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2009

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Columbia Law School

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Bilateral Investment Treaties And Fdi Flows, Lisa E. Sachs Apr 2009

Bilateral Investment Treaties And Fdi Flows, Lisa E. Sachs

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Given that one of the principal purposes of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) is to help countries attract investment flows (by protecting investments), it is only natural that the question has been raised whether they do, in fact, lead to higher investment flows. The main studies on this topic from the past decade are collected in The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment: Bilateral Investment Treaties, Double Taxation Treaties, and Investment Flows (Oxford University Press, 2009), a volume I edited with Karl P. Sauvant.


United States Response To Questionnaire, June M. Besek, Jane C. Ginsburg, Caitlin Grusauskas Apr 2009

United States Response To Questionnaire, June M. Besek, Jane C. Ginsburg, Caitlin Grusauskas

Faculty Scholarship

ALAI-USA is the U.S. branch of ALAI (Association Littèraire et Artistique Internationale). ALAI-USA was started in the 1980's by the late Professor Melville B. Nimmer, and was later expanded by Professor John M. Kernochan.


The Transformation Of The Laws Of War Into Humanitarian Law, Mark Antaki Jan 2009

The Transformation Of The Laws Of War Into Humanitarian Law, Mark Antaki

Studio for Law and Culture

This study undertakes a genealogy of crimes against humanity. It inquires into key historical transformations that preceded the official birth of crimes against humanity in positive international law. The study brings to light changes in understandings of law, politics, and human being-together that accompany the articulation of crimes against humanity.

To speak of crimes against humanity is to speak the death of God. With the French Revolution, man displaces God as ground and measure of law and politics, leading to the articulation of crimes against humanity. The man who displaces God is “natural man,” a man who is naturally …


Is Cyberprostitution Prostitution? New Paradigm, Old Crime, Brooke Campbell Jan 2009

Is Cyberprostitution Prostitution? New Paradigm, Old Crime, Brooke Campbell

Studio for Law and Culture

In any given industry, machines are rapidly replacing workers. Alternately celebrated as the liberation of the worker from the grind and peril of manual labor and lamented as the condemnation of the worker to lowered wages and/or the effeteness of unemployment, so-called “advances” in technology problematically recast the labor-capital relation as a human-machine relation. What does this process look like in the context of a criminalized industry like the sex industry? In this paper, I examine the way in which cyberprostitution — ostensibly, an advance in the technology of communication — places the conceptual terrain of prostitution into question. For …


From Privacy To Liberty: Sharing After Lawrence, Thomas P. Crocker Jan 2009

From Privacy To Liberty: Sharing After Lawrence, Thomas P. Crocker

Studio for Law and Culture

From Privacy to Liberty addresses the failure of the Constitution to protect shared social aspects of ordinary life. Under the Supreme Court’s third-party doctrine, if I reveal information to another person, I no longer have an expectation of privacy, and thus, I no longer have Fourth Amendment protection in that information. This much-maligned doctrine has been criticized by many, and defended only once recently in the pages of the Michigan Law Review. The effect of this doctrine is to leave most aspects of ordinary life shared in the company of others constitutionally unprotected. For example, revealing one’s location to …


Fast-Fish, Loose-Fish: How Whalemen, Lawyers, And Judges Created The British Property Law Of Whaling, Robert Deal Jan 2009

Fast-Fish, Loose-Fish: How Whalemen, Lawyers, And Judges Created The British Property Law Of Whaling, Robert Deal

Studio for Law and Culture

Anglo-American whalemen in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries used customs largely of their own creation to resolve disputes at sea over contested whales. These customs were remarkably effective as litigation was rare and violence even rarer. Legal scholars such as Robert Ellickson have correctly pointed to these customs as an example of how close knit communities settle disputes without recourse to formal legal institutions or even knowledge of the applicable law. Ellickson’s belief, however, that these whaling customs were universally followed at sea and were – in turn – adopted by courts, is not entirely accurate. While courts often deferred, …


Blackboard Jungle: Delinquency, Psychiatry, And The Bio-Politics Of Brown, Anders Walker Jan 2009

