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2006

Discrimination

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Re Cupe And Canadian Staff Union (Reynolds), Innis Christie Dec 2006

Re Cupe And Canadian Staff Union (Reynolds), Innis Christie

Innis Christie Collection

The Employer posted a position located in Halifax. The Grievor was denied the position because he was not prepared to relocate to Halifax due to family responsibilities. The Union grievance alleged that the Employer breached the Collective Agreement which prohibits discrimination based on marital status and place of residence, and that the Grievor's request to commute should have been accommodated. The Employer believed the position needed to be located in Halifax and that commuting from Newfoundland would not be effective.


Opening Bottlenecks: On Behalf Of Mandated Network Neutrality, Bill D. Herman Dec 2006

Opening Bottlenecks: On Behalf Of Mandated Network Neutrality, Bill D. Herman

Federal Communications Law Journal

This Article calls for mandated "network neutrality," which would require broadband service providers to treat all nondestructive data equitably. The Author argues that neutral networks are preferable because they better foster online innovation and provide a more equitable distribution of the power to communicate. Without mandated network neutrality, providers in highly concentrated regional broadband markets will likely begin charging content providers for the right to send data to end users at the fastest speeds available. The Author demonstrates that regional broadband competition and forthcoming transmission technologies are unlikely to prevent broadband discrimination, ad hoc regulation under current statutory authority is …


(Whatever Happened To) The Ada's Record Of Disability Prong(?), Alex B. Long Nov 2006

(Whatever Happened To) The Ada's Record Of Disability Prong(?), Alex B. Long

Scholarly Works

The ADA's record of disability prong is the prong least likely to be used by ADA plaintiffs in claiming protection under the Act. Between the years 2000 and 2004, ADA and Rehabilitation Act plaintiffs in federal court who alleged employment discrimination relied upon the record of disability prong less than one-third as often as the actual and perceived disability prongs in claiming disability status. Nor have ADA plaintiffs enjoyed any greater success when asserting coverage under the record of disability prong during that time period. Congress, the Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC), and the federal courts bear much of the blame …


Teed Off About Private Club Discrimination On The Taxpayer's Dime: Tax Exemptions And Other Government Privileges To Discriminatory Private Clubs, Jennifer Jolly-Ryan Oct 2006

Teed Off About Private Club Discrimination On The Taxpayer's Dime: Tax Exemptions And Other Government Privileges To Discriminatory Private Clubs, Jennifer Jolly-Ryan

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Human Rights And Natural Disaster : The Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hope Lewis Sep 2006

Human Rights And Natural Disaster : The Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

Why should we focus on human rights in the aftermath of a natural disaster? Governments and the international community are obligated—legally, politically, and morally—to undertake recovery efforts in ways that are consistent with the human rights of those most affected by disaster.

The December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami took the lives of more than 200,000 children, women, and men. Hundreds of thousands more were injured and millions displaced. Recognized as one of the worst natural disasters in recorded human history, the Indian Ocean tsunami remains a global issue. People in fourteen countries were directly affected as well as thousands …


Toward A Feminist Theory Of The Rural, Lisa R. Pruitt Sep 2006

Toward A Feminist Theory Of The Rural, Lisa R. Pruitt

ExpressO

Feminists have often criticized law’s ignorance of women’s practical, lived experiences, even as they have also sought to reveal the variety among those experiences. This article builds on both critiques to argue for greater attentiveness to a neglected aspect of women’s situation: place. Specifically, Professor Pruitt asserts that the hardships and vulnerability that mark the lives of rural women and constrain their moral agency are overlooked or discounted by a contemporary cultural presumption of urbanism.

Professor Pruitt considers judicial responses to the realities of rural women’s lives in relation to three different legal issues: domestic violence, termination of parental rights, …


Information Asymmetries And The Rights To Exclude, Lior Jacob Strahilevitz Aug 2006

Information Asymmetries And The Rights To Exclude, Lior Jacob Strahilevitz

Michigan Law Review

The American law generally regards the "bundle of rights" as property's dominant metaphor. On this conception of property, ownership empowers an individual to control a particular resource in any number of ways. For example, he may use it, transfer it, exclude others from it, divide it, and perhaps even destroy it. The various rights in the bundle, however, are not equal in terms of importance. To the contrary, American courts and commentators have deemed the "right to exclude" foremost among the property rights, with the Supreme Court characterizing it as the "hallmark of a protected property interest" and leading property …


The Uk Disability Discrimination Act 2005 , Aparna Meduri Jul 2006

The Uk Disability Discrimination Act 2005 , Aparna Meduri

Aparna Meduri

No abstract provided.


Preclearance, Discrimination, And The Department Of Justice: The Case Of South Carolina, Luis Fuentes-Rohwer, Guy-Uriel E. Charles Jul 2006

Preclearance, Discrimination, And The Department Of Justice: The Case Of South Carolina, Luis Fuentes-Rohwer, Guy-Uriel E. Charles

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Two Spirits, Two Eras, Same Sex: For A Traditionalist Perspective On Native American Tribal Same-Sex Marriage Policy, Jeffrey S. Jacobi Jul 2006

Two Spirits, Two Eras, Same Sex: For A Traditionalist Perspective On Native American Tribal Same-Sex Marriage Policy, Jeffrey S. Jacobi

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Recently, several states amended their constitutions to define marriage as only a union between a man and a woman. Many Native American Indian tribal governments thereafter also adopted laws prohibiting homosexual marriages. However, this new policy conflicts with traditional tribal values. This Note shows that historically many tribes accepted and even honored same-sex unions. This Note proposes that tribes consider their traditions as they existed before European contact, and argues that, for some tribes, same-sex civil unions are a historically and culturally appropriate answer to the modern objections to same-sex marriage.


Traditional Values, Or A New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson May 2006

Traditional Values, Or A New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson

ExpressO

President William Howard Taft, a Unitarian leader whose liberal faith had been viciously attacked by religious conservatives in the 1908 presidential campaign, used the White House as a platform in 1911 to launch a new nonsectarian organization for youth: The Boy Scouts of America (“BSA”). Lately, however, the BSA itself has come under the control of religious conservatives – who in 1992 banned Taft’s denomination from the BSA’s Religious Relationships Committee, and in 1998 threw Taft’s denomination out of its Religious Emblems Program. The denomination’s offense: A tradition of teaching its children that institutionalized discrimination is wrong. Unitarian Universalist religious …


Undercover Other, Angela Onwuachi-Willig May 2006

Undercover Other, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay argues in favor of legally recognizing same-sex marriages by exploring the similarities in passing between members of same-sex marriages/relationships and interracial marriages/relationships. Specifically, this Essay unpacks the claim that the ability of gays and lesbians to pass as heterosexual distinguishes the ban on same-sex marriages from former bans on interracial marriages. Part I of this Essay first describes policy-based critiques of a Loving-based argument for legalizing same-sex marriage, or as one scholar has coined, of playing the Loving card by analogizing the racism that motivated anti-miscegenation statues that the Supreme Court struck down in 1967 to the anti-gay …


The Impact Of "Chartervalues" And Campbell V. Jones: Is It Now Easier To Establish Qualified Privilege Against Defamation?, Geoffrey Duckworth Apr 2006

The Impact Of "Chartervalues" And Campbell V. Jones: Is It Now Easier To Establish Qualified Privilege Against Defamation?, Geoffrey Duckworth

Dalhousie Law Journal

The purpose of this case comment is to impel a discourse on whether Campbell v. Jones' has "loosened the test" on qualified privilege. In the aftermath of the Court ofAppeal decision, it might be tempting to suggest that Campbell v. Jones means that the defence of qualified privilege is being re-fabricