Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2008

Evidence

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 71

Full-Text Articles in Law

Self-Incrimination Doctrine Is Dead; Long Live Self-Incrimination Doctrine: Confessions, Scientific Evidence, And The Anxieties Of The Liberal State, Kenworthey Bilz Dec 2008

Self-Incrimination Doctrine Is Dead; Long Live Self-Incrimination Doctrine: Confessions, Scientific Evidence, And The Anxieties Of The Liberal State, Kenworthey Bilz

Kenworthey Bilz

Confessions have historically been the most compelling evidence the state could offer at a criminal trial. However, improvements in forensic technologies have led to increased use of scientific evidence, such as DNA typing, pattern-recognition software, location tracking devices, and the like, with very impressive rates of reliability. The reliability of these methods has become so impressive, in fact, that it should lead to a reduced reliance on confessions (and other nonscientific evidence, such as eyewitness identifications) in criminal prosecutions. However, this does not mean that the doctrine of self-incrimination, which regulates the acquisition and use of confessions, will no longer ...


Direct Application Of International Commercial Law In Chinese Courts: Intellectual Property, Trade, And International Transportation, Jie Huang Dec 2008

Direct Application Of International Commercial Law In Chinese Courts: Intellectual Property, Trade, And International Transportation, Jie Huang

Jie Huang

Different from scholarship that focuses on the relationship between China and International Law regarding territory, armed conflicts, human rights violations, this article explores the relationship between China and International Law in a commercial setting. It explores how Chinese courts apply international commercial law in adjudicating cases involving foreign factors. Moreover, this article goes beyond contemporary scholarship that concerns international commercial law and China but only focuses on the text of Chinese statutes and judicial interpretations: it elaborates how courts apply statutes and judicial interpretations in actual adjudications through cases studies. By covering cases decided by the Supreme People’s Court ...


Policing The Corporate Citizen: Arguments For Prosecuting Organizations, Daniel L. Cheyette Dec 2008

Policing The Corporate Citizen: Arguments For Prosecuting Organizations, Daniel L. Cheyette

Alaska Law Review

No abstract provided.


Toward Ethical Plea Bargaining, Erica J. Hashimoto Dec 2008

Toward Ethical Plea Bargaining, Erica J. Hashimoto

Scholarly Works

Defendants in criminal cases are overwhelmingly more likely to plead guilty than to go to trial. Presumably, at least a part of the reason that most of them do so is that it is in their interest to plead guilty, i.e., they will receive a more favorable outcome if they plead guilty than if they go to trial. The extent to which pleas reflect fair or rational compromises in practice, however, depends upon a variety of factors, including the amount of information each of the parties has about the case. Some level of informational symmetry therefore is critical to ...


Dimond, Not Daubert: Reviving The Discretionary Standard Of Expert Admission In Alaska, Gregory R. Henrikson Dec 2008

Dimond, Not Daubert: Reviving The Discretionary Standard Of Expert Admission In Alaska, Gregory R. Henrikson

Alaska Law Review

No abstract provided.


Criminal Law And Procedure, Marla G. Decker, Stephen R. Mccullough Nov 2008

Criminal Law And Procedure, Marla G. Decker, Stephen R. Mccullough

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Torts And Innovation, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein Oct 2008

Torts And Innovation, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Essay exposes and analyzes a hitherto overlooked cost of the current design of tort law: its adverse effect on innovation. Tort liability for negligence, defective products, and medical malpractice is determined by reference to custom. We demonstrate that courts’ reliance on custom and conventional technologies as the benchmark of liability chills innovation and distorts its path. Specifically, the recourse to custom taxes innovators and subsidizes replicators of conventional technologies. We explore the causes and consequences of this phenomenon and propose two possible ways to modify tort law in order to make it more welcoming to innovation.


The Motion In Limine In Politically Sensitive Cases: Silencing The Defendant At Trial, Douglas L. Colbert Oct 2008

The Motion In Limine In Politically Sensitive Cases: Silencing The Defendant At Trial, Douglas L. Colbert

Douglas L. Colbert

No abstract provided.


The Motion In Limine:Trial Without Jury - A Government's Weapon Against The Sanctuary Movement, Douglas L. Colbert Oct 2008

The Motion In Limine:Trial Without Jury - A Government's Weapon Against The Sanctuary Movement, Douglas L. Colbert

Douglas L. Colbert

No abstract provided.


Federal Objections - Quick Reference Card, Sydney Aaron Beckman Sep 2008

Federal Objections - Quick Reference Card, Sydney Aaron Beckman

Sydney A. Beckman

NITA - National Institute of Trial Advocacy Visit www.NITA.org to purchase


The Meaning Of Race In The Dna Era: Science, History And The Law, Christian B. Sundquist Sep 2008

The Meaning Of Race In The Dna Era: Science, History And The Law, Christian B. Sundquist

Christian B. Sundquist

The meaning of “race” has changed dramatically over time. Early theories of race assigned social, intellectual, moral and physical values to perceived physical differences among groups of people. The perception that race should be defined in terms of genetic and biologic difference fueled the “race science” of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries, during which time geneticists, physiognomists, eugenicists, anthropologists and others purported to find scientific justification for denying equal treatment to non-white persons. Nazi Germany applied these understandings of race in a manner which shocked the world, and following World War II the concept of race increasingly came to be ...


Forensic Genetics And The Ascendancy Of Modern “Race Science:” Establishing The Inadmissibility Of Dna Estimates Of Race, Christian B. Sundquist Sep 2008

Forensic Genetics And The Ascendancy Of Modern “Race Science:” Establishing The Inadmissibility Of Dna Estimates Of Race, Christian B. Sundquist

Christian B. Sundquist

The meaning of “race” has been vigorously contested throughout history. Early theories of race assigned social, intellectual, moral and physical values to perceived physical differences among groups of people. The perception that race should be defined in terms of genetic and biologic difference fueled the “race science” of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries, during which time geneticists, physiognomists, eugenicists, anthropologists and others purported to find scientific justification for denying equal treatment to non-white persons. Nazi Germany applied these understandings of race in a manner which shocked the world, and following World War II the concept of race increasingly came to ...


Neuroscientific Evidence In The Law: Fascinating Science, But To Laymen It's Still Phrenology, John M. Mccarthy Sep 2008

Neuroscientific Evidence In The Law: Fascinating Science, But To Laymen It's Still Phrenology, John M. Mccarthy

John M McCarthy

ABSTRACT

Neuroscientific Evidence in the Law: Fascinating Science, But to Laymen It's Still Phrenology by John M. McCarthy J.D. Yale, 1977

Cognitive neuroscience is one of biology's most exciting specialties, but outside of laboratories, "neuroscience" is not "science" but something else. The article examines what it is. This bears on today's burgeoning "neuro-" applications in the law, including "neuroethics". The article argues that neuroscientific findings should be excluded today from legal contexts, because valid scientific findings do not exist concerning the complex mental performances pertinent to adjudication.

Laymen and neuroscientists embrace a theoretical paradigm that is ...


A Fighting Chance: An Analysis Of The Role Of Social Science Evidence In Higher Education Affirmative Action And K-12 Voluntary Desegregation Cases, Crystal Gafford Muhammad Sep 2008

A Fighting Chance: An Analysis Of The Role Of Social Science Evidence In Higher Education Affirmative Action And K-12 Voluntary Desegregation Cases, Crystal Gafford Muhammad

Crystal Gafford Muhammad

The present inquiry focuses on the role of social science evidence contemporarily, using observations from judicial opinions in race conscious admissions cases. Using a set of judicial opinions from K-12 voluntary desegregation and higher education affirmative action in admissions, I use legal and statistical analysis to argue that social science data presented into evidence is of limited effect. In fact, I find judicial political philosophy is the greatest predictor of opinions in this area of law. However, the question is not whether social science evidence is influential or even persuasive, but whether it is useful in politically contentious cases. It ...