Blackboard Jungle: Delinquency, Psychiatry, And The Bio-Politics Of Brown, Anders Walker

Studio for Law and Culture

In 1955, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer released a controversial film about juvenile delinquency entitled Blackboard Jungle. Georgia Governor Ernest Vandiver subsequently used the film as a metaphor for what would happen to southern schools were Brown enforced, marking the beginnings of a much larger campaign to articulate southern resistance to integration in popular terms. Taking Blackboard Jungle as a starting point, this article recovers the intersection between discourses of delinquency and desegregation at mid-century, showing how civil rights groups and segregationists alike both drew from mass culture and social psychiatry to advance their constitutional agendas. It concludes by showing that even as …


Cultural Culprits, Michelle Mckinley Jan 2009

Cultural Culprits, Michelle Mckinley

Studio for Law and Culture

This paper draws from a longer Article that examines questions of agency, victimization, and cultural essentialism in U.S. asylum adjudication and cultural defense cases specifically, and in international human rights law more broadly. I explore the adjudication of FGC asylum claims based on cultural persecution” that encode a racialized view of culture. I describe the historical trajectory of contemporary FGC claims through a detailed analysis of colonial anti-excision campaigns. I compare early 19th century anti-excision campaigns with contemporary maternal imperialism, as international law, UN agencies, and international financial institutions became more responsive to feminist concerns about eradicating FGC. Throughout the …


Climate Change And The Right To Food: A Comprehensive Study, Human Rights Institute Jan 2009

Climate Change And The Right To Food: A Comprehensive Study, Human Rights Institute

Human Rights Institute

Climate change and the policies instituted to combat it are affecting the realiza- tion of the right to food in myriad, often unnoticed ways. This report highlights how – despite the common objective to preserve human welfare for present and future generations – the climate change regime and the human rights regime addressing the right to food have failed to coordinate their agendas and to collab- orate to each other’s mutual benefit. The current climate change regime fails to accurately address the human harms resulting from climate change itself, and is not operating with the necessary safeguards and preventive measures …


Globalization And The Provision Of Incentives Inside The Firm: The Effect Of Foreign Competition, Vincente Cuñat, Maria Guadalupe Jan 2009

Globalization And The Provision Of Incentives Inside The Firm: The Effect Of Foreign Competition, Vincente Cuñat, Maria Guadalupe

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

This article studies the effect of changes in foreign competition on the structure of compensation and incentives of U.S. executives. We find that import penetration (instrumented with exchange rates and tariffs) leads to more incentive provision in a variety of ways. First, it increases the sensitivity of pay to performance. Second, it increases within-firm pay differentials between executive levels, with CEOs typically experiencing the largest wage increases. Finally, higher foreign competition is also associated with a higher demand for talent. These results suggest that increased foreign competition can explain some of the recent trends in compensation structures.


An Aggregate Approach To Antitrust: Using New Data And Rulemaking To Preserve Drug Competition, C. Scott Hemphill Jan 2009

An Aggregate Approach To Antitrust: Using New Data And Rulemaking To Preserve Drug Competition, C. Scott Hemphill

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

This Article examines the "aggregation deficit" in antitrust: the pervasive lack of information, essential to choosing an optimal antitrust rule, about the frequency and costliness of anticompetitive activity. By synthesizing available information, the present analysis helps close the information gap for an important, unresolved issue in U.S. antitrust policy: patent settlements between brand-name drug makers and their generic rivals. The analysis draws upon a new dataset of 143 such settlements.

