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A Larger War On Terror?, David Cole Dec 2008

A Larger War On Terror?, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


The Brits Do It Better, David Cole Jun 2008

The Brits Do It Better, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Domestic Bonds, Credit Derivatives, And The Next Transformation Of Sovereign Debt, Anna Gelpern Jan 2008

Domestic Bonds, Credit Derivatives, And The Next Transformation Of Sovereign Debt, Anna Gelpern

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Not long ago, financial markets in most poor and middle-income countries were shallow to nonexistent, and closed to foreigners. Governments often had to rely on risky borrowing abroad; the private sector had even fewer options. But between 1995 and 2005, domestic debt in the emerging markets grew from $1 trillion to $4 trillion. In Mexico, domestic debt went from just over 20% of the total government debt stock in 1995 to nearly 80% in 2007. Foreign and local investors are buying. Over the same period, derivative contracts to transfer emerging market credit risk surpassed the market capitalization of the benchmark …


Book Review Of Bradin Cormack, A Power To Do Justice: Jurisdiction, English Literature, And The Rise Of Common Law, 1509-1625 (2007), Jennifer Locke Davitt Jan 2008

Book Review Of Bradin Cormack, A Power To Do Justice: Jurisdiction, English Literature, And The Rise Of Common Law, 1509-1625 (2007), Jennifer Locke Davitt

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

"A Power to Do Justice" by Bradin Cormack is a scholarly work offering a critical examination of several sixteenth-century literary texts. Cormack shows how those texts reflect a shifting understanding of the legal concept of jurisdiction during that period.


Climate Change In The Supreme Court, Lisa Heinzerling Jan 2008

Climate Change In The Supreme Court, Lisa Heinzerling

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, the Supreme Court confronted the issue of climate change for the first time. The Court held that the Clean Air Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency the authority to regulate greenhouse gases and that the agency may not decline to exercise this authority based either on factors not present in the statute or inconclusive gestures toward uncertainty in the science of climate change. I had the privilege of serving as the lead author of the winning briefs in this case. This Article provides an insider's perspective on the choices that went into bringing and …


Panel: Restrictions On Freedom Of Association Through Material Support Prohibitions And Visa Denials, David Cole Jan 2008

Panel: Restrictions On Freedom Of Association Through Material Support Prohibitions And Visa Denials, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In the 1950s, we were afraid of communism. We were afraid, in particular, of the Soviet Union, the world's second greatest superpower, which was armed with masses of nuclear warheads aimed at all our largest cities. As a result, we fought the Cold War, engaged in espionage, proxy wars, and an arms race. We also took aggressive preventive measures at home. The principal preventive measure of that period was guilt by association. We made it a crime to be a member of the Communist Party, and we created a whole administrative scheme to implement and enforce this notion of guilt …


Scrutiny Land, Randy E. Barnett Jan 2008

Scrutiny Land, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Scrutiny Land is the place where government needs to justify to a court its restrictions on the liberties of the people. In the 1930s, the Supreme Court began limiting access to Scrutiny Land. While the New Deal Court merely shifted the burden to those challenging a law to show that a restriction of liberty is irrational, the Warren Court made the presumption of constitutionality effectively irrebuttable. After this, only one road to Scrutiny Land remained: showing that the liberty being restricted was a fundamental right. The Glucksberg Two-Step, however, limited the doctrine of fundamental rights to those (1) narrowly defined …


Kurt Lash's Majoritarian Difficulty: A Response To A Textual-Historical Theory Of The Ninth Amendment, Randy E. Barnett Jan 2008

Kurt Lash's Majoritarian Difficulty: A Response To A Textual-Historical Theory Of The Ninth Amendment, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Kurt Lash believes that, in addition to individual natural rights, the Ninth Amendment protects collective or majoritarian rights as well. In this essay the author explains why Lash’s majoritarian vision is contrary to the antimajoritarianism of the man who devised the Ninth Amendment, James Madison, and those who wrote the Constitution. Not coincidentally, it is contrary to the individualism of the other amendments constituting the Bill of Rights, and the public meaning of the Ninth Amendment as it was received during its ratification. It is also contrary to the individualist conception of popular sovereignty adopted in the text of the …


Constitutional Possibilities, Lawrence B. Solum Jan 2008

Constitutional Possibilities, Lawrence B. Solum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

What are our constitutional possibilities? The importance of this question is illustrated by the striking breadth of recent discussions, ranging from the interpretation of the United States Constitution as a guarantee of fundamental economic equality and proposals to restore the lost constitution to arguments for the virtual abandonment of structural provisions of the Constitution of 1789. Such proposals are conventionally understood as placing constitutional options on the table as real options for constitutional change. Normative constitutional theory asks the question whether these options are desirable--whether political actors (citizens, legislators, executives, or judges) should take action to bring about their plans …


Socioeconomic Disparities In Health: A Symposium On The Relationships Between Poverty And Health, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2008

Socioeconomic Disparities In Health: A Symposium On The Relationships Between Poverty And Health, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The disparities in health between the rich and poor are so striking, and the results so dire, that reducing the gap is an ethical imperative.

A strong and consistent finding of epidemiological research is that socioeconomic status (SES) is correlated with morbidity, mortality, and functioning. SES is a complex combination of income, education, and occupation. Theorists posit that material disadvantage, diminished control over life's circumstances, and lack of social acceptance all contribute to poor health outcomes. The relationship between SES and health often is referred to as a "gradient" because of the graded and continuous nature of the association; health …


Terror Financing, Guilt By Association And The Paradigm Of Prevention In The ‘War On Terror’, David Cole Jan 2008

Terror Financing, Guilt By Association And The Paradigm Of Prevention In The ‘War On Terror’, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

"Material support" has become the watchword of the post-9/11 era. Material support to groups that have been designated as "terrorist" has been the U.S. government's favorite charge in post-9/11 "terrorism" prosecutions. Under immigration law, material support is a basis for deportation and exclusion - even where individuals have been coerced into providing support by the terrorist group itself. And under the Military Commissions Act, it is now a "war crime."

This essay argues that the criminalization of "material support" to designated "terrorist organizations" is guilt by association in twenty-first-century garb, and presents all of the same problems that criminalizing membership …


Federal Grants, State Decisions, Brian Galle Jan 2008

Federal Grants, State Decisions, Brian Galle

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The authority to raise and spend money is one of the most expansive and fundamental of all Congress' enumerated powers, particularly when Congress chooses to impose conditions on those who wish to receive its cash. The consensus modern view of this conditional spending is that its unfettered use threatens the diversity and accountability goals of our federalism. As a result, nearly all commentators support either direct or indirect judge-made limits on conditional spending. These claims, I argue, rest on a set of largely unexamined assumptions about the political motivations, budgetary situation, and incentives of the state officials who must decide …


Tinkering With Torture In The Aftermath Of Hamdan: Testing The Relationship Between Internationalism And Constitutionalism, Catherine Powell Jan 2008

Tinkering With Torture In The Aftermath Of Hamdan: Testing The Relationship Between Internationalism And Constitutionalism, Catherine Powell

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Bridging international and constitutional law scholarship, the author examines the question of torture in light of democratic values. The focus in this article is on the international prohibition on torture as this norm was addressed through the political process in the aftermath of Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. Responding to charges that the international torture prohibition--and international law generally--poses irreconcilable challenges for democracy and our constitutional framework, the author contends that by promoting respect for fundamental rights and for minorities and outsiders, international law actually facilitates a broad conception of democracy and constitutionalism. She takes on the question of torture within …


Sight, Sound And Meaning: Teaching Intellectual Property With Audiovisual Materials, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2008

Sight, Sound And Meaning: Teaching Intellectual Property With Audiovisual Materials, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article addresses the author's experience using audiovisual materials from the Georgetown Intellectual Property Teaching Resources database. She used audiovisual materials extensively in class to allow students to see the subject matter of the cases rather than just reading verbal descriptions and enable them to apply the principles they read about to new, concrete examples. Many students in IP courses have special interests in music, film, or the visual arts, and the database allows her--and other teachers--to present materials that engage them. She found that students are more willing to speak up in class when they can see or hear …


Gone In Sixty Milliseconds: Trademark Law And Cognitive Science, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2008

Gone In Sixty Milliseconds: Trademark Law And Cognitive Science, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Trademark dilution is a cause of action for interfering with the uniqueness of a trademark. For example, consumers would probably not think that "Kodak soap" was produced by the makers of Kodak cameras, but its presence in the market would diminish the uniqueness of the original Kodak mark. Trademark owners think dilution is harmful but have had difficulty explaining why. Many courts have therefore been reluctant to enforce dilution laws, even while legislatures have enacted more of them over the past half century. Courts and commentators have now begun to use psychological theories, drawing on associationist models of cognition, to …


Glimpses Of The Priest As Dean, Legislator, And Friend, Paul F. Rothstein Jan 2008

Glimpses Of The Priest As Dean, Legislator, And Friend, Paul F. Rothstein

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Professor Rothstein offers details on how he crossed paths with Father Drinan and how they became good friends and professional colleagues.


