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2009

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Intellectual property

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Articles 1 - 30 of 36

Full-Text Articles in Law

Beyond Trademark Use, Stacey Dogan Dec 2009

Beyond Trademark Use, Stacey Dogan

Faculty Scholarship

For several years now, the question of “trademark use” has taken center stage in the debate over trademark liability of online intermediaries. Doctrinally, the debate addresses whether the Lanham Act places any limit on the types of “use” of trademarks that can subject one to a claim of infringement. The real conflict, however, has occurred at the normative level: whatever the Lanham Act says or does not say about trademark use, should trademark law limit the definition of infringement to situations in which the defendant has used the mark to brand its own products?

The Second Circuit appears to have ...


The Evolution Of Copyright Law In The Arts, Kevin Liftig Dec 2009

The Evolution Of Copyright Law In The Arts, Kevin Liftig

Honors Scholar Theses

As digital storage of intellectual goods such as literature and music has become widespread, the duplication and unlicensed distribution of these goods has become a frequent source of legal contention. When technology for production and replication of intellectual goods advanced, there were disputes concerning the rights to produce and duplicate these works. As new technologies have made copies of intellectual goods more accessible, legal institutions have largely moved to protect the rights of ownership of ideas through copyright laws. This paper will examine key changes in the technology that affect intellectual property, and the responses that legal institutions have made ...


Open Access Week (Retention Of Author Rights), Mark Perry Oct 2009

Open Access Week (Retention Of Author Rights), Mark Perry

Law Presentations

No abstract provided.


Trademarks And Human Rights: Oil And Water? Or Chocolate And Peanut Butter?, Megan M. Carpenter Jul 2009

Trademarks And Human Rights: Oil And Water? Or Chocolate And Peanut Butter?, Megan M. Carpenter

Law Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, there has been a growing discourse at the intersection of intellectual property and human rights, including whether or not individual intellectual property rights are, or can be, human rights. In 2007, this debate began to focus on the area of trademarks. That year, the European Court of Human Rights determined that it had jurisdiction over a trademark dispute, by virtue of the property rights provision found in Article 1 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. This paper seeks to explore the connection between trademarks and human rights. The first part of the article ...


Courts And The Patent System, Dan L. Burk, Mark A. Lemley Jul 2009

Courts And The Patent System, Dan L. Burk, Mark A. Lemley

Faculty Scholarship

Innovation and patent law work differently in different industries. To some degree, the courts’ interpretations of patent and trademark law accommodate those differences. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that the patent system must bend or break: a patent system that is not flexible enough to account for these industry differences is unlikely to survive, let along accomplish its stated goals. We believe the system has the flexibility to do both, but this will require the courts to better recognize and use the policy levers they have been given.


The God Paradox, Joshua A.T. Fairfield Jun 2009

The God Paradox, Joshua A.T. Fairfield

Scholarly Articles

Not available.


Nonrivalry And Price Discrimination In Copyright Economics, John P. Conley, Christopher S. Yoo May 2009

Nonrivalry And Price Discrimination In Copyright Economics, John P. Conley, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The literature on the economics of copyright proceeds from the premise that copyrightable works constitute pure public goods, which is generally modeled by assuming that such works are nonexcludable and that the marginal cost of making additional copies is essentially zero. A close examination of the foundational literature on public goods theory reveals that the defining characteristic of public goods is instead the optimality criterion known as the “Samuelson condition,” which implies that the systematic bias toward underproduction is the result of the inability to induce consumers to reveal their preferences rather than the inability to exclude or price at ...


Custom, Comedy, And The Value Of Dissent, Jennifer Rothman Apr 2009

Custom, Comedy, And The Value Of Dissent, Jennifer Rothman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this essay, I comment on Dotan Oliar and Christopher Sprigman's article, There's No Free Laugh (Anymore): The Emergence of Intellectual Property Norms and the Transformation of Stand-Up Comedy, 94 Va. L. Rev. 1787 (2008). Their study of the quasi-intellectual property norms in the stand-up comedy world provides yet another compelling example of the phenomenon that I have explored in which the governing intellectual property regime takes a backseat to social norms and other industry customs that dominate the lived experiences of many in creative fields. The microcosm of stand-up comedy reinforces my concern that customs are being ...


Preserving And Ensuring Long-Term Access To Digitally Born Legal Information, Sarah Rhodes, Elena Dana Neacsu Mar 2009

Preserving And Ensuring Long-Term Access To Digitally Born Legal Information, Sarah Rhodes, Elena Dana Neacsu

Law Faculty Publications

Written laws, records and legal materials form the very foundation of a democratic society. Lawmakers, legal scholars and everyday citizens alike need, and are entitled, to access the current and historic materials that comprise, explain, define, critique and contextualize their laws and legal institutions. The preservation of legal information in all formats is imperative. Thus far, the twenty-first century has witnessed unprecedented mass-scale acceptance and adoption of digital culture, which has resulted in an explosion in digital information. However, digitally born materials, especially those that are published directly and independently to the Web, are presently at an extremely high risk ...


