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2008

Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 76

Full-Text Articles in Law

A Response To Professor Camp: The Importance Of Oversight, Leslie Book Oct 2008

A Response To Professor Camp: The Importance Of Oversight, Leslie Book

Working Paper Series

In past writings and in an upcoming article by Professor Bryan Camp, The Problem of Adversarial Process in the Administrative State, 83 IND. L. J. ### (2008), Professor Camp criticizes the procedural protections Congress added in the tax collection process, noting the limitations of adversary proceedings in the IRS’s tax collection process. In particular, Professor Camp strongly criticizes the collection due process (CDP) rights that were part of the landmark IRS Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998. Given the size of the tax gap, and likely increasing calls for the IRS to do a better job in reducing that tax ...


Calling It A Leg Doesn't Make It A Leg: Doctors, Lawyers And Tort Reform, Ellen Wertheimer Oct 2008

Calling It A Leg Doesn't Make It A Leg: Doctors, Lawyers And Tort Reform, Ellen Wertheimer

Working Paper Series

It has long been a truism that doctors hate lawyers. This article explores some of the reasons for this phenomenon, as well as some areas for reform that might help to promote a better relationship between the professions.


Public Law, Private Law, And Legal Science, Chaim Saiman Jul 2008

Public Law, Private Law, And Legal Science, Chaim Saiman

Working Paper Series

This essay explores the historical and conceptual connections between private law and nineteenth century classical legal science from the perspective of German, American, and Jewish law. In each context, legal science flourished when scholars examined the confined doctrines traditional to private law, but fell apart when applied to public, administrative and regulatory law. Moving to the contemporary context, while traditional private law scholarship retains a prominent position in German law and academia, American law has increasingly shifted its focus from the language of substantive private law to a legal regime centered on public and procedural law. The essay concludes by ...


Study Of The Role Of Preparers In Relation To Taxpayer Compliance With Internal Revenue Laws, Leslie Book Jun 2008

Study Of The Role Of Preparers In Relation To Taxpayer Compliance With Internal Revenue Laws, Leslie Book

Working Paper Series

The use of paid tax return preparers has grown steadily. All paid return preparers, including those who are not regulated by any licensing entity or subject to competency or continuing education requirements, must comply with certain requirements in connection with the preparation of a tax return, including signing the return and providing a copy of the return to taxpayers. Preparers are also subject to civil and even criminal penalties for improper conduct and the Code provides that the United States may bring a civil action to enjoin tax preparers if preparers engage in certain types of impermissible conduct.

As discussed ...


How The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Shaped The Executive, Louis J. Sirico Jr. Jun 2008

How The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Shaped The Executive, Louis J. Sirico Jr.

Working Paper Series

This Article examines the debates of the Founders over the separation of powers doctrine as it relates to the executive branch. After surveying the experience in the colonies and under the post-Revolutionary state constitutions, it analyzes the relevant issues at the Constitutional Convention. Rather than focusing on abstract discussions of political theory, the article examines specific decisions and controversies in which separation of powers was a concern. The Article offers a detailed recounting of those debates. At the Convention, separation of powers arose most prominently in the arguments over nine issues: choosing the Executive, permitting the Executive to stand for ...


``No One Does That Anymore": On Tushnet, Constitutions, And Others, Penelope J. Pether Jun 2008

``No One Does That Anymore": On Tushnet, Constitutions, And Others, Penelope J. Pether

Working Paper Series

In this contribution to the Quinnipiac Law Review’s annual symposium edition, this year devoted to the work of Mark Tushnet, I read his antijuridification scholarship “against the grain,” concluding both that Tushnet’s later scholarship is neo-Realist rather than critical in its orientation, and that both his early scholarship on slavery and his post-9/11 constitutional work reveal an ambivalence about the claim that we learn from history to circumscribe our excesses, which anchors his popular constitutionalist rhetoric.

The likeness of Tushnet’s scholarship to the work of the Realists lies in this: while the Realists’ search for a ...


“Militant Judgement?: Judicial Ontology, Constitutional Poetics, And ‘The Long War’”, Penelope J. Pether Jun 2008

“Militant Judgement?: Judicial Ontology, Constitutional Poetics, And ‘The Long War’”, Penelope J. Pether

Working Paper Series

This Article, a contribution to the Cardozo Law Review symposium in honor of Alain Badiou’s Being and Event, uses Badiou’s theorizing of the event and of the militant in Being and Event as a basis for an exploration of problems of judicial ontology and constitutional hermeneutics raised in recent decisions by common law courts dealing with the legislative and executive confinement of “Islamic” asylum seekers, “enemy combatants” and “terrorism suspects,” and certain classes of criminal offenders in spaces beyond the doctrines, paradigms and institutions of the criminal law. The Article proposes an ontology and a poetics of judging ...


