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2007

State and Local Government Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 251

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Choice To Limit Choice: Using Psychiatric Advance Directives To Manage The Effects Of Mental Illness And Support Self-Responsibility, Breanne M. Sheetz Dec 2007

The Choice To Limit Choice: Using Psychiatric Advance Directives To Manage The Effects Of Mental Illness And Support Self-Responsibility, Breanne M. Sheetz

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Psychiatric advance directives are a valuable tool for individuals with mental illnesses. Ulysses directives, in particular, allow individuals to bind themselves to treatment in advance of needing it for the purpose of overcoming illness-induced refusals. This Note evaluates the effectiveness of state advance directive statutes in three areas that are especially important for Ulysses directives: defining competency to execute, activate, and revoke directives; waiving the constitutional right to refuse treatment; and encouraging provider compliance. This Note ultimately advocates for other states to adopt provisions similar to a Washington State statute. The Washington statute authorizes Ulysses directives by allowing advance consent …


Access To Information, Access To Justice: The Role Of Presuit Investigatory Discovery, Lonny Sheinkopf Hoffman Dec 2007

Access To Information, Access To Justice: The Role Of Presuit Investigatory Discovery, Lonny Sheinkopf Hoffman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

What is the relationship between access to information and access to justice? Private parties obviously have many publicly available points of access to the information they seek in order to file a lawsuit. Lawyers can talk to their clients and other willing witnesses. Documents can be gathered. Specific statutes may sometimes permit information to be obtained before a formal lawsuit is brought. On other occasions, however, information needed or desired will lie solely within the exclusive knowledge and control of another The ability of private parties to compel the production of information, documents, or testimony before litigation rarely has been …


Is There A Dormant Extraterritoriality Principle?: Commerce Clause Limits On State Antitrust Laws, Michael J. Ruttinger Dec 2007

Is There A Dormant Extraterritoriality Principle?: Commerce Clause Limits On State Antitrust Laws, Michael J. Ruttinger

Michigan Law Review

State antitrust laws ordinarily supplement federal law by providing a cause of action for anticompetitive activity that occurs in the state. Some states, however, have construed their antitrust regimes to reach conduct that occurs outside the state's boundaries. Such regulation raises significant federalism and Commerce Clause concerns by creating possible extraterritorial liability for conduct with virtually no in-state effect. This Note examines two Commerce Clause standards that may limit the degree to which state antitrust laws may exercise extraterritorial force-the "dormant" or "negative" Commerce Clause and the so-called "Extraterritorial Principle." Unfortunately, the dormant Commerce Clause test, as articulated in Pike …


Local Government Law, R. Perry Sentell Dec 2007

Local Government Law, R. Perry Sentell

Mercer Law Review

This particular [City Commission] meeting had drawn on for quite some time, until it was getting fairly late. We heard someone knocking very rapidly on the plate glass window. As I turned around, I observed an elderly woman, the wife of the Mayor. The Mayor appeared to ignore his wife and continued to conduct the meeting. Not getting any response from her knocking, the wife then walked into the building, grabbed the Mayor by the arm, and scolded him that it was ridiculous that the City Commission was meeting so late at night. "You," she informed the Mayor, "are going …


The Original Understanding Of The New Hampshire Constitution’S Education Clause, Edward C. Mosca Dec 2007

The Original Understanding Of The New Hampshire Constitution’S Education Clause, Edward C. Mosca

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “In 1993, the New Hampshire Supreme Court held that “part II, article 83 [of the state constitution] imposes a duty on the State to provide a constitutionally adequate education to every educable child in the public schools in New Hampshire and to guarantee adequate funding,” and that this duty is enforceable by the judiciary. This decision, known as Claremont I, was the wellspring of a line of decisions that has radically changed both the manner in which public education is funded in New Hampshire and the respective roles of the judicial branch and the representative branches in formulating education …


Princípios-Tópicos De Hermenêutica Constitucional, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2007

Princípios-Tópicos De Hermenêutica Constitucional, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Houve tempo em que a Constituição servia para poisar ou charuto ou tirar um argumento político, como ironicamente afirmaria o grande escritor oitocentista Eça de Queiroz. Hoje a Constituição é a norma das normas. Daí há consequências hermenêuticas. Ao contrário das teorias que importam interpretação tradicional e, por vezes, em grande medida ultrapassada, para o Direito Constitucional, a tendência actual é a inversa: dada a supremacia da Constituição, deve ser a metodologia constitucional a exportar hermenêutica para o todo do Direito. Para isso, começamos neste artigo com grandes princípios de hermenêutica intra-constitucional. Depois se passará à exportação.


