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2009

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Stacking In Criminal Procedure Adjudication;Symposium On Criminal Procedure: Judicial Proceedings, Luke M. Milligan Dec 2009

Stacking In Criminal Procedure Adjudication;Symposium On Criminal Procedure: Judicial Proceedings, Luke M. Milligan

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The institutionalist branch of "Law and Courts" studies how judges incorporate institutional constraints into their decision-making processes. Congressional constraints on judicial review, as the literature currently stands, fall into one of two general classes: overrides and Court-curbing measures. This taxonomy, however, is incomplete. Neither overrides nor curbing measures are needed to explain the not uncommon situation where a policy-oriented Justice deviates from a preferred vote based on the belief that such a vote will prompt Congress to alter an "insulated base rule" in a way that disrupts the Justice's larger policy agenda. An "insulated base rule" is a Congressional policy …


The Virginia Uniform Power Of Attorney Act, Andrew H. Hook, Lisa V. Johnson Nov 2009

The Virginia Uniform Power Of Attorney Act, Andrew H. Hook, Lisa V. Johnson

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Corporate And Business Law, Laurence V. Parker Nov 2009

Corporate And Business Law, Laurence V. Parker

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


To Boldly Go Where Only A Select Few Have Gone Before: Exploring The Commercial Space Launch Act And The Legal Risks Associated With Reaching For The Stars, Brent M. Timberlake Nov 2009

To Boldly Go Where Only A Select Few Have Gone Before: Exploring The Commercial Space Launch Act And The Legal Risks Associated With Reaching For The Stars, Brent M. Timberlake

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Labor And Employment Law, Vijay K. Mago, Nancy B. Sasser, Allison M. Perry Nov 2009

Labor And Employment Law, Vijay K. Mago, Nancy B. Sasser, Allison M. Perry

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Animal Law, K. Michelle Welch Nov 2009

Animal Law, K. Michelle Welch

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bankruptcy Law, Hon. Douglas O. Tice Jr., Suzanne E. Wade, K. Elizabeth Sieg Nov 2009

Bankruptcy Law, Hon. Douglas O. Tice Jr., Suzanne E. Wade, K. Elizabeth Sieg

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. Rodney Johnson Nov 2009

Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. Rodney Johnson

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Land Use And Zoning Law: The Current Lay Of The Land, Philip C. Strother, Matthew R. Farley Nov 2009

Land Use And Zoning Law: The Current Lay Of The Land, Philip C. Strother, Matthew R. Farley

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Taxation, Craig D. Bell Nov 2009

Taxation, Craig D. Bell

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Health Care Law, Kathleen M. Mccauley, Kristi L. Vanderlaan Nov 2009

Health Care Law, Kathleen M. Mccauley, Kristi L. Vanderlaan

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Special Education Law, William H. Hurd, Stephen C. Piepgrass Nov 2009

Special Education Law, William H. Hurd, Stephen C. Piepgrass

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


An International Perspective On Battling The Bulge: Japan's Anti-Obesity Legislation And Its Potential Impact On Waistlines Around The World, Christin Lawler Oct 2009

An International Perspective On Battling The Bulge: Japan's Anti-Obesity Legislation And Its Potential Impact On Waistlines Around The World, Christin Lawler

San Diego International Law Journal

This Comment identifies six factors which my be analyzed to predict the outcome of Japan's new "Metabo" legislation: (1) the compelling need for anti-obesity legislation; (2) the broad authority vested in Japanese physicians and medical policymakers; (3) the Japanese cultural emphasis on harmony; (4) the structure of the Japanese Constitution; (5) the legislation's enforcement mechanisms; and (6) the costs of the program. This Comment predicts that although the cost of implementing the program could pose a serious impediment to initiating the anti-obesity campaign on a national scale, the new legislation is likely to succeed in decreasing Japanese obesity.