Left Hand, Third Finger: The Wearing Of Wedding (Or Other) Rings As A Form Of Assertive Conduct Under The Hearsay Rule, Peter Nicolas Sep 2008

Left Hand, Third Finger: The Wearing Of Wedding (Or Other) Rings As A Form Of Assertive Conduct Under The Hearsay Rule, Peter Nicolas

Peter Nicolas

In this manuscript, I examine the social phenomena of making use of what I call “ring evidence” to determine an individual’s marital status or sexual orientation. More specifically, I note the common practice of identifying people as married based on the presence of a ring on the ring finger of the left hand, as gay and in a committed relationship based on the presence of a ring on the ring finger of the right hand, and as single based on the absence of a ring.

Next, I identify two problems with making use of ring evidence to draw conclusions ...


Statistical String Theory For Courts: If The Data Don't Fit..., David F. Babbel Sep 2008

Statistical String Theory For Courts: If The Data Don't Fit..., David F. Babbel

David F Babbel

The primary purpose of this article is to provide courts with an important new tool for applying the correct probability distribution to a given legal question. This tool is path-breaking and will have an extensive impact on how a wide variety of cases are decided. In areas as diverse as criminal prosecutions and civil lawsuits alleging securities fraud, courts must assess the relevance and reliability of statistical data and the inferences drawn therefrom. But, courts and expert witnesses often make mistaken assumptions about what probability distributions are appropriate for their analyses. Using the wrong probability distribution can lead to invalid ...


Impeachable Offenses?: Why Civil Parties In Quasi-Criminal Cases Should Be Treated Like Criminal Defendants Under The Felony Impeachment Rule, Colin Miller Aug 2008

Impeachable Offenses?: Why Civil Parties In Quasi-Criminal Cases Should Be Treated Like Criminal Defendants Under The Felony Impeachment Rule, Colin Miller

Colin Miller

With one exception, every Federal Rule of Evidence dealing with propensity character evidence or evidence which can be misused as propensity character evidence makes it either: (a) as difficult to admit such evidence in civil trials as it is in criminal trials, or (b) more difficult to admit such evidence in civil trials than it is in criminal trials. The “mercy rule” falls into this latter category as it allows criminal defendants to inject the issue of character into their trials while a similar luxury is not afforded to civil parties. Before 2006, however, a substantial minority of courts extended ...


Independent And Adequate, Carrie Leonetti Aug 2008

Independent And Adequate, Carrie Leonetti

Carrie Leonetti

No abstract provided.


Eyewitness Identification Reform In Massachusetts, Stanley Z. Fisher Jul 2008

Eyewitness Identification Reform In Massachusetts, Stanley Z. Fisher

Faculty Scholarship

This article traces the impact of the new scientific learning upon police eyewitness identification procedures in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Over the past 25 years, experimental psychologists have devised more reliable techniques for gathering eyewitness identification evidence than have been traditionally used by police. Massachusetts has over 350 autonomous municipal police departments, plus approximately 39 college campus police departments, the state police, and the MBTA (transit) Police Department. The decision how to investigate crime rests principally with the police chief responsible for each department. How does such a system of policing absorb new, scientifically superior methods of investigation?


Unchaste And Incredible: The Use Of Gendered Conceptions Of Honor In Impeachment, Julia Simon-Kerr May 2008

Unchaste And Incredible: The Use Of Gendered Conceptions Of Honor In Impeachment, Julia Simon-Kerr

Julia Simon-Kerr

The American rules for impeaching witnesses developed against a cultural background that equated a woman's "honor," and thus her credibility, with her sexual virtue. The idea that a woman's chastity informs her credibility did not originate in rape trials and the confusing interplay between questions of consent and sexual history. Rather, gendered notions of honor so permeated American legal culture that attorneys routinely attempted to impeach female witnesses by invoking their sexual histories in cases involving such diverse claims as title to land, assault, arson, and wrongful death. But while many courts initially accepted the notion that an ...