Things Are Worse Than We Think: Trademark Defenses In A 'Formalist' Age, Michael Grynberg Jan 2009

Things Are Worse Than We Think: Trademark Defenses In A 'Formalist' Age, Michael Grynberg

College of Law Faculty

Numerous articles decry the reach of modern trademark law. This article assumes the premise that these critiques are valid and asks what courts can do in response. The answer may be, not much. The “common law” practices that extended trademark’s scope are not up to the task of creating adequate countervailing defenses. Congress acquiesced to the judicial expansion of trademark liability by amending the Lanham Act with conforming language. That pattern is unlikely to be repeated for trademark defenses. The Supreme Court’s recent trademark precedents resist assertions of trademark rights beyond the express confines of the Lanham Act ...


The Ethical Visions Of Copyright Law, James Grimmelmann Jan 2009

The Ethical Visions Of Copyright Law, James Grimmelmann

Faculty Scholarship

This symposium essay explores the imagined ethics of copyright: the ethical stories that people tell to justify, make sense of, and challenge copyright law. Such ethical visions are everywhere in intellectual property discourse, and legal scholarship ought to pay more attention to them. The essay focuses on a deontic vision of reciprocity in the author-audience relationship, a set of linked claims that authors and audiences ought to respect each other and express this respect through voluntary transactions.

Versions of this default ethical vision animate groups as seemingly antagonistic as the music industry, file sharers, free software advocates, and Creative Commons ...


Of Silos And Constellations: Comparing Notions Of Originality In Copyright Law, Daniel J. Gervais, Elizabeth F. Judge Jan 2009

Of Silos And Constellations: Comparing Notions Of Originality In Copyright Law, Daniel J. Gervais, Elizabeth F. Judge

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Originality is a central theme in the efforts to understand human evolution, thinking, innovation, and creativity. Artists strive to be "original," however the term is understood by each of them. It is also one of the major concepts in copyright law. This paper considers the evolution of the notion of originality since 2002 (when one of the coauthors published an article entitled Feist Goes Global: A Comparative Analysis Of The Notion Of Originality In Copyright Law) and continues the analysis, in particular whether the notion of "creative choices," which seems to have substantial normative heft in several jurisdictions, is optimal ...


Using Ethnographic Methods To Articulate Community-Based Conceptions Of Cultural Heritage Management, Julie Hollowell, George Nicholas Jan 2009

Using Ethnographic Methods To Articulate Community-Based Conceptions Of Cultural Heritage Management, Julie Hollowell, George Nicholas

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

How can ethnographic methods help communities articulate and enact their own conceptions of heritage management? This and related questions are being explored through an international research project, ‘Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage’. The project includes up to twenty community- based initiatives that incorporate community-based participatory research and ethnographic methods to explore emerging intellectual property-related issues in archaeological contexts; the means by which they are being addressed or resolved; and the broader implications of these issues and concerns. We discuss three examples that use ethnography to (a) articulate local or customary laws and principles of archaeological heritage management among a ...


Global Warming Trend? The Creeping Indulgence Of Fair Use In International Copyright Law, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jan 2009

Global Warming Trend? The Creeping Indulgence Of Fair Use In International Copyright Law, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Faculty Publications

In her article Toward an International Fair Use Doctrine in 2000, Professor Ruth Okediji hypothesized that the internationalization of copyright law would threaten the freedom of expression if some doctrine akin to U.S. “fair use” were not established as an international legal norm. Acknowledging the central concern of the Okediji article, this paper analyzes research and legal developments since that article to determine how the present state of the “fair use” concept in international copyright law differs from its state in 2000. The paper concludes that in the last eight years, though there has been no formal adoption of ...


Copying In Patent Law, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2009

Copying In Patent Law, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

Patent law is virtually alone in intellectual property (IP) in punishing independent development. To infringe a copyright or trade secret, defendants must copy the protected IP from the plaintiff, directly or indirectly. But patent infringement requires only that the defendant's product falls within the scope of the patent claims. Not only doesn't the defendant need to intend to infringe, but the defendant may be entirely unaware of the patent or the patentee and still face liability. Nonetheless, copying does play a role in some subsidiary patent doctrines, including damages rules, willfulness, and obviousness. More significantly, the rhetoric of ...


