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2008

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Law Enforcement and Corrections

Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Law

Judicial Fact-Finding At Sentencing, Stephanos Bibas Dec 2008

Judicial Fact-Finding At Sentencing, Stephanos Bibas

All Faculty Scholarship

This encyclopedia entry summarizes the pendulum-swings that led the Supreme Court in Apprendi v. New Jersey, Blakely v. Washington, and United States v. Booker to limit judges' ability to find facts at sentencing. Paradoxically, the much-criticized Federal Sentencing Guidelines have survived; a line of cases that began as an effort to restore juries' role has turned into a guarantor of judicial discretion; and the doctrine has quickly moved far from its Sixth Amendment roots to a policy balancing test. The Court could instead have pursued a different, more fruitful path. The Court did not have to force sentencing factors into …


Exacerbating Injustice, Stephanos Bibas Nov 2008

Exacerbating Injustice, Stephanos Bibas

All Faculty Scholarship

This brief essay responds to Josh Bowers' argument that criminal procedure should openly allow innocent defendants to plead guilty as a legal fiction. Though most scholars emphasize the few but salient serious felony cases, Bowers is right to refocus attention on misdemeanors and violations, which are far more numerous. And though the phrase wrongful convictions conjures up images of punishing upstanding citizens, Bowers is also right to emphasize that recidivists are far more likely to suffer wrongful suspicion and conviction. Bowers' mistake is to treat the criminal justice system as simply a means of satisfying defendants' preferences and choices. This …


Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 84, No. 16, Wku Student Affairs Oct 2008

Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 84, No. 16, Wku Student Affairs

WKU Archives Records

WKU campus newspaper reporting campus, athletic and Bowling Green, Kentucky news. Articles in this issue:

  • Paul, Corey. Fights & Frenzy
  • Day, Michelle. Gunfire Unconfirmed, Investigation Continues
  • Hale, Marianne. Campus, Community Voice Concerns
  • Timeline of Events
  • Slitz, Alex. A Thousand Words – Charus Changchit
  • Howerton, Christina. Enrollment Increases 2.6 Percent
  • Howerton, Christina. Task Force Explores Ways to Make College Cost Less
  • Gadbois, Chris. Rudeness Isn’t an Issue with Shuttle Drivers
  • Bonneau-Kaya, Chrystal. Objectification of Women is Dehumanizing, Wrong
  • Schwab, Edmond. Learn the Background of the Financial Troubles
  • Bybee, Sarah. Please Slow Down and Watch Out for Pedestrians
  • Cawthorn, Shawna. Poor Football …


Involuntary Endogenous Rfid Compliance Monitoring As A Condition Of Federal Supervised Release - Chips Ahoy?, Isaac B. Rosenberg Oct 2008

Involuntary Endogenous Rfid Compliance Monitoring As A Condition Of Federal Supervised Release - Chips Ahoy?, Isaac B. Rosenberg

W&M Law Student Publications

Among the many cutting edge technologies law enforcement agencies increasingly covet is radio frequency identification ("RFID"). Researchers predict RFID will become the most pervasive computer technology in history. Among the more extraordinary and controversial government uses of RFID-and the focus of this Paper-include implantation of subdermal RFID transmitters. Privacy concerns abound. Not surprisingly, critics and privacy advocates are wary of subdermal RFID implants, fearful that only afine line separates relatively innocuous, voluntary implantation from arbitrary government-mandated implantation. But for involuntary implantation of RFID chips to take root, government implantation programs would have to start on the small scale, targeting the …


Young People On Remand, Mairéad Seymour, Michelle Butler Sep 2008

Young People On Remand, Mairéad Seymour, Michelle Butler

Reports

The aim of this study is to examine the services and supports required by young people to promote greater compliance with the conditions of bail and reduce the use of detention on remand. The research addresses three main areas: • to establish the service and support needs of young people by investigating the circumstances of their life circumstances; • to examine the specific services and supports required by young people and their families during the remand process, in the courtroom and in the period between adjournments; • to address the issues and barriers to delivering services and supports to young …


Cybercrime Against Businesses, 2005, Us Department Of Justice Sep 2008

Cybercrime Against Businesses, 2005, Us Department Of Justice

National Institute of Justice Office of Justice Programs

No abstract provided.


Eyewitness Identification Reform In Massachusetts, Stanley Z. Fisher Jul 2008

Eyewitness Identification Reform In Massachusetts, Stanley Z. Fisher

Faculty Scholarship

This article traces the impact of the new scientific learning upon police eyewitness identification procedures in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Over the past 25 years, experimental psychologists have devised more reliable techniques for gathering eyewitness identification evidence than have been traditionally used by police. Massachusetts has over 350 autonomous municipal police departments, plus approximately 39 college campus police departments, the state police, and the MBTA (transit) Police Department. The decision how to investigate crime rests principally with the police chief responsible for each department. How does such a system of policing absorb new, scientifically superior methods of investigation?


Sobriety Checkpoints: The Case For Implementation In Rhode Island, Scott Naso Apr 2008

Sobriety Checkpoints: The Case For Implementation In Rhode Island, Scott Naso

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

A survey was prepared and conducted to investigate the viability of implementing sobriety checkpoints in Rhode Island. The survey was designed to make a comparison between a state which has found sobriety checkpoints to be constitutional, Massachusetts, and a state that has found sobriety checkpoints to be unconstitutional, Rhode Island. The survey's findings indicate that Rhode Island would benefit from the implementation of sobriety checkpoints.


Prosecuting Sexual Violence In Correctional Settings: Examining Prosecutors’ Perceptions, Brenda V. Smith, Jaime Yarussi Apr 2008

Prosecuting Sexual Violence In Correctional Settings: Examining Prosecutors’ Perceptions, Brenda V. Smith, Jaime Yarussi

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) is the first piece of federal legislation that expressly and exclusively addresses sexual abuse of persons in custody. Notwithstanding passage of the Act, there is a clear belief, echoed by correctional leaders, that prosecutors are reluctant at best, and unwilling at worst, to prosecute cases of sexual violence in correctional settings. In order to gather information on the prosecutor interest in and capacity to prosecute these cases, the National Institute of Corrections Project on Addressing Prison Rape at the Washington College of Law (the NIC/WCL Project) collected data from state and federal …


The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation And Unresolved Issues, Brenda V. Smith Apr 2008

The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation And Unresolved Issues, Brenda V. Smith

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

In September 2003, the United States Congress unanimously passed the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). The Act was the culmination of a collaborative effort between human rights, faith-based, and prison rape advocacy. The aim of the Act is to create zero tolerance for prison rape by using a variety of tools or mechanisms including data collection; grants to the states; technical assistance to the states to improve their practices; research; the development of national standards; and the diminution of federal criminal justice assistance to states who fail to comply with the standards. This article aims to provide a brief background …


The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation And Unresolved Issues, Brenda V. Smith Apr 2008

The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation And Unresolved Issues, Brenda V. Smith

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

This article aims to provide a brief background of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) and the important political forces that shaped its passing, the current status on implementation of the Act, including progress made with each of the tools, and a prediction about issues that will arise in the enactment and implementation of the standards required by PREA.


Death And Harmless Error: A Rhetorical Response To Judging Innocence, Colin Starger Feb 2008

Death And Harmless Error: A Rhetorical Response To Judging Innocence, Colin Starger

All Faculty Scholarship

Professor Garrett’s impressive empirical analysis of the first 200 post conviction DNA exonerations in the United States (“Garrett Study”) has the potential to affect contemporary debates surrounding our nation’s criminal justice system. This Response explores this potential by harnessing the Study’s data in support of arguments for and against a contested doctrinal proposition — that guilt-based harmless error rules should never apply in death penalty appeals. My analysis starts with the premise that the Study’s real world impact will necessarily depend on how jurists, politicians, and scholars extrapolate the explanatory power of the data beyond the 200 cases themselves. While …


Torture, Truth Serum, And Ticking Bombs: Toward A Pragmatic Perspective Of Coercive Interrogation, Kenneth Lasson Jan 2008

Torture, Truth Serum, And Ticking Bombs: Toward A Pragmatic Perspective Of Coercive Interrogation, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

The 'War on Terror' has prompted a great deal of discussion about the use of torture as a means of extracting information from those suspected of having perpetrated past acts of violence or planning future ones. Despite the years that have passed since the attacks of September 11, 2001, for both citizens and government officials there is still a strong tension between the competing emotions of anger, revenge, and desperation; it seems increasingly difficult to adhere to international norms governing a nation's moral and legal obligations to protect its citizens from grave danger while continuing to support individual freedoms. Among …


Social Life And Civic Education In The Rio De Janeiro City Jail, Amy Chazkel Jan 2008