Improving Immigration Adjudications Through Competent Counsel, Andrew I. Schoenholtz, Hamutal Bernstein Jan 2008

Improving Immigration Adjudications Through Competent Counsel, Andrew I. Schoenholtz, Hamutal Bernstein

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The immigration adjudication system in the United States is in serious need of reform. While much attention has focused on one of the principal adjudicators, the Immigration Judges, recent research conducted by Philip Schrag, Jaya Ramji-Nogales, and Andrew Schoenholtz has shown that policymakers and adjudicators should be examining all levels of decision making. This includes not only decisions at the Immigration Court level but also at the Asylum Office, the Board of Immigration Appeals and the Circuit Courts. In Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication, the authors found a troubling degree of inconsistency at all levels that track individual …


Risk Governance And Deliberative Democracy In Health Care, Nan D. Hunter Jan 2008

Risk Governance And Deliberative Democracy In Health Care, Nan D. Hunter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

I argue in this article that the concept of risk-centered governance is the best theoretical paradigm for understanding health law and the health care system. Over the past 20 years, an insurance-inflected discourse has migrated from the purely financial side of the health system into the heart of traditional medicine - the doctor-patient relationship. Rather than focus on doctrinal strands, I argue that scholars should analyze the law of health care as a set of governance practices organized around managing and allocating financial, as well as clinical, risk.

Over the same period, the body of law that structures most private …


On The Commander-In-Chief Power, David Luban Jan 2008

On The Commander-In-Chief Power, David Luban

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Since September 11, the Bush administration has asserted broad, exclusive presidential war powers under the Commander in Chief Clause. However, the minimalist language of the Clause never specifies what powers a commander in chief possesses. This paper argues, based on military history, original understanding, and the contemporary theory of civilian-military relations, that the commander-in-chief power is narrow rather than broad. In ancient and feudal societies, like contemporary military dictatorships, civilian and military dominion are fused to consolidate power in the hands of a single leader – a warrior-king or fighting executive, whose military prowess validates the claim to civilian rule. …


From Snail Mail To E-Mail: The Traditional Legal Memorandum In The Twenty-First Century, Kristen Konrad Robbins-Tiscione Jan 2008

From Snail Mail To E-Mail: The Traditional Legal Memorandum In The Twenty-First Century, Kristen Konrad Robbins-Tiscione

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Traditional legal memoranda have been used to teach objective analysis since the inception of legal writing programs in the 1970's. The continued use of these memoranda in the legal writing classroom leads law students to believe that traditional memoranda are still the primary form of communication between attorney and client. A 2006 survey of Georgetown University Law Center graduates, however, suggests that the traditional legal memorandum is all but dead in law practice. Seventy-five percent of the graduates surveyed said they write no more than three traditional memoranda per year. Instead, these graduates are more likely to communicate with clients …


Disintegration, Girardeau A. Spann Jan 2008

Disintegration, Girardeau A. Spann

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The silver lining behind the Supreme Court's decision to disintegrate the Seattle and Louisville public schools is that the decision also runs the risk of disintegrating judicial review. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 holds that the Constitution bars voluntary, race-conscious efforts by two local school boards to retain the racial integration that they worked so hard to achieve after Brown. In so holding, the Court curiously reads the Equal Protection Clause as preventing the use of race to pursue actual equality, and instead insists on a type of formal "equality" that has historically …


Guilty Pleas Or Trials: Which Does The Barrister Prefer?, Peter W. Tague Jan 2008

Guilty Pleas Or Trials: Which Does The Barrister Prefer?, Peter W. Tague

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Barristers in England and attorneys in the United States have been upbraided for pursuing their interests to their clients' detriment in recommending guilty pleas over trials. While this accusation against American attorneys could be true since their incentives are sometimes skewed to favor guilty pleas, it is not accurate with respect to barristers in England. This is because the latter’s selfish incentives--to maximize income and avoid sanction--incline them to prefer trials over guilty pleas. In Melbourne and Sydney, barristers have never been similarly accused. Indeed, the topic has not been studied. Based on interviews with legal professionals in those cities, …


Treaties As Law Of The Land: The Supremacy Clause And The Judicial Enforcement Of Treaties, Carlos Manuel Vázquez Jan 2008

Treaties As Law Of The Land: The Supremacy Clause And The Judicial Enforcement Of Treaties, Carlos Manuel Vázquez

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Courts in recent years have perceived threshold obstacles to the enforcement of treaties deriving from their nature as contracts between nations that generally depend for their efficacy on the interest and honor of the parties, rather than on domestic adjudication. This approach to treaty enforcement is in tension with the Constitution’s declaration that treaties are part of the law of the land and its instruction to judges to give them effect. The Founders understood that treaties depended on interest and honor on the international plane, but they made treaties enforceable in our courts anyway in order to avoid the international …