“What’S The Matter With You Catholics?” Soundings In Catholic Social Thought: Traditions In Turmoil. By Mary Ann Glendon, Patrick Mckinley Brennan May 2008

“What’S The Matter With You Catholics?” Soundings In Catholic Social Thought: Traditions In Turmoil. By Mary Ann Glendon, Patrick Mckinley Brennan

Working Paper Series

This review essay of Mary Ann Glendon's Traditions in Turmoil (2006) explores such topics as tradition, moral discourse, human rights, subsidiarity, natural law, the common good, civil society, and constitutional and statutory interpretation. In doing so, it provides an introduction both to Catholic social thought and to the thought of Bernard Lonergan.


Differentiating Church And State (Without Losing The Church), Patrick Mckinley Brennan May 2008

Differentiating Church And State (Without Losing The Church), Patrick Mckinley Brennan

Working Paper Series

There is an ongoing debate about whether the U.S. Constitution includes -- or should be interpreted to include -- a principle of "church autonomy." Catholic doctrine and political theology, by contrast, clearly articulated a principle of "libertas ecclesiae," liberty of the church, when during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the Church differentiated herself from the state. This article explores the meaning and origin of the doctrine of the libertas ecclesiae and the proper relationship among churches, civil society, and government. In doing so, it highlights the points at which church and state should cooperate and the points at which mutual ...


Factual Premises Of Statutory Interpretation In Agency Review Cases, Todd S. Aagaard May 2008

Factual Premises Of Statutory Interpretation In Agency Review Cases, Todd S. Aagaard

Working Paper Series

This article examines factual premises of statutory interpretation in agency review cases, and proposes an approach that would better integrate the treatment of such factual premises into the overall structure of administrative law. Courts frequently encounter questions of statutory interpretation that depend on underlying factual background, context, and implications. When they do so, courts generally assume that they retain the authority to decide the factual premises and thereby to answer questions of statutory interpretation that depend on factual premises. This is problematic from a functional standpoint, because courts often lack the information or expertise necessary to assess these underlying facts ...


Exploring The Impact Of The Marriage Amendments: Can Public Employers Offer Domestic Partner Benefits To Their Gay And Lesbian Employees?, Tiffany C. Graham May 2008

Exploring The Impact Of The Marriage Amendments: Can Public Employers Offer Domestic Partner Benefits To Their Gay And Lesbian Employees?, Tiffany C. Graham

Working Paper Series

The article focuses on an issue that is shaping up to be the new front in the same-sex marriage wars: whether applying the terms of the more broadly-constructed amendments to public employers will bar them from offering domestic partner benefits to their gay and lesbian employees. The first part of the article offers an overview of domestic partner benefits plans and discusses the manner in which they are currently being threatened by the more broadly-constructed marriage amendments. The second part takes a close look at the litigation in National Pride at Work v. Michigan. This case represents the first time ...


Peasants, Tanners, And Psychiatrists: Using Films To Teach Comparative Law, Joseph W. Dellapenna May 2008

Peasants, Tanners, And Psychiatrists: Using Films To Teach Comparative Law, Joseph W. Dellapenna

Working Paper Series

Films have proven to be a useful teaching tool for a course on Comparative Law. The films serve to introduce the class to the look and feel of legal proceedings from selected foreign legal systems and to illustrate particular aspects of how these legal proceedings differ from our own. The article summarizes the results of more than 10 years of experience in using films. It will be of interest to others who teach Comparative Law and also to lawyers, judges, and students who want a video means of oriented themselves to foreign legal traditions. The article discusses the limitations of ...


“We Are At War And You Should Not Bother The President”: The Suffrage Pickets And Freedom Of Speech During World War I, Catherine J. Lanctot May 2008

“We Are At War And You Should Not Bother The President”: The Suffrage Pickets And Freedom Of Speech During World War I, Catherine J. Lanctot

Working Paper Series

The story of Alice Paul’s National Woman’s Party and its 1917 picketing campaign onbehalf of woman suffrage is almost unknown in legal circles. Yet the suffrage pickets were among the earliest victims of the suppression of dissent that accompanied the entry of the United States into World War I. Nearly forty years before the modern civil rights movement brought the concept of nonviolent civil disobedience to the forefront of American political discourse, the NWP conducted a direct action campaign at the very doorstep of the President of the United States, and they did so during a time of ...