Social Life And Civic Education In The Rio De Janeiro City Jail, Amy Chazkel

Studio for Law and Culture

In the six weeks from mid-July to early September 1912, about a third of the 389 men whom guards escorted through the front doors of the Rio de Janeiro city jail had been arrested for vagrancy, or in Portuguese vadiagem, an infraction whose etymological connection to the word “vague” is not a coincidence. These men remained in detention for between five days and over a year, accused by arresting police officers of having committed the crime of doing nothing. As they awaited trial or, for the least fortunate, transportation to an offshore penal colony, they shared the crowded space …


Lessons From Hurricane Katrina: Prison Emergency Preparedness As A Constitutional Imperative, Ira P. Robbins Jan 2008

Lessons From Hurricane Katrina: Prison Emergency Preparedness As A Constitutional Imperative, Ira P. Robbins

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters ever to strike the United States, in terms of casualties, suffering, and financial cost. Often overlooked among Katrina’s victims are the 8,000 inmates who were incarcerated at Orleans Parish Prison (OPP) when Katrina struck. Despite a mandatory evacuation of New Orleans, these men and women, some of whom had been held on charges as insignificant as public intoxication, remained in the jail as the hurricane hit, and endured days of rising, toxic waters, a lack of food and drinking water, and a complete breakdown of order within OPP. When the inmates …


The 'High Crime Area' Question: Requiring Verifiable And Quantifiable Evidence For Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis, Andrew Ferguson, Damien Bernache Jan 2008

The 'High Crime Area' Question: Requiring Verifiable And Quantifiable Evidence For Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis, Andrew Ferguson, Damien Bernache

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This article proposes a legal framework to analyze the "high crime area" concept in Fourth Amendment reasonable suspicion challenges.Under existing Supreme Court precedent, reviewing courts are allowed to consider that an area is a "high crime area" as a factor to evaluate the reasonableness of a Fourth Amendment stop. See Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119 (2000). However, the Supreme Court has never defined a "high crime area" and lower courts have not reached consensus on a definition. There is no agreement on what a "high-crime area" is, whether it has geographic boundaries, whether it changes over time, whether it …


From Debtors’ Prisons To Prisoner Debtors: Credit Counseling For The Incarcerated, Laura B. Bartell Jan 2008

From Debtors’ Prisons To Prisoner Debtors: Credit Counseling For The Incarcerated, Laura B. Bartell

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Alternatives For Youth’S Advocacy Program:Reducing Minority Youth Incarceration Placements In Cleveland, Ohio, Christopher A. Mallett, Linda Julian Jan 2008

Alternatives For Youth’S Advocacy Program:Reducing Minority Youth Incarceration Placements In Cleveland, Ohio, Christopher A. Mallett, Linda Julian

Social Work Faculty Publications

Detaining and incarcerating juvenile delinquents is ineffective and costly juvenile justice policy. These placements, indicative of the “tough on crime” approach, become problematic for many of these youths who do not have the advantage of legal counsel because they waive this right. In addition, a majority of these youths have a mental health or special education disability that does not get addressed in correctional facilities. Alternatives for Youth's Advocacy Program (AFY) in Cleveland, Ohio (Cuyahoga County) is addressing these issues using a holistic approach that includes the provision of civil legal representation to assist youths in accessing disability services and …


Reforming, Reclaiming Or Reframing Womanhood: Reflections On Advocacy For Women In Custody, Brenda V. Smith Jan 2008

Reforming, Reclaiming Or Reframing Womanhood: Reflections On Advocacy For Women In Custody, Brenda V. Smith

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

I was asked to present one of the keynote addresses for this important symposium, Behind Bars: The Impact of Incarceration on Women and Their Families, sponsored by the Women's Rights Law Reporter at Rutgers University School of Law in Newark. I am happy to write the introductory essay for this meaningful publication which arose from that symposium. This is a particularly hospitable and appropriate environment for this publication given Rutgers University's important place in feminist scholarship and discourse - both in its graduate and undergraduate programs and in its publication arm - Rutgers University Press. Historically,the Women's Rights Law Reporter …


The Violence Against Women Act: Denying Needed Resources Based On Criminal History, Jaime M. Yarussi Jan 2008

The Violence Against Women Act: Denying Needed Resources Based On Criminal History, Jaime M. Yarussi

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

This article aims to discuss the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) and the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) in regards to funding for mental health treatment and crisis servic- es for incarcerated survivors and victims of sexual violence. It will begin by illustrating the need for services because of inmates’ likely history of victimization and draws conclusions regarding the impact that denying VAWA/ VOCA resources may have on the recovery of incarcerated victims.