How To Interpret Statutes - Or Not: Plain Meaning And Other Phantoms, Steven Wisotsky Oct 2009

How To Interpret Statutes - Or Not: Plain Meaning And Other Phantoms, Steven Wisotsky

The Journal of Appellate Practice and Process

No abstract provided.


The Provocation Defense And The Nature Of Justification, Marcia Baron Oct 2009

The Provocation Defense And The Nature Of Justification, Marcia Baron

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this Essay, I evaluate the evidence of "adequate nonprovocation” that Fontaine puts forward to show that the heat of passion defense is decidedly an excuse (more precisely, a partial excuse). I will be focusing my remarks on the traditional heat of passion defense.


Unsettling Drug Patent Settlements: A Framework For Presumptive Illegality, Michael A. Carrier Oct 2009

Unsettling Drug Patent Settlements: A Framework For Presumptive Illegality, Michael A. Carrier

Michigan Law Review

A tidal wave of high drug prices has recently crashed across the U.S. economy. One of the primary culprits has been the increase in agreements by which brand-name drug manufacturers and generic firms have settled patent litigation. The framework for such agreements has been the Hatch-Waxman Act, which Congress enacted in 1984. One of the Act's goals was to provide incentives for generics to challenge brand-name patents. But brand firms have recently paid generics millions of dollars to drop their lawsuits and refrain from entering the market. These reverse-payment settlements threaten significant harm. Courts nonetheless have recently blessed them, explaining …


Give Smaller Companies A Choice: Solving Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 Inefficiency, Paul P. Arnold Jul 2009

Give Smaller Companies A Choice: Solving Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 Inefficiency, Paul P. Arnold

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that smaller public companies should have the option to opt out of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Optional compliance is economically preferable to the current approach of mandatory compliance. Companies that choose to comply with Section 404 will send a signal to the financial markets that their internal controls meet the high standards Section 404 demands, and investors will reward such companies if they actually value the benefit of that company's additional controls. Similarly, companies that benefit less from additional internal accounting will be able to avoid Section 404's high costs. To clarify the …


The Unintended Consequence Of Tort Reform In Michigan: An Argument For Reinstating Retailer Product Liability, Ashley L. Thompson Jul 2009

The Unintended Consequence Of Tort Reform In Michigan: An Argument For Reinstating Retailer Product Liability, Ashley L. Thompson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Tort reform became an important issue during the 1994 Congressional Campaign as part of the Republican Party's "Contract with America. "Since then, many federal and state laws have attempted to reduce both liability and recovery in tort actions. In 1996, Michigan passed the Tort Reform Act, encompassing many drastic changes to state tort law. One provision of the Act, § 294 7, scaled back liability against non-manufacturing retailers in product liability actions. The Michigan Supreme Court interpreted the exceptions of the law narrowly and the prohibition broadly, essentially barring recovery from retailers. Since 1996, this provision has prevented victims injured …


Restraining False Light: Constitutional And Common Law Limits On A "Troublesome Tort", James B. Lake Jun 2009

Restraining False Light: Constitutional And Common Law Limits On A "Troublesome Tort", James B. Lake

Federal Communications Law Journal

The defamation tort is the common law's established remedy for false speech that causes reputational and emotional injury. That tort is subject to intricate constitutional, legislative, and common law rules that have evolved over decades. The false light invasion of privacy tort also provides a potential cause of action in response to injurious falsehood. False light, however, has been subject to much less judicial and legislative scrutiny than defamation. As a result, courts often are uncertain about the proper limits on false light and, in some cases, have countenanced false light claims that would have failed if filed as defamation …


Viewpoint Diversity And Media Ownership, C. Edwin Baker Jun 2009

Viewpoint Diversity And Media Ownership, C. Edwin Baker

Federal Communications Law Journal

A recent technically sophisticated study of the impact of media mergers on viewpoint diversity that found the impact is contextually variable should be entirely irrelevant to proper policy debates about regulation of media ownership. This Article examines the real reasons to oppose concentrated ownership and considers how the recent study went wrong.