The Ada Amendments Act Of 2008, Chai R. Feldblum, Kevin Barry, Emily A. Benfer Jan 2008

The Ada Amendments Act Of 2008, Chai R. Feldblum, Kevin Barry, Emily A. Benfer

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The goal of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was to create a civil rights law protecting people with disabilities from discrimination on the basis of their disabilities. Disability rights advocates in 1990 were victorious in their efforts to open doors for people with disabilities and to change the country's outlook and acceptance of people with disabilities. These advocates believed that the terms of the ADA, based as they were on Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, combined with the legislative history of the ADA, would provide clear instructions to the courts that the ADA was intended to provide broad …


A Running Start: Getting “Law Ready” During A Presidential Transition, James E. Baker Jan 2008

A Running Start: Getting “Law Ready” During A Presidential Transition, James E. Baker

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

We are headed for our first wartime Presidential transition in forty years. The good news is that this has prompted uncommon attention to the process of transition. The bad news is that transitions are difficult in the best of circumstances; forewarned does not always equal prepared. The United States handles transitions well on a strategic level. Strategic continuity is found in the Constitution. Transition is also part of the rhythm of government. The intelligence community, for example, has a sound tradition of briefing candidates and Presidents-elect. However, there is tactical vulnerability. An outgoing administration may hesitate to initiate all but …


After The Reasonable Man: Getting Over The Subjectivity Objectivity Question, Victoria Nourse Jan 2008

After The Reasonable Man: Getting Over The Subjectivity Objectivity Question, Victoria Nourse

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article challenges the conventional notion of the “reasonable man.” It argues that we make a category mistake when we adopt the metaphor of a human being as the starting point for analysis of the criminal law and instead offers an alternate approach based on heuristic theory, reconceiving the reasonable man as a heuristic that serves as the site for debate over majoritarian norms. The article posits that the debate over having a purely subjective standard and a purely objective standard obscures the commonsense necessity of having a hybrid standard, one which takes into account the characteristics of a particular …


Time To Start Over On Deferred Compensation, Michael Doran Jan 2008

Time To Start Over On Deferred Compensation, Michael Doran

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Government regulators would do well to follow simple heuristics like that. Writing good regulations--"good" in the sense of promoting the public interest--always presents challenges. Regulators must hit a small but important target where private conduct is brought within appropriate government control, but unnecessary compliance burdens and other deadweight costs are minimized. Even if they see the government's objectives clearly, regulators often have only a limited understanding of the underlying private activities. Moreover, regulators may be unaware of how their rules disrupt or distort those activities in socially harmful ways.

Regulators occasionally hit the target exactly. More often, they miss--though not …


Equality's Future: An Introduction, Victoria Nourse Jan 2008

Equality's Future: An Introduction, Victoria Nourse

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

We stand at an extraordinary moment: never before have so many powerful men wished to be women. For the first time in history, a massive number of male and female voters--18 million in fact--cast their ballots to nominate a woman, Senator Hillary Clinton, to be President of the United States. Disappointed at Senator Clinton's failure to win the Democratic Party's nomination, many women threatened to bolt the party. Sensing opportunity, the Republican Presidential candidate, Senator John McCain, promptly named as his vice-presidential running mate the first woman ever nominated by the Republican Party to a Presidential ticket. And, not to …


Moral Conflict And Conflicting Liberties, Chai R. Feldblum Jan 2008

Moral Conflict And Conflicting Liberties, Chai R. Feldblum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The authors' goal in this chapter is to surface some of the commonalities between belief liberty and identity liberty and to offer some public policy suggestions for what to do when these liberties conflict. She first wants to make transparent the conflict that she believes exists between laws intended to protect the liberty of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people so that they may live lives of dignity and integrity and the religious beliefs of some individuals whose conduct is regulated by such laws. The author believes those who advocate for LGBT equality have downplayed the impact of such …


Are We Dead Yet? The Lies We Tell To Keep Moving Forward Without Feeling, Mari J. Matsuda Jan 2008

Are We Dead Yet? The Lies We Tell To Keep Moving Forward Without Feeling, Mari J. Matsuda

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Some days it seems easier to live with innocence, as though this afternoon's traffic and tonight's dinner were the big challenges of our lives, as if we could keep turning the key in the ignition and burning the incandescent bulb in the kitchen, magically removed from a grid that involves coal and oil, mercury poisoning, and pipelines, and colonialism and war.

Charles Lawrence wrote an article to prove to himself that he was not crazy. To tired colleagues who were saying, "There are no racists here," an adult variant of "Wasn't me," he chose a response that ruptured. In the …