Due to the factual complexity of individual brand-generic settlements, important trends and arrangements become apparent only when multiple cases are examined collectively. This aggregate approach provides valuable information that can …


The Law, Culture, And Economics Of Fashion, C. Scott Hemphill, Jeannie Suk Jan 2009

The Law, Culture, And Economics Of Fashion, C. Scott Hemphill, Jeannie Suk

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

Fashion is one of the world’s most important creative industries. It is the major output of a global business with annual U.S. sales of more than $200 billion — larger than those of books, movies, and music combined. Everyone wears clothing and inevitably participates in fashion to some degree. Fashion is also a subject of periodically rediscovered fascination in virtually all the social sciences and the humanities. It has provided economic thought with a canonical example in theorizing about consumption and conformity. Social thinkers have long treated fashion as a window upon social class and social change. Cultural theorists have …


Tribute To John M. Kernochan – January 11, 2008, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2009

Tribute To John M. Kernochan – January 11, 2008, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Were it not for Jack, I probably would not be teaching at Columbia Law School today. Way back in 1983, Jack, then several years from emeritus status, determined to identify and recruit a prospective intellectual property scholar who would join him in building an IP program for Columbia, and might in the long run succeed him. Jack had read all the articles about copyright published by young scholars and would-be scholars, and then proceeded to contact some of the authors for interviews. The interview led, at least in my case, to an invitation to teach a session of Jack's "Business …


Access To Environmentally Sound Technology In The Developing World: A Proposed Alternative To Compulsory Licensing, Neel Maitra Jan 2009

Access To Environmentally Sound Technology In The Developing World: A Proposed Alternative To Compulsory Licensing, Neel Maitra

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

In 2008, a report published by McKinsey & Co. predicted that a successful program of action on climate change would require the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 76% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this seemingly daunting target, the report recognized that the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) from the developed to the developing world was an urgent necessity. The report cited other sources to acknowledge that such technology transfer was unlikely to be achieved even by a combination of market incentives and funding from developed-world governments.

If market-oriented means, supported by governments, do not suffice …


Addressing The Energy Efficiency Financing Challenge: The Role And Limitations Of A Green Bank, Christopher Angell Jan 2009

Addressing The Energy Efficiency Financing Challenge: The Role And Limitations Of A Green Bank, Christopher Angell

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This paper will address how a federal program to aggregate and potentially guarantee loans made to finance energy efficiency projects can be leveraged to promote best practices on the state and local level for opening up energy efficiency projects to external financing. There are a number of existing financing tools that have started to solve the problem of providing access to capital for efficiency projects, but the programs are all relatively small and have had limited market penetration. One essential, but not exclusive, solution will be to create a federal entity, based on existing green bank proposals, that has the …


Towards A Greenhouse Gas Labeling Regime For Food, Travis Annatoyn Jan 2009

Towards A Greenhouse Gas Labeling Regime For Food, Travis Annatoyn

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This paper proposes that the federal government implement greenhouse gas labeling standards for food and food products sold within the United States. A labeling regime of this sort would shift consumer purchasing from “high emission” to “low emission” foods and encourage consumer awareness that food, like any other commodity, has a GHG “price.”


Feeding Climate Change: Federal Food Procurement And Its Effects On Global Warming, Amanda Hungerford Jan 2009

Feeding Climate Change: Federal Food Procurement And Its Effects On Global Warming, Amanda Hungerford

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This paper examines the technical aspects and policy implications of each of four strategies to effectuate environmentally conscious policies in the federal government's food procurement procedures: a litigation strategy, a rulemaking strategy, a NEPA strategy, and a legislative strategy.


Confronting A Rising Tide: A Proposal For A Convention On Climate Change Refugees, Bonnie Docherty, Tyler Giannini Jan 2009

Confronting A Rising Tide: A Proposal For A Convention On Climate Change Refugees, Bonnie Docherty, Tyler Giannini

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This Article proposes a new legal instrument to confront the issue of climate change refugees. It defines climate change refugees as people whom climate change forces to relocate across national borders. The existing international legal framework – including its laws and its institutions – does not adequately address the emerging crisis. The proposed instrument should create obligations to deal with both prevention and remediation of the climate change refugee problem. First, the instrument should establish guarantees of human rights protections and humanitarian aid for a specific class of people. Second, it should spread the burden of fulfilling those guarantees across …


Painting Redd Offsets Green: A Case For Statutory Deuteranopia, Rommel Casis Jan 2009