Trustworthiness As A Limitation On Network Neutrality, Aaron J. Burstein, Fred B. Schneider Jun 2009

Trustworthiness As A Limitation On Network Neutrality, Aaron J. Burstein, Fred B. Schneider

Federal Communications Law Journal

The policy debate over how to govern access to broadband networks has largely ignored the objective of network trustworthiness-a set of properties (including security, survivability, and safety) that guarantee expected behavior. Instead, the terms of the network access debate have focused on whether imposing a nondiscrimination or "network neutrality" obligation on network providers is justified by the condition of competition among last-mile providers. Rules proposed by scholars and policymakers would allow network providers to deviate from network neutrality to protect network trustworthiness, but none of these proposals has explored the implications of such exceptions for either neutrality or trustworthiness.

This …


The Role Of Theory And Evidence In Media Regulation And Law: A Response To Baker And A Defense Of Empirical Legal Studies, Daniel E. Ho, Kevin M. Quinn Jun 2009

The Role Of Theory And Evidence In Media Regulation And Law: A Response To Baker And A Defense Of Empirical Legal Studies, Daniel E. Ho, Kevin M. Quinn

Federal Communications Law Journal

We thank Professor Baker for a stimulating response to an Article in which we offered empirical evidence of editorial viewpoint diversity in the face of media consolidation. We appreciate his praise of the Article as "apply[ing] innovative statistical techniques" and as "far superior methodologically to most empirical studies" he has seen. At the same time, Baker "denies the policy relevance" to our Article because empirical evidence is "entirely irrelevant" to the field of media regulation under his preferred normative theory. Baker argues sweepingly that the legal academy's increased willingness to consider the perspectives of quantitative empiricists and positive theorists is …


Adaptive Policymaking: Evolving And Applying Emergent Solutions For U.S. Communications Policy, Richard S. Whitt Jun 2009

Adaptive Policymaking: Evolving And Applying Emergent Solutions For U.S. Communications Policy, Richard S. Whitt

Federal Communications Law Journal

This Article presents some specific ways that U.S. policymakers should use teachings from the latest thinking in economics to create a conceptual framework in order to grapple with current controversies in communications law and regulation. First, it provides a brief overview of Emergence Economics, with an emphasis on the "rough formula" of emergence and the unique role of technological change in creating and furthering innovation and economic growth. Second, this paper explicates the general concept of "Adaptive Policymaking" by governments and includes some proposed guiding principles, an outline of the public policy design space, and an adaptive toolkit to be …


Unlocking The Wireless Safe: Opening Up The Wireless World For Consumers, Adam Clay Jun 2009

Unlocking The Wireless Safe: Opening Up The Wireless World For Consumers, Adam Clay

Federal Communications Law Journal

Facing resistance to the use of its Voice-over-Internet Protocol application on mobile phones, in February 2007, Skype Communications filed a petition with the FCC asking for application of the Carterfone standards to the wireless phone industry. This Note discusses Carterfone and the merits of Skype's petition in light of the recent auction of the C Block, which carries open network requirements, and developments in wireless technology. This Note argues that the FCC should require carriers to provide technical standards for access to their networks, whereby individuals will be able to connect any approved device and application of their choosing.


Who Needs Tickets? Examining Problems In The Growing Online Ticket Resale Industry, Clark P. Kirkman Jun 2009

Who Needs Tickets? Examining Problems In The Growing Online Ticket Resale Industry, Clark P. Kirkman

Federal Communications Law Journal

The Internet has dramatically changed the methods by which people purchase tickets to events. In the past decade, the secondary ticket market has grown exponentially, and today the online ticket resale industry is valued at approximately $4 billion. Although there are consumer benefits to this industry growth, some of the industry practices have precipitated a consumer backlash. This was typified in 2007 when many parents, hoping to purchase tickets to the Hannah Montana "Best of Both Worlds Tour," watched as tickets sold out online in only a few minutes or less. Coupled with this episode was the Ticketmaster v. RMG …