The Unrecognized Right Of Criminal Defendants To Admit Their Own Pretrial Statements, Stephen A. Saltzburg, Daniel J. Capra May 2008

The Unrecognized Right Of Criminal Defendants To Admit Their Own Pretrial Statements, Stephen A. Saltzburg, Daniel J. Capra

William & Mary Law Review

In Agard v. Portuondo, the United States Supreme Court held that a prosecutor did not violate a testifying defendant's constitutional rights by inviting the jury to infer from the defendant's presence at trial that the defendant altered his own version of events to accord with other witnesses' testimony. Justice Scalia's opinion for the Court emphasized that jurors might well draw the inference even without a prosecutor asking them to do so. Although Agard is viewed as giving an advantage in a criminal trial to the government, this Article considers how Agard might be used to allow defense ...


Computers, Search Warrants, And The Private Papers Exemption, David E. Clark Apr 2008

Computers, Search Warrants, And The Private Papers Exemption, David E. Clark

David E Clark

Police increasingly seek search warrants for information stored on personal computers. Georgia law, OCGA 17-5-21(a)(5) prohibits the issuance of a search warrant for "private papers," which include any documents subject to a recognized privilege (attorney-client, doctor-patient). This statute, and other technological factors, raise the risk of a computer search warrant being ruled overbroad unless it is carefully drafted. A constitutionally sound format for a computer search warrant application is given, along with guidelines for drafting and executing a warrant for digital property believed to be evidence of a crime.


Federal Courts As Constitutional Laboratories: The Rat's Point Of View, Maureen N. Armour Apr 2008

Federal Courts As Constitutional Laboratories: The Rat's Point Of View, Maureen N. Armour

Maureen N Armour

This article examines the operation of the lower federal courts as constitutional laboratories where problems related to implementing the Supreme Court's problematic constitutional decisions are routinely addressed. By using the methodology of a detailed case study of Eighth Amendment litigation the author provides critical insights into the workings of the federal trial courts and three judge appellate panels and insights into the applied phenomenology of ajudicative discretion, the moving force of this judicial laboratory. The article also examines the problematic nature of the Supreme Court's constitutional decisions, their textual openness, doctrinal malleability,and prudential "errors," and how this ...


How To Deal With Laboratory Reports Under Crawford V. Washington: A Question With No Good Answer, Cyrus P.W. Rieck Apr 2008

How To Deal With Laboratory Reports Under Crawford V. Washington: A Question With No Good Answer, Cyrus P.W. Rieck

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


Is It Wrong To Sue For Rape?, Tom Lininger Apr 2008

Is It Wrong To Sue For Rape?, Tom Lininger

Duke Law Journal

The title of this Article poses a rhetorical question. Of course it is not improper to site a rapist. The act of rape qualifies as a tort in all fifty states. Rape causes egregious injuries, both physical and psychological. The Supreme Court regards rape as the ultimate violation of personal autonomy. Other than homicide, no act is more plainly tortious. Yet the criminal justice system is surprisingly hostile to civil suits by rape survivors. Judges in criminal cases virtually always allow impeachment of accusers with evidence of civil suits against the alleged assailants or third parties. This Article surveys every ...


Improving The Reliability Of Criminal Trials Through Legal Rules That Encourage Defendants To Testify, Jeffrey Bellin Apr 2008

Improving The Reliability Of Criminal Trials Through Legal Rules That Encourage Defendants To Testify, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

Reflecting a traditional bias against defendants' trial testimony, the modern American criminal justice system, which now recognizes a constitutional right to testify at trial, unabashedly encourages defendants to waive that right and remain silent. As a result, a large percentage of criminal defendants decline to testify, forcing juries to decide the question of the defendant's guilt without ever hearing from the person most knowledgeable on the subject.