Painting Redd Offsets Green: A Case For Statutory Deuteranopia, Rommel Casis

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Offsets generated by projects for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (“REDD”) is a particularly controversial form of carbon offset. Excluded from the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, REDD offsets are now making a comeback ever since the Bali Action Plan specifically referred to REDD. Most recently, the Copenhagen Accord recognized the crucial role of REDD and the need to enhance removals of GHG emissions by forests and agreed on the need to provide incentives to such actions to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries.4 It would seem therefore that the issuance and trade of REDD offsets may finds …


Cash For Clunky Appliances, Anna S. Fleder Jan 2009

Cash For Clunky Appliances, Anna S. Fleder

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This paper examines the viability of a “Cash for Appliances” (“CfA”) program that targets home appliances toward the goal of increasing energy efficiency and decreasing greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions. Analyzing an existing CfA effort at the federal level, this paper argues that the case for a federal CfA program is strong, but that the current federal effort falls short of fulfilling its potential. The analysis proceeds in four parts. Part I makes the case for a Cash for Appliances program as a policy tool for promoting energy efficiency. Part II examines existing programs that have done just this – utilized …


Is The Bankruptcy Code An Adequate Mechanism For Resolving The Distress Of Systemically Important Institutions?, Edward R. Morrison Jan 2009

Is The Bankruptcy Code An Adequate Mechanism For Resolving The Distress Of Systemically Important Institutions?, Edward R. Morrison

Faculty Scholarship

The President and members of Congress are considering proposals that would give the government broad authority to rescue financial institutions whose failure might threaten market stability. These systemically important institutions include bank and insurance holding companies, investment banks, and other "large, highly leveraged, and interconnected" entities that are not currently subject to federal resolution authority. Interest in these proposals stems from the credit crisis, particularly the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers. That bankruptcy, according to some observers, caused massive destabilization in credit markets for two reasons. First, market participants were surprised that the government would permit a massive market player to …


Accession And Original Ownership, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 2009

Accession And Original Ownership, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Although first possession is generally assumed to be the dominant means of establishing original ownership of property, there is a second but less studied principle for initiating ownership, called accession, which awards new resources to the owner of existing property most prominently connected to the new resource. Accession applies across a wide variety of areas, from determining rights to baby animals and growing crops to determining ownership of derivative rights under intellectual property laws. Accession shares common features with first possession, in that both principles assign ownership uniquely in a way that imposes minimal information cost burdens on society. But …


Presidential Popular Constitutionalism, Jedediah S. Purdy Jan 2009

Presidential Popular Constitutionalism, Jedediah S. Purdy

Faculty Scholarship

This Article adds a new dimension to the most important and influential strand of recent constitutional theory: popular or democratic constitutionalism, the investigation into how the U.S. Constitution is interpreted (1) as a set of defining national commitments and practices, not necessarily anchored in the text of the document, and (2) by citizens and elected politicians outside the judiciary. Wide-ranging and ground-breaking scholarship in this area has neglected the role of the President as a popular constitutional interpreter, articulating and revising normative accounts of the nation that interact dynamically with citizens' constitutional understandings. This Article sets out a "grammar" of …


A New Proposal For Loan Modifications, Christopher J. Mayer, Edward R. Morrison, Tomasz Piskorski Jan 2009

A New Proposal For Loan Modifications, Christopher J. Mayer, Edward R. Morrison, Tomasz Piskorski

Faculty Scholarship

We propose a new three-pronged plan to address the recent harmful flood of foreclosures. Our plan would address the major barriers that inhibit the ability of third-party servicers to modify mortgages the way portfolio lenders are now doing with greater success. The plan provides greater compensation for servicers to perform their duties, removes legal constraints that inhibit modification, and addresses critical second liens that often get in the way of effective mortgage modifications. Our plan has more modest costs than competing plans and is likely to be the most effective while still protecting the rights of investors in mortgage-backed securities.