The Never-Ending Limits Of § 230: Extending Isp Immunity To The Sexual Exploitation Of Children, Katy Noeth Jun 2009

The Never-Ending Limits Of § 230: Extending Isp Immunity To The Sexual Exploitation Of Children, Katy Noeth

Federal Communications Law Journal

In 2006, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas extended civil liability to Yahoo! under § 230 of the Communications Decency Act so that it could not be sued for knowingly profiting from a Web site where members exchanged sexually explicit pictures of minors. The court found that the reasoning of the seminal § 230 case, Zeran v. AOL, was analogous and that policy considerations mandated its holding.

This Note argues that a multifaceted approach is needed to prevent future courts from following that decision, including an amendment to § 230 that would impose civil liability upon …


Duty Of Fair Representation Jurisprudential Reform: The Need To Adjudicate Disputes In Internal Union Review Tribunals And The Forgotten Remedy Of Re-Arbitration, Mitchell H. Rubinstein May 2009

Duty Of Fair Representation Jurisprudential Reform: The Need To Adjudicate Disputes In Internal Union Review Tribunals And The Forgotten Remedy Of Re-Arbitration, Mitchell H. Rubinstein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

One of the best kept secrets in American labor law is that duty of fair representation jurisprudence simply does not work. It does not work for plaintiff union members because they must satisfy a close-to-impossible burden of proof and have a short statute of limitations window in which to assert their claim. It does not work for defendant unions because they are often forced to file pointless grievances in order to avoid the cost of litigation. It does not work for defendant employers because they are often brought into these lawsuits because they have the "deep pockets."

This Article makes …


The False Claims Act: How Vigilantes Find Justice Fighting Government Fraud And Corruption, Wayne Turner Mar 2009

The False Claims Act: How Vigilantes Find Justice Fighting Government Fraud And Corruption, Wayne Turner

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

This comment focuses on the False Claims Act and its increasing potential to bring greater accountability to government programs designed to serve disadvantaged opulations. Citizen avengers play an increasing role in seeking retribution against grafters because existing safeguards built into government contracting and procurement often fail to ensure that taxpayer dollars are spent efficiently. The False Claims Act, the citizens' tool against fraud, is contrasted with the Inspectors General, the federal government's principle means of investigating, auditing, and prosecuting fraud in federal agencies and programs.


A Fundamental Misunderstanding: Fcc Implementation Of U.S. Wto Commitments, Laura B. Sherman Mar 2009

A Fundamental Misunderstanding: Fcc Implementation Of U.S. Wto Commitments, Laura B. Sherman

Federal Communications Law Journal

In bilateral and multilateral trade agreements, the United States has agreed to open the market for telecommunications services to foreign service suppliers, an obligation implemented by the FCC since 1998. In contrast, the United States has made no commitments with respect to broadcasting services or broadcast licenses. This article clarifies the different treatment of telecommunications services and broadcast services in U.S. trade obligations and FCC orders.


An Evaluation Of The Proposals In The Fcc's Intercarrier Compensation Reform Docket Related To Tandem Transit Services, John R. Harrington, Ronald W. Gavillet, Matt D. Basil, Melissa L. Dickey Mar 2009

An Evaluation Of The Proposals In The Fcc's Intercarrier Compensation Reform Docket Related To Tandem Transit Services, John R. Harrington, Ronald W. Gavillet, Matt D. Basil, Melissa L. Dickey

Federal Communications Law Journal

As part of its Intercarrier Compensation Reform Docket, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has received many proposals advocating for the adoption of regulations relating to tandem transit services. As transiting affects virtually every carrier in the telecommunications industry, including traditional CLECs, cable telephony providers, wireless carriers, and even traditional ILECs, the industry is sharply divided over which, if any, of those proposals should be adopted. This Article provides an in-depth look at the issues dividing the industry, and the various proposals before the FCC. The Authors then hypothesize that the FCC should follow the lead of several state commissions who …