The American Prosecutor - Power, Discretion, And Misconduct, Angela J. Davis Jan 2008

The American Prosecutor - Power, Discretion, And Misconduct, Angela J. Davis

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Frequency And Predictors Of False Conviction: Why We Know So Little, And New Data On Capital Cases, Samuel R. Gross, Barbara O'Brien Jan 2008

Frequency And Predictors Of False Conviction: Why We Know So Little, And New Data On Capital Cases, Samuel R. Gross, Barbara O'Brien

Articles

In the first part of this article, we address the problems inherent in studying wrongful convictions: our pervasive ignorance and the extreme difficulty of obtaining the data that we need to answer even basic questions. The main reason that we know so little about false convictions is that, by definition, they are hidden from view. As a result, it is nearly impossible to gather reliable data on the characteristics or even the frequency of false convictions. In addition, we have very limited data on criminal investigations and prosecutions in general, so even if we could somehow obtain data on cases …


Law And Governance In The 21st Century Regulatory State, Jason M. Solomon Jan 2008

Law And Governance In The 21st Century Regulatory State, Jason M. Solomon

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Concept Of "Less Eligibility" And The Social Function Of Prison Violence In Class Society, Ahmed A. White Jan 2008

The Concept Of "Less Eligibility" And The Social Function Of Prison Violence In Class Society, Ahmed A. White

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Empirics Of Prison Growth: A Critical Review And Path Forward, John F. Pfaff Jan 2008

The Empirics Of Prison Growth: A Critical Review And Path Forward, John F. Pfaff

Faculty Scholarship

A growing empirical literature has sought to explain the forces behind the significant expansion of the U.S. prison population over the past thirty years. Unfortunately, the studies to date have suffered from important methodological, conceptual, and definitional problems that have significantly curtailed their ability to identify causal effects. In this Article, I examine several of the central limitations and discuss remedies. I start by reviewing the theories that investigators have sought to test. I then discuss the studies' empirical defects, such as failing to account for endogenous relationships, overlooking the risk of model dependency, ignoring complex dynamic relationships, using variables …


Pfo Law Reform, A Crucial First Step Towards Sentencing Sanity In Kentucky, Robert G. Lawson Jan 2008

Pfo Law Reform, A Crucial First Step Towards Sentencing Sanity In Kentucky, Robert G. Lawson

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The purpose of this article is to engage in some analysis and discussion of the part of this sentencing law that cries out loudest for reform (the state's persistent felony offender law), reform that in short order would begin to deflate the population that has our prisons and jails grossly overcrowded. In this analysis and discussion, there is some brief consideration of the justifications used to support repeat offender laws (Part I), a segment on the history and evolution of Kentucky's law (Part II), an examination of a selection of repeat offender laws from other states (Part III), a report …


A Closing Keynote: A Comment On Mass Incarceration In The United States, David Rudovsky Jan 2008

A Closing Keynote: A Comment On Mass Incarceration In The United States, David Rudovsky

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Tolling For The Luckless, The Abandoned And Forsaked: Community Safety, Therapeutic Jurisprudence And International Human Rights Law As Applied To Prisoners And Detainees, Michael L. Perlin, Astrid Birgden Jan 2008

Tolling For The Luckless, The Abandoned And Forsaked: Community Safety, Therapeutic Jurisprudence And International Human Rights Law As Applied To Prisoners And Detainees, Michael L. Perlin, Astrid Birgden

Articles & Chapters

There has been an explosion of interest in therapeutic jurisprudence as both a filter and lens for viewing theextent to which the legal system serves therapeutic or anti therapeutic consequences. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of therapeutic jurisprudence on questions of international human rights law and the role of forensic psychologists. Human rights are based on legal, social, and moral rules. The paper will propose that human rights principles can add to the normative base of therapeutic jurisprudence, and in turn, therapeutic jurisprudence can assist forensic psychologists to actively address human rights. As duty bearers, forensic …


Thoroughly Modern: Sir James Fitzjames Stephen On Criminal Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse Jan 2008

Thoroughly Modern: Sir James Fitzjames Stephen On Criminal Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Constructing A Criminal Justice System Free Of Racial Bias: An Abolitionist Framework, Dorothy E. Roberts Jan 2008

Constructing A Criminal Justice System Free Of Racial Bias: An Abolitionist Framework, Dorothy E. Roberts

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.