Bargaining Around Bankruptcy: Small Business Workouts And State Law, Edward R. Morrison Jan 2009

Bargaining Around Bankruptcy: Small Business Workouts And State Law, Edward R. Morrison

Faculty Scholarship

Federal bankruptcy law is rarely used by distressed small businesses. For every 100 that suspend operations, at most 20 file for bankruptcy. The rest use state law procedures to liquidate or reorganize. This paper documents the importance of these procedures and the conditions under which they are chosen using firm-level data on Chicago-area small businesses. I show that business owners bargain with senior lenders over the resolution of financial distress. Federal bankruptcy law is invoked only when bargaining fails. This tends to occur when there is more than one senior lender or when the debtor has defaulted on senior debt …


United States Detention Operations In Afghanistan And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Matthew C. Waxman Jan 2009

United States Detention Operations In Afghanistan And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Matthew C. Waxman

Faculty Scholarship

Looking back on US and coalition detention operations in Afghanistan to date, three key issues stand out: one substantive, one procedural and one policy. The substantive matter – what are the minimum baseline treatment standards required as a matter of international law? – has clarified significantly during the course of operations there, largely as a result of the US Supreme Court’s holding in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. The procedural matter – what adjudicative processes does international law require for determining who may be detained? – eludes consensus and has become more controversial the longer the Afghan conflict continues. And the …


Tax Policy Challenges, Michael J. Graetz Jan 2009

Tax Policy Challenges, Michael J. Graetz

Faculty Scholarship

In 1995, when the late, great Jack Nolan asked me to deliver the inaugural lecture in honor of Larry Woodworth, I was both honored and flattered. I had come to know Larry Woodworth beginning in 1969, when I was a rookie treasury tax policy staffer. At that time, he had already served the Joint Committee on Taxation for 25 years and had been the third Chief of Staff in its history beginning as chief of staff in 1964. Larry Woodworth was not only as knowledgeable about the tax law as anyone you would ever hope to meet, and as savvy …


The Costs Of Carbon: Examining The Competitiveness And International Trade Dimensions Of The Waxman-Markey House Bill, Svetlana German Jan 2009

The Costs Of Carbon: Examining The Competitiveness And International Trade Dimensions Of The Waxman-Markey House Bill, Svetlana German

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

As the United States considers unilateral climate change action, uncertainty exists as to the compatibility of the proposed trade related measures to global warming. This paper considers the rationale behind any trade measures designed to address competitiveness and carbon leakage following the introduction of unilateral climate change legislation (Part I). The paper then assesses the international legality of the proposed measures in the Waxman-Markey Bill under World Trade Organisation (WTO) law (Part II) and proposes alternative mechanisms that may yield economically sound solutions while remaining mindful of equitable principles (Part III).


Agenda For Private Sector Reform: Omnibus Policy Recommendations For A Post-Crisis Market, Millstein Center For Corporate Governance And Performance Jan 2009

Agenda For Private Sector Reform: Omnibus Policy Recommendations For A Post-Crisis Market, Millstein Center For Corporate Governance And Performance

Ira M. Millstein Center for Global Markets and Corporate Ownership

The global financial crisis has exposed a raft of market weaknesses and failures The Center has concentrated on probing urgent, corporate governance-related issues where it identified apparent gaps in knowledge, insight and infrastructure. Policy Briefings have addressed the advisory vote on executive compensation; board-shareowner communications; proxy voting reform; independent board leadership; risk oversight; pay for performance; and shareowner stewardship. Using global perspectives, they address key concerns within the relevant subject areas and attempt to gather and present practical recommendations and ideas.

This report compiles summaries of the Center’s recommendations on these seven key areas from 2007 through mid-2009. The objective …


Pay, Risk And Stewardship: Private Sector Architecture For Future Capital Markets, Mariana Pargendler Jan 2009

Pay, Risk And Stewardship: Private Sector Architecture For Future Capital Markets, Mariana Pargendler

Ira M. Millstein Center for Global Markets and Corporate Ownership

The recent financial crisis revealed a massive failure of institutions that populate the world’s capital markets. Banks, investors, ratings agencies, regulators and numerous other players demonstrated that confidence in market responses was misplaced. The loss of faith in capital market institutions has represented a significant hurdle to recovery as financial institutions continue to be wary of one another, and the public is wary of all of them.

Restoring trust in the system requires two distinct pillars of reform. The first pillar, reform of the financial regulatory system, both nationally and globally, has received most of the attention so far. Many …