarship toward the analysis of culture. The cultural turn in law takes as a premise that law and culture are inextricably intertwined. Common to the project of law and culture is how legal and cultural discourse challenge or sustain communities, identities and relations of power. In this vein, each of the articles in this Symposium Issue look closely at a film or a set of films as cultural objects which, when engaged critically, help us think about law as an …


The Federal Response To A Tragic Teen Suicide: The Stretching Of A Statute To Punish Cyber-Harassment, The Groundbreaking Trial, Implications For Everyone, And Suggestions For The Future., John M. Ivancie Jun 2009

The Federal Response To A Tragic Teen Suicide: The Stretching Of A Statute To Punish Cyber-Harassment, The Groundbreaking Trial, Implications For Everyone, And Suggestions For The Future., John M. Ivancie

John M Ivancie Jr.

This paper revolves around the novel use of the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act to prosecute a Missouri woman, who, with her high-school-aged daughter, and a teenage employee created a fake MySpace.com account to get information about, and harass the daughter’s teen-aged friend. This harassment eventually led to that young girls suicide. No local law was broken by the trio’s actions, and thus, there was nothing local law-enforcement authorities could do. Federal prosecutors in California did respond and charged the mother under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, a Federal anti-hacking statute. The way prosecutors used the statute is …


The Neuropsychology Of Justifications And Excuses: Some Problematic Cases Of Self-Defense, Duress And Provocation, Theodore Y. Blumoff May 2009

The Neuropsychology Of Justifications And Excuses: Some Problematic Cases Of Self-Defense, Duress And Provocation, Theodore Y. Blumoff

Theodore Y. Blumoff

In a famous address to the Aristotelian Society, Professor J. L. Austin provided dictum that has become a part of the conventional wisdom in the jurisprudence of our criminal law. His thesis simultaneously acknowledges the evident moral distinction between justifications and excuses, on the one hand, and the tendency, on the other, for the two doctrines to overlap and confound. From the perspectives of moral philosophy and jurisprudence, the distinction is clear. Justifications are socially approved (or, at least, not disapproved); excuses are not approved, but they obtain because the actor’s conduct reflects a substantial (and therefore judicially acknowledged) cognitive …


What We Can Learn About Appeals From Mr. Tillman's Case: More Lessons From Another Dna Exoneration, Giovanna Shay May 2009

What We Can Learn About Appeals From Mr. Tillman's Case: More Lessons From Another Dna Exoneration, Giovanna Shay

Giovanna Shay

In 2006, Mr. James Calvin Tillman became the first person in Connecticut to be exonerated through the use of post-conviction DNA testing. He joined a group of DNA exonerees that currently numbers more than 200 nationwide. In many ways, Mr. Tillman’s case is a paradigmatic DNA exoneration—involving a cross-racial mistaken eyewitness identification, issues of race, and faulty forensic testimony. This article uses the published opinions affirming Mr. Tillman’s conviction—particularly his direct appeal to the Connecticut Supreme Court and his appeal from the state habeas proceeding—to reflect on the meaning of appellate and postconviction proceedings. Does Mr. Tillman’s exoneration reveal any …


Using Criminal Punishment To Serve Both Victim And Social Needs, Erin Ann O'Hara, Maria Mayo Robbins Apr 2009

Using Criminal Punishment To Serve Both Victim And Social Needs, Erin Ann O'Hara, Maria Mayo Robbins

Law and Contemporary Problems

In recent decades, the criminal-justice pendulum has swung to the opposite extreme. Criminal law is often described as covering disputes between the offender and the state. Victims are not direct parties to criminal proceedings, they have no formal right to either initiate or terminate a criminal action, and they have no control over the punishment meted out to offenders. In this state-centric system, victim needs have been left unsatisfied, giving rise to a politically powerful victims' rights movement that has had success in giving victims rights of access to prosecutors and rights to be heard in the courtroom. Here, O'Hara …


Dan Freed: My Teacher, My Colleague, My Friend, Ronald Weich Apr 2009

Dan Freed: My Teacher, My Colleague, My Friend, Ronald Weich

All Faculty Scholarship

At a recent meeting of the National Association of Sentencing Commissions, Yale professor Dan Freed was honored during a panel discussion titled "Standing on the Shoulders of Sentencing Giants," Dan Freed is indeed a sentencing giant. but he is the gentlest giant of all. It is hard to imagine that a man as mild-mannered, soft-spoken, and self-effacing as Dan Freed has had such a profound impact on federal sentencing law and so many other areas of criminal justice policy, Yet he has.

I've been in many rooms with Dan Freed over the years — classrooms, boardrooms, dining rooms, and others. …


Prosecutorial Regulation Versus Prosecutorial Accountability, Stephanos Bibas Apr 2009

Prosecutorial Regulation Versus Prosecutorial Accountability, Stephanos Bibas

All Faculty Scholarship

No government official has as much unreviewable power or discretion as the prosecutor. Few regulations bind or even guide prosecutorial discretion, and fewer still work well. Most commentators favor more external regulation by legislatures, judges, or bar authorities. Neither across-the-board legislation nor ex post review of individual cases has proven to be effective, however. Drawing on management literature, this article reframes the issue as a principal-agent problem and suggests corporate strategies for better serving the relevant stakeholders. Fear of voters could better check prosecutors, as could victim participation in individual cases. Scholars have largely neglected the most promising avenue of …