Of Clusters And Assumptions: Innovation As Part Of A Full Trips Implementation, Daniel J. Gervais Jan 2009

Of Clusters And Assumptions: Innovation As Part Of A Full Trips Implementation, Daniel J. Gervais

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Because TRIPS introduced a high(er) level of intellectual property protection in a number of developing countries, it provides an opportunity to examine the impact of the introduction of (property) rights on a variety of intangibles in legal systems from which those rights were absent. One question is whether, and if so how, 18th century European rules, updated in concert with other Western nations until 1989, can be successfully integrated into the social, cultural, economic and legal fabric of dozens of developing nations, and how success is measured in that context. TRIPS also allows us to consider the impact of ...


Trademark Intersectionality , Sonia K. Katyal Jan 2009

Trademark Intersectionality , Sonia K. Katyal

Faculty Scholarship

Even though most scholars and judges treat intellectual property law as a predominantly content neutral phenomenon, trademark law contains a statutory provision, Section 2(a) that provides for the cancellation of marks that are “disparaging,” “immoral,” or “scandalous,” a provision that has raised intrinsically powerful constitutional concerns. The constitutional tensions surrounding Section 2(a), invariably, affect two central metaphors that are at war within trademark law: the marketplace of goods, which premises itself on the fixedness of intellectual properties, and the marketplace of ideas, which is premised on the very fluidity of language itself. Since the architecture of trademark law ...


Convergence And Incongruence: Trademark Law And Icann's Introduction Of New Generic Top-Level Domains, Christine Haight Farley Jan 2009

Convergence And Incongruence: Trademark Law And Icann's Introduction Of New Generic Top-Level Domains, Christine Haight Farley

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This paper demonstrates how problematic convergences between Internet technology, the demands of a burgeoning e-market and trademark laws have created myriad issues in international governance of domain names. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the body that governs internet's infrastructure, recently approved a new policy that would allow it to accept applications for additional generic top-level domains (gTLDs). What ICANN contemplates is a uniform system to approve generic top level domains that is expected to have profound implications. Under this new plan anyone can apply for a new gTLD at any time and it could be ...


Information May Want To Be Free, But Information Products Do Not: Protecting And Facilitating Transactions In Information Products, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2009

Information May Want To Be Free, But Information Products Do Not: Protecting And Facilitating Transactions In Information Products, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

Information products-products that are used to organize, provide context, and distribute information-have gone largely unprotected by intellectual property regimes. As a result, producers of information products, such as databases and software, have resorted to alternative mechanisms to protect their investments. These mechanisms have resulted in both over-protection and under-protection of the information products. Further, the uncertainty in the boundaries of coverage, coupled with the resort to self-help mechanisms, may well inhibit, rather than facilitate, information flow. What is needed is a sui generis protection scheme for information products that clearly defines the boundaries and protection requirements for these works and ...


The Burden Of Knowledge, Christian Turner Jan 2009

The Burden Of Knowledge, Christian Turner

Scholarly Works

Sometimes we are better off not knowing things. While we often hear that "ignorance is bliss," there has not been a comprehensive consideration in the legal academy of the virtues of ignorance and its regulation. Though the distribution of knowledge, like the distribution of other goods, is affected both directly and indirectly by law, several characteristics of knowledge distinguish it from other kinds of property. Much has been written about the impact of the nonrival and nonexclusive nature of knowledge on its production and distribution. This Article centers around two other attributes of knowledge that combine to create a special ...


Intellectual Property In The Twenty-First Century: Will The Developing Countries Lead Or Follow?, Jerome H. Reichman Jan 2009

Intellectual Property In The Twenty-First Century: Will The Developing Countries Lead Or Follow?, Jerome H. Reichman

Faculty Scholarship

This article continues the author's contributions on the subject of intellectual property protection in developing countries, and focuses on how those developing countries with growing technological prowess should accommodate their own national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property regime emerging in the post-TRIPS period, with a view to maximizing global economic welfare in the foreseeable future.


The Andean Tribunal Of Justice And Its Interlocutors: Understanding Preliminary Reference Patterns In The Andean Community, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter Jan 2009

The Andean Tribunal Of Justice And Its Interlocutors: Understanding Preliminary Reference Patterns In The Andean Community, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter

Faculty Scholarship

In the European Union, national courts have been key intermediaries in helping to bolster and expand the authority of the European Court of Justice through its preliminary reference mechanism. This article analyzes the role of national judges in the Andean Community, a regional legal system whose judicial institution - the Andean Tribunal of Justice (ATJ) - was modeled directly on its European predecessor. Our analysis is based on an original coding of every publically available national court referral to the ATJ from 1987 to 2007 and interviews with over forty participants in the Andean legal system. We find that the relationship between ...


Ending The Patent Monopoly, Michael B. Abramowicz, John H. Duffy Jan 2009

Ending The Patent Monopoly, Michael B. Abramowicz, John H. Duffy

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

For nearly two centuries, an inventor applying for a U.S. patent has been required to obtain the opinion of an expert who has searched the prior art and determined that the inventor’s application meets the standards of patentability. And for nearly two centuries, those expert opinions could be obtained only from a single office run by the U.S. government. The patenting monopoly, which is almost certainly undesirable, is now being eroded. Rising global trade and technological sophistication have increased the number of patent filings in every country; government patent offices here and abroad are thus being driven ...