Taking Certification Seriously – Why There Is No Such Thing As An Adequate Representative In A Securities Fraud Class Action, Richard A. Booth Apr 2008

Taking Certification Seriously – Why There Is No Such Thing As An Adequate Representative In A Securities Fraud Class Action, Richard A. Booth

Working Paper Series

Securities fraud class actions (SFCAs) arising under Rule 10b-5 are well established as a feature of the legal landscape, but they are a vestige of a largely outdated view of investor behavior and preferences. In the 1960s, most investors were undiversified stock pickers. Today, most investors hold stock through well diversified institutions. As a result, most investors are net losers from SFCAs. Moreover, it is arguable that it is irrational for most investors not to be diversified. A passive investor who fails to diversify assumes unnecessary risk for the same expected return that diversified investors enjoy. Given that federal securities ...


Reviving The Subject Of Law, Penelope J. Pether Apr 2008

Reviving The Subject Of Law, Penelope J. Pether

Working Paper Series

This essay is an advanced draft of work that will be published in On Philosophy and American Law (Francis J. Mootz III ed. forthcoming, Cambridge U.P., 2009). This edited collection includes responses by a wide range of scholars working in legal theory to Mootz’s challenge to respond to the current state of American legal philosophy, using Karl Llewellyn’s 1934 University of Pennsylvania law review account of the emergence of legal realism as a prompt. Drawing on the author’s recent scholarship on the emergence of a distinctive and impoverished model of “common law” judging in the U ...


Five Decades Of Corporation Law - From Conglomeration To Equity Compensation, Richard A. Booth Apr 2008

Five Decades Of Corporation Law - From Conglomeration To Equity Compensation, Richard A. Booth

Working Paper Series

This brief essay recounts developments in corporation law over the last fifty years. It begins with the rise of finance capitalism and the conglomerate corporation which was followed by the emergence of hostile takeovers in the late 1970s and 1980s. One of the key events in this saga was the February 1, 1983 decision by the Delaware Supreme Court in Weinberger v. UOP, Inc. that effectively permitted the at-will elimination of minority stockholders through cashout mergers. Takeovers were also facilitated by two major financial developments: (1) the growth of institutional investors coupled with the growing taste of diversified investors for ...


Readability Studies: How Technocentrism Can Compromise Research And Legal Determinations, Louis J. Sirico Jr. Feb 2008

Readability Studies: How Technocentrism Can Compromise Research And Legal Determinations, Louis J. Sirico Jr.

Working Paper Series

One way to determine whether consumers understand a document is to use a readability formula to assign it a score. These formulas calculate readability by counting such variables as the number of words and syllables in a passage or document. The idea of readability formulas has been defined as “an equation which combines those text features that best predict text difficulty. The equation is usually developed by studying the relationship between text features (e.g., words, sentences) and text difficulty (e.g., reading comprehension, reading rate, and expert judgment of difficulty).” Even though readability formulas are mechanical and imperfect, they ...


Substantive Media Regulation In Three Dimenstions, Gregory P. Magarian Feb 2008

Substantive Media Regulation In Three Dimenstions, Gregory P. Magarian

Working Paper Series

Changes in the political and regulatory climates are prompting calls to revive substantive government regulation of the broadcast media, specifically the now-defunct fairness doctrine. In this article, Professor Magarian attempts to sharpen the present debate over substantive regulation by closely examining earlier defenses and criticisms of the fairness doctrine. The article assesses how supporters and opponents of the fairness doctrine have characterized three issues essential for assessing the doctrine’s wisdom and constitutionality: who is regulating; who is being regulated; and the goal of the regulatory scheme. As to the first issue, who is regulating, fairness doctrine supporters emphasize the ...


Presidential Authority And The War On Terror, Joseph W. Dellapenna Feb 2008

Presidential Authority And The War On Terror, Joseph W. Dellapenna

Working Paper Series

Immediately after the attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush claimed, among other powers, the power to launch preemptive wars on his own authority; the power to disregard the laws of war pertaining to occupied lands; the power to define the status and treatment of persons detained as “enemy combatants” in the war on terror; and the power to authorize the National Security Agency to undertake electronic surveillance in violation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. With the exception of the power to launch a preemptive war on his own authority (for which he ...