Appeal No. 0778: Century Well Service V. Division Of Mineral Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Nov 2007

Appeal No. 0778: Century Well Service V. Division Of Mineral Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission

Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Decisions

Chief's Order 2006-137


Appeal No. 0779: Darrell Yoder, Dba Double "D" V. Division Of Mineral Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Nov 2007

Appeal No. 0779: Darrell Yoder, Dba Double "D" V. Division Of Mineral Resources Management, Ohio Oil & Gas Commission

Ohio Oil & Gas Commission Decisions

Chief's Order 2007-27


Pro-Gun Scholars Twist Constitution, Kenneth Lasson Nov 2007

Pro-Gun Scholars Twist Constitution, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

Earlier this year, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia became the first federal tribunal to strike down a local gun-control law, holding that the Founding Fathers would have allowed all private citizens to arm themselves.


Do Citizens Care About Federalism? An Experimental Test, Robert Mikos, Cindy D. Kam Nov 2007

Do Citizens Care About Federalism? An Experimental Test, Robert Mikos, Cindy D. Kam

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The ongoing debate over the political safeguards of federalism has essentially ignored the role that citizens might play in restraining federal power. Scholars have assumed that citizens care only about policy outcomes and will invariably support congressional legislation that satisfies their substantive policy preferences, no matter the cost to state powers. Scholars thus typically turn to institutions-the courts or institutional features of the political process-to cabin congressional authority. We argue that ignoring citizens is a mistake. We propose a new theory of the political safeguards of federalism in which citizens help to safeguard state authority. We also test our theory …


Issue 2: Annual Survey 2007 Table Of Contents Nov 2007

Issue 2: Annual Survey 2007 Table Of Contents

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Suburbs As Exit, Suburbs As Entrance, Nicole Stelle Garnett Nov 2007

Suburbs As Exit, Suburbs As Entrance, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Michigan Law Review

Most academics assume that suburbanites are "exiters " who have abandoned central cities. The exit story is a foundational one in the fields of land-use and local-government law: exiters' historical, social, and economic connections with "their" center cities are frequently used to justify both growth controls and regional government. The exit story, however no longer captures the American suburban experience. For a majority of Americans, suburbs have become points of entrance to, not exit from, urban life. Most suburbanites are "enterers "-people who were born in, or migrated directly to, suburbs and who have not spent time living in any …


Corporate And Business Law, Gregory R. Bishop, Laurence V. Parker Nov 2007

Corporate And Business Law, Gregory R. Bishop, Laurence V. Parker

University of Richmond Law Review

In 2005, the Virginia Stock Corporation Act (the "Virginia Act") was extensively revised and updated for the first time since 1985. Having just undertaken such a major revision to the Virginia Act,

the General Assembly further amended the Act in a more targeted fashion in 2006 and 2007. Section II of this article addresses some of the changes that have taken place since the 2005 amendments and gives a brief overview of some conforming changes that have been incorporated in the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act (the "Nonstock Act").

There has also been a concerted effort to conform the language and …


Why Children Still Need A Lawyer, Marcia Robinson Lowry, Sara Bartosz Oct 2007

Why Children Still Need A Lawyer, Marcia Robinson Lowry, Sara Bartosz

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Every day approximately 500,000 children across the United States wake up in foster care, most in foster family homes, though many others in group homes and institutions. These children entered the state foster care system as innocent victims of abuse or neglect occurring in their birth homes. As wards of the state, they depend completely on the government to provide for their essential safety and wellbeing and to reconnect them with a permanent family, hopefully their own.

Though state child welfare agencies possess fundamental legal obligations under the United States Constitution and federal and state statutes to provide adequate care …


North Carolina V. Bryant: Paving The Way For A Comprehensive National Sex Offender Registry, Karen S. Schuller Oct 2007

North Carolina V. Bryant: Paving The Way For A Comprehensive National Sex Offender Registry, Karen S. Schuller

North Carolina Central Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Multiethnic Placement Act: Threat To Foster Child Safety And Well-Being?, David J. Herring Oct 2007

The Multiethnic Placement Act: Threat To Foster Child Safety And Well-Being?, David J. Herring

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Despite the efforts of public officials to reduce the time children spend in foster care, many children live in foster homes for a substantial portion of their childhoods. In fact, a child placed in a foster home may remain in that home for an extended period, with a significant possibility of remaining there permanently. In light of this situation, the decision to place a child in a particular foster home is extremely important.

The federal Multiethnic Placement Act ("MEPA ") significantly affects foster care placement decisions. This law expressly prohibits public child welfare agencies from delaying or denying a child's …


Noontime Dumping: Why States Have Broad Discretion To Regulate Onboard Treatments Of Ballast Water, Kyle H. Landis-Marinello Oct 2007

Noontime Dumping: Why States Have Broad Discretion To Regulate Onboard Treatments Of Ballast Water, Kyle H. Landis-Marinello

Michigan Law Review

Ballast water discharges from shipping vessels are responsible for spreading numerous forms of aquatic invasive species, a form of biological pollution that leads to billions of dollars in annual costs. In the wake of inaction from the federal government and inaction from the shipping industry, several Great Lakes states are currently considering legislation to address the problem. Michigan has already passed a law to prevent ballast water introductions of invasive species. As states begin to regulate ballast water discharges from oceangoing vessels, such laws will likely face challenges based on the constitutional principles of the Dormant Commerce Clause and the …


H.R. 3355, The Homeowners Defense Act Of 2007: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Housing And Community Opportunity And The Subcomm. On Capital Markets Of The H. Comm. On Financial Services, 110th Cong., Sept. 6, 2007 (Statement Of John D. Echeverria, Geo. U. L. Center), John D. Echeverria Sep 2007

H.R. 3355, The Homeowners Defense Act Of 2007: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Housing And Community Opportunity And The Subcomm. On Capital Markets Of The H. Comm. On Financial Services, 110th Cong., Sept. 6, 2007 (Statement Of John D. Echeverria, Geo. U. L. Center), John D. Echeverria

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Driving Too Fast: Spitzer's Failed Experiment At Immigration Reformation, Katherine Liebner Sep 2007

Driving Too Fast: Spitzer's Failed Experiment At Immigration Reformation, Katherine Liebner

Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal

No abstract provided.


New York's Judicial Selection Process Is Fine – It's The Party System That Needs Fixing, James A. Gardner Sep 2007

New York's Judicial Selection Process Is Fine – It's The Party System That Needs Fixing, James A. Gardner

Other Scholarship

New York's system of electing lower court judges has long been notorious for providing the appearance of democracy without any of the substance. Although the people are given an opportunity to vote for judges, the really meaningful choices about who will run, where, and whether judicial elections will even be contested have for years been made by party insiders. Last year, in a case soon to be heard by the U.S. Supreme Court, the Second Circuit invalidated New York's method of electing judges on the ground that it violates the associational rights of party rank and file. In this brief …


Imminently Eminent: A Game Theoretic Analysis Of Takings Since Kelo V. City Of New London, Alex Hornaday Sep 2007

Imminently Eminent: A Game Theoretic Analysis Of Takings Since Kelo V. City Of New London, Alex Hornaday

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Native America And The Rule Of Law, Dr. Joe Shirley Jr. Sep 2007

Native America And The Rule Of Law, Dr. Joe Shirley Jr.

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad Aug 2007

Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad

Mary Alice Haddad

Japan’s civil society is being transformed as more people volunteer for advocacy and professional nonprofit organizations. In the American context, this trend has been accompanied by a decline in participation in traditional organizations. Does the rise in new types of nonprofit groups herald a decline of traditional volunteering in Japan? This article argues that while changes in civil rights, political opportunity structure, and technology have also taken place in Japan, they have contributed to the rise of new groups without causing traditional organizations to decline, because Japanese attitudes about civic responsibility have continued to support traditional volunteering.