This Article contends that the inflated percentage of silent defendants in the American criminal trial system is a needless, self-inflected wound, neither required by the Constitution nor beneficial to the search for ...


Methinks The Lady Doth Protest Too Little: Reassessing The Probative Value Of Silence, Mikah K. Story Thompson Mar 2008

Methinks The Lady Doth Protest Too Little: Reassessing The Probative Value Of Silence, Mikah K. Story Thompson

Mikah K. Story Thompson

This article takes a fresh look at why individuals remain silent in the face of accusations by law enforcement. Traditionally, many courts have found that a defendant’s failure to protest her innocence reflects one of three things: (1) that the defendant has manifested her assent to the accusation by not responding; (2) that the defendant’s silence is a prior statement inconsistent with any testimony proclaiming innocence at trial; or (3) that the silence is substantive evidence of the defendant’s guilt. This article posits that a defendant’s silence actually means very little. Social science research regarding the ...


Loss Of Sixth Amendment Confrontation Rights: Forfeiture Triggered By Voluntary Wrongful Conduct, Ralph Ruebner, Eugene Goryunov Mar 2008

Loss Of Sixth Amendment Confrontation Rights: Forfeiture Triggered By Voluntary Wrongful Conduct, Ralph Ruebner, Eugene Goryunov

Ralph Ruebner

The hotly contested debate about the nature of confrontation rights of the criminally accused under the Sixth Amendment continues. The latest issue before the United States Supreme Court is whether intent to prevent live in-court testimony is a necessary element of the constitutional forfeiture analysis. A number of state courts, including the Supreme Court of California in People v. Giles, 152 P.3d 433, 440 (2007), cert. granted, 128 S.Ct. 976 (2008), have rejected the element of intent. Other courts, including the Illinois Supreme Court in People v. Stechly, 870 N.E.2d 333 (2007), have mandated the inclusion ...


Retooling Law Enforcement To Investigate And Prosecute Entrenched Corruption: Key Criminal Procedure Reforms For Indonesia And Other Nations, Leslie Gielow Jacobs, Benjamin B. Wagner Mar 2008

Retooling Law Enforcement To Investigate And Prosecute Entrenched Corruption: Key Criminal Procedure Reforms For Indonesia And Other Nations, Leslie Gielow Jacobs, Benjamin B. Wagner

Leslie Gielow Jacobs

Public corruption is THE development issue of the twenty-first century. Players in the global campaign agree that criminal law enforcement is an essential cornerstone in a comprehensive strategy to fight the entrenched public corruption that plagues so many developing countries. But while much progress has been made in amending national laws to define the necessary corruption crimes, very little legislative attention has been paid to updating the procedural tools that police and prosecutors need to succeed. In this Article, we address this critical deficiency. Using insights gained from inside the United States Department of Justice and the Attorney General’s ...


Even Better Than The Real Thing: How Courts Have Been Anything But Liberal In Finding Genuine Questions Raised As To The Authenticity Of Originals Under Rule 1003, Colin Miller Mar 2008

Even Better Than The Real Thing: How Courts Have Been Anything But Liberal In Finding Genuine Questions Raised As To The Authenticity Of Originals Under Rule 1003, Colin Miller

Colin Miller

In the common law days, parties seeking to prove the contents of documents were required to produce the original documents or account for their nonproduction. Pursuant to the Best Evidence Rule, if such parties neither produced the originals nor accounted for their nonproduction, courts prevented them from proving their contents through secondary evidence such as handwritten copies or testimony. With the invention of new technologies such as the process of xerography, however, states in the twentieth century began enacting exceptions to the Best Evidence Rule which allowed for the admission of duplicates created without manual transcription even when proponents could ...