Parents, Children, And The Law Of Assault, Hamish Stewart Apr 2009

Parents, Children, And The Law Of Assault, Hamish Stewart

Dalhousie Law Journal

The debate concerning the constitutionality and the possible repeal of s. 43 of the Criminal Code, the so-called "spanking" provision, has raised an important issue: when a parent touches a child without the child's consent, under what conditions is the parent's conduct an assault? Supporters of the'repeal of s. 43 have suggested that parents are protected from inappropriate prosecutions by the exercise of prosecutorial discretion and by the common law defences of de minimis non curat lex and necessity But prosecutorial discretion is not a suitable substitute for a proper definition of the scope of criminal liability,and the defences ofde …


Technology And The Crime Society: Rethinking Legal Protection, Bert-Jaap Koops Mar 2009

Technology And The Crime Society: Rethinking Legal Protection, Bert-Jaap Koops

Bert-Jaap Koops

Building on existing insights of the risk society and the surveillance society, this article sketches the contours of the emerging crime society, where every form of human behaviour is perceived in terms of potential criminal risk and controlled by means of criminal law. It articulates the pivotal role of technology in the ever increasing footprint of criminal law, as it often facilitates criminalisation, expanding policing, preventative and architectural approaches, and pervasive surveillance. Criminal law is shifting from a last resort to a primary tool of social control: criminal risk governance. This paradigm shift goes hand in hand with a shift …


Rewarding Prosecutors For Performance, Stephanos Bibas Feb 2009

Rewarding Prosecutors For Performance, Stephanos Bibas

All Faculty Scholarship

Prosecutorial discretion is a problem that most scholars attack from the outside. Most scholars favor external institutional solutions, such as ex ante legislation or ex post judicial and bar review of individual cases of misconduct. At best these approaches can catch the very worst misconduct. They lack inside information and sustained oversight and cannot generate and enforce fine-grained rules to guide prosecutorial decisionmaking. The more promising alternative is to work within prosecutors' offices, to create incentives for good performance. This symposium essay explores a neglected toolbox that head prosecutors can use to influence line prosecutors: compensation and other rewards. Rewards …


The Method And Role Of Comparative Law, Edward J. Eberle Jan 2009

The Method And Role Of Comparative Law, Edward J. Eberle

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


From Philly To Fayetteville: Reflections On Teaching Criminal Law In The First Year, Brian Gallini Jan 2009

From Philly To Fayetteville: Reflections On Teaching Criminal Law In The First Year, Brian Gallini

School of Law Faculty Publications and Presentations

How exactly should we teach the first-year criminal law course? How many credits should the course receive? What should go in the syllabus? How much of what is in the syllabus must be covered? In this essay, I humbly offer some thoughts – from the “newbie’s” standpoint – for your consideration in response to each of these questions. I conclude with some limited comments (reminders?) directed gently to my senior colleagues about teaching this generation of first-year law students.


Step Out Of The Car: License, Registration, And Dna Please, Brian Gallini Jan 2009

Step Out Of The Car: License, Registration, And Dna Please, Brian Gallini

School of Law Faculty Publications and Presentations

No Arkansas appellate court has examined the constitutionality of the recently enacted House Bill 1473 – better known as “Juli’s Law” – which allows officers to take DNA samples from suspects arrested for capital murder, murder in the first degree, kidnapping, sexual assault in the first degree, and sexual assault in the second degree. This Essay contends that Juli’s Law violates the Fourth Amendment of the federal constitution. Part I highlights certain features of the statute and explores the rationale underlying its enactment. Part II discusses the only published decision upholding the practice of taking of DNA samples from certain …


Mattress Tags And Pillow Cases, Mary Whisner Jan 2009

Mattress Tags And Pillow Cases, Mary Whisner

Librarians' Articles

A simple question about the origins of the law prohibiting the removal of mattress tags led Ms. Whisner on a whirlwind tour of state and federal law, regulations, and history. In the end she not only found the answer, she also learned a few new lessons about legal research.


Beyond Retroactivity To Realizing Justice: A Theory On The Principle Of Legality In International Criminal Law Sentencing, Shahram Dana Jan 2009

Beyond Retroactivity To Realizing Justice: A Theory On The Principle Of Legality In International Criminal Law Sentencing, Shahram Dana

Shahram Dana

Only the innocent deserve the benefits of the principle of legality. This statement naturally offends our notions of justice. It would be unacceptable for courts of criminal justice to institutionalize such an approach. Yet, in the context of prosecuting mass atrocities, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, international criminal courts appear to be resigned to such a principle, if not openly embracing it. Although ranking among the most fundamental principles of criminal law, nulla poena sine lege (no punishment without law) receives surprisingly little attention in international criminal justice. Indeed, that it may be considered the 'poor cousin' of …


An Empirical Examination Of The Factors Associated With The Commutation Of State Death Row Prisoners’ Sentences Between 1986 And 2005, John D. Kraemer Jan 2009

An Empirical Examination Of The Factors Associated With The Commutation Of State Death Row Prisoners’ Sentences Between 1986 And 2005, John D. Kraemer

John D Kraemer

Commutation is usually a death row prisoner’s last hope of evading his or her capital sentence. However, unlike many other stages of the death penalty process, little research focuses on the factors that affect decisions to commute or allow a death sentence to go forward, and that which has been conducted utilizes data which is now nearly a decade old. This paper seeks to examine personal and demographic factors associated with commutation decisions and to resolve incon- sistent findings in the prior research. Using the statistical method of multiple logistic regression, this paper finds statistically significant disparities in the odds …