Katrina’S Window: Localism, Re-Segregation And Equitable Regionalism, David D. Troutt Aug 2007

Katrina’S Window: Localism, Re-Segregation And Equitable Regionalism, David D. Troutt

Rutgers Law School (Newark) Faculty Papers

The worst national disaster in United States history also showcased the dire consequences of localism as the cultural and legal successor to de jure segregation. Long before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the Gulf Coast, New Orleans’ status as an exceptional city had been lost to Americanizing trends. Its resistance to the conventional racial binary was overcome after Reconstruction; its unique densities and accommodation of the physical landscape were transformed into sprawling divisions by technology and suburbanization. From the Brown decision forward, New Orleans and the metropolitan area around it developed much like the rest of the nation. Localist tendencies …


Civil Case Appellate Standards Of Review (And A Very Few Unavoidable Related Propositions Of Law), Updated And Revised (Current Through August 3, 2007), Alan G. Gless Aug 2007

Civil Case Appellate Standards Of Review (And A Very Few Unavoidable Related Propositions Of Law), Updated And Revised (Current Through August 3, 2007), Alan G. Gless

State of Nebraska Judicial Branch

Why would a district court judge write about or revise an appellate court judge’s work on appellate standards of review and related propositions of law in civil cases? Well, two reasons – a change in legal mind set and fifteen years’ worth of changes in appellate practice. First, and foremost, when Judge Irwin collected in a single work his 1992 Standards of Review and Propositions of Law, Civil, he was the first in recent Nebraska legal history to do so. Those of us who have used his work owe him our thanks; his contribution was invaluable to both the bench …


9th Annual Open Government Summit: The Access To Public Records Act & The Open Meetings Act, 2007, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island Aug 2007

9th Annual Open Government Summit: The Access To Public Records Act & The Open Meetings Act, 2007, Department Of Attorney General, State Of Rhode Island

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


La Cesión De Derechos En El Código Civil Peruano, Edward Ivan Cueva Jul 2007

La Cesión De Derechos En El Código Civil Peruano, Edward Ivan Cueva

Edward Ivan Cueva

La Cesión de Derechos en el Código Civil Peruano


The Role Of Local Governments In Great Lakes Environmental Governance: A Canadian Perspective, Marcia Valiante Jul 2007

The Role Of Local Governments In Great Lakes Environmental Governance: A Canadian Perspective, Marcia Valiante

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Restoration of environmental integrity in the Great Lakes Basin has been only a qualified success after thirty-five years of efforts pursuant to policies developed by federal, state, and provincial governments. Many unresolved problems stem from activities under local government control, yet in the past local governments were excluded from Great Lakes policy-making. By looking at recent changes in the powers, interests, experience, and influence of local governments in Ontario, this Essay concludes that local governments now have the ability to participate meaningfully in Great Lakes policy formation and implementation. To include local governments would improve the chances of successful restoration …


The Public Trust In Surface Waterways And Submerged Lands Of The Great Lakes States, Bertram C. Frey, Andrew Mutz Jul 2007

The Public Trust In Surface Waterways And Submerged Lands Of The Great Lakes States, Bertram C. Frey, Andrew Mutz

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The modern public trust doctrine compels each Great Lakes state to protect the sustainable future of the Lakes and to preserve traditional public uses. At the same time, the doctrine constrains the states' powers to allow exploitation of trust resources. This Article provides a brief historical overview of the public trust doctrine in waterways and their submerged lands. It next explores how the eight Great Lakes states have applied the doctrine, discusses the surprising number of differences in the doctrine's development from state to state, and provides comparison charts. After analyzing the variety of approaches used by the eight states …


Transferring Water In The American West: 1987-2005, Jedidiah Brewer, Robert Glennon, Alan Ker, Gary Libecap Jul 2007

Transferring Water In The American West: 1987-2005, Jedidiah Brewer, Robert Glennon, Alan Ker, Gary Libecap

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Rising urban and environmental demand for water has created growing pressure to re-allocate water from traditional agricultural uses. Water markets are powerful institutions for facilitating this re-allocation, yet the evolution of water markets has been more complicated than those for other resources. In this paper, we set the context for water marketing with an overview of western water law that highlights unique aspects of water law that affect how or whether a water market can develop. Second, we present new, comprehensive data on the extent, nature, and timing of water transfers across 12 western states from 1987-2005. We describe the …