The Use Of The Corporate Monitor In Sec Enforcement Actions, Jennifer O'Hare Feb 2008

The Use Of The Corporate Monitor In Sec Enforcement Actions, Jennifer O'Hare

Working Paper Series

This paper addresses the SEC’s recent use of the corporate monitor as ancillary relief in its enforcement actions. The corporate monitor represents the latest example of the SEC seeking to shift its enforcement responsibilities to the public companies it regulates. Focusing on the role played by the corporate monitor imposed by the SEC in its enforcement action brought against WorldCom, this paper considers some of the dangers posed by the use of the corporate monitor, such as the whether the appointment of a corporate monitor constitutes impermissible overreaching by the SEC. The paper recognizes that the corporate monitor can ...


The Paulson Report Reconsidered: How To Fix Securities Litigation By Converting Class Actions Into Issuer Actions, Richard A. Booth Jan 2008

The Paulson Report Reconsidered: How To Fix Securities Litigation By Converting Class Actions Into Issuer Actions, Richard A. Booth

Working Paper Series

This short essay considers the findings and recommendations of the Paulson Report relating to securities fraud class actions under the 1934 Act and Rule 10b-5. While the report exposes numerous problems with securities litigation in the United States, it understates the problems inherent in stock-drop actions. As a result, the report fails to propose an effective fix. As the report recognizes, diversified investors gain nothing from stock-drop actions: Because the corporation pays, holders effectively reimburse buyers and sellers keep their gains. In other words, the system suffers from circularity akin to a game of musical chairs in that stock-drop actions ...


Locating Authority In Law, And Avoiding The Authoritarianism Of Textualism, Patrick Mckinley Brennan Jan 2008

Locating Authority In Law, And Avoiding The Authoritarianism Of Textualism, Patrick Mckinley Brennan

Patrick McKinley Brennan

Much modern jurisprudence attempts to move the locus of authority away from people with authority in order to locate it instead, for example, in rules or texts. This article argues that authority, wherever it exists, is a quality of the actions of persons. The article mounts this argument by showing how Justice Scalia’s textualism is the legal analogue of a largely discredited form of “Christian positivism,” one that leads to a form of authoritarianism. The article goes on to argue that authorianism can be avoided only by individuals’ and their communities’ becoming authoritative, including in the making and enforcement ...


What's The Matter With You Catholics? Soundings In Catholic Social Thought (Review Of Mary Ann Glendon, Traditions In Turmoil, 2006) (Invited), Patrick Mckinley Brennan Jan 2008

What's The Matter With You Catholics? Soundings In Catholic Social Thought (Review Of Mary Ann Glendon, Traditions In Turmoil, 2006) (Invited), Patrick Mckinley Brennan

Patrick McKinley Brennan

This review essay of Mary Ann Glendon’s Traditions in Turmoil (2006) explores such topics as tradition, moral discourse, human rights, subsidiarity, natural law, the common good, civil society, and constitutional and statutory interpretation. In doing so, it provides an introduction both to Catholic social thought and to the thought of Bernard Lonergan.


Public School Governance And Democracy: Does Public Participation Matter, Natalie Gomez-Velez Jan 2008

Public School Governance And Democracy: Does Public Participation Matter, Natalie Gomez-Velez

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


J.J. Morrison And His Right Of Publicity Lawsuit Against The Ncaa, Sean Hanlon, Ray Yasser Jan 2008

J.J. Morrison And His Right Of Publicity Lawsuit Against The Ncaa, Sean Hanlon, Ray Yasser

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Welcome To The (Impenetrable) Jungle: Massachusetts V. Epa, The Clean Air Act And The Common Law Of Public Nuisance, P. Leigh Bausinger Jan 2008

Welcome To The (Impenetrable) Jungle: Massachusetts V. Epa, The Clean Air Act And The Common Law Of Public Nuisance, P. Leigh Bausinger

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Discrimination & (And) Deference: Making A Case For The Eeoc's Expertise With English-Only Rules, Robyn S. Stoter Jan 2008

Discrimination & (And) Deference: Making A Case For The Eeoc's Expertise With English-Only Rules, Robyn S. Stoter

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Innocent Until Proven (Hypothetically) Guilty: The Third Circuit Condones The Use Of Guilt-Assuming Hypotheticals In United States V. Kellogg, Eric M. Kubilus Jan 2008

Innocent Until Proven (Hypothetically) Guilty: The Third Circuit Condones The Use Of Guilt-Assuming Hypotheticals In United States V. Kellogg, Eric M. Kubilus

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Derogating The Precautionary Principle, A. W. Harris Jan 2008

Derogating The Precautionary Principle, A. W. Harris

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Friends Of The Earth, Inc. V. Epa: The Daily Plunge Into Troubled Waters, Rachel L. Stern Jan 2008

Friends Of The Earth, Inc. V. Epa: The Daily Plunge Into Troubled Waters, Rachel L. Stern

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.