Cops, Robbers, And Search Engines: The Questionable Role Of Criminal Law In Contributory Infringement Doctrine, Mark Bartholomew Jan 2009

Cops, Robbers, And Search Engines: The Questionable Role Of Criminal Law In Contributory Infringement Doctrine, Mark Bartholomew

Journal Articles

Online technologies have created a new litigation locus for intellectual property rights holders, one that targets intermediaries, not direct infringers. This unprecedented litigation strategy has put sudden pressure on the courts to evaluate the liability of indirect infringers. Without a developed body of precedent at their disposal, judges have resorted to analogies from the criminal law of accomplice liability to set the boundaries of contributory infringement. Does it make sense for intellectual property regulation to depend on the same principles that animate criminal law? This Article maintains that it would be a mistake to remake contributory infringement law in criminal ...


Contributory Infringers And Good Samaritans, Mark Bartholomew Jan 2009

Contributory Infringers And Good Samaritans, Mark Bartholomew

Journal Articles

The introduction of online technologies has put increased pressure on the doctrine of contributory infringement as intellectual property rights holders switch their attention from direct infringers to Internet intermediaries. The Supreme Court has instructed lower courts to evaluate contributory infringement in light of traditional tort law. The common law of aiding and abetting, however, is so inconsistent as to offer no real guidance. A better approach lies in a separate but related area of tort doctrine. In a limited number of circumstances, tort law recognizes a duty to protect third parties from the actions of others. Like aiding and abetting ...


The Flawed Nature Of The False Marking Statute, Elizabeth I. Winston Jan 2009

The Flawed Nature Of The False Marking Statute, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles

In 2005, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit rendered a decision on an “issue of first impression” interpreting a one hundred sixty-three year old provision of the United States Code - the “false marking” statute embodied in 35 U.S.C. § 292. It is false marking to mark as patented an unpatented article if done with the intent to deceive the public and, as such, is a fineable offense. The false marking statute remains one of only a handful of qui tam actions left intact from a rich history of varied incentives provided by the government for ...


International Legal Protection Of Trademarks In China, Robert H. Hu Jan 2009

International Legal Protection Of Trademarks In China, Robert H. Hu

Faculty Articles

This article addresses major trademark-related international regimes in which China participates. The article discusses the Chinese obligations under certain international treaties and agreements, both multilateral and bilateral, and use some Chinese court decisions to illustrate how these obligations are fulfilled in its judicial practice. Finally, the article provides an assessment of the effectiveness of these international regimes in China and offers observations on future development in protection through better enforcement. Three arguments are made: (1) International trademark law is taking roots in China; (2) China is taking its international obligations to protect trademarks seriously, and it has achieved much in ...


Of Patents And Property, Michael Meurer Jan 2009

Of Patents And Property, Michael Meurer

Faculty Scholarship

Do patents behave substantially like property rights in tangible assets, in that they encourage development and innovation? This article notes that historical evidence, cross-country evidence, economic experiments, and estimates of net benefits all indicate that general property rights institutions have a substantial direct effect on economic growth. Conversely, with a few important exceptions like chemicals and pharmaceuticals, empirical evidence indicates that intellectual property rights have at best only a weak and indirect effect on economic growth. Further, it appears that for public firms in most industries today, patents may actually discourage investment in innovation for fear of winding up on ...


Beyond Bidil: The Expanding Embrace Of Race In Biomedical Research And Product Development, Jonathan Kahn Jan 2009

Beyond Bidil: The Expanding Embrace Of Race In Biomedical Research And Product Development, Jonathan Kahn

Faculty Scholarship

In 2005 the FDA approved BiDil, the first drug ever to include a race-specific indication on its label - to treat heart failure in a “black” patient. In the aftermath of this controversial approval and subsequent marketing of the drug, many have wondered whether BiDil was an anomaly or a harbinger of things to come. This article moves beyond BiDil to explore how similar yet distinct models are developing for the continuing exploitation of race in biomedical practice and product development. It will explore the tensions embedded in the persistent use of racial categories even as specific genetic variations linked to ...


Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble Jan 2009

Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

In surveying recent literature on difficulties with cross-border injunctions in patent cases, one may conclude that the problem appears to be limited to the phenomenon of pan-European injunctions granted by some courts in Europe in cases concerning infringements of foreign patents. However, even in cases concerning domestic patents, injunctions reaching beyond national borders can be issued; the empirical evidence presented in the paper demonstrates a variety of such instances in U.S. patent cases. Certainly the existence of such injunctions in the U.S. raises concerns about their enforceability in other countries, particularly when they are issued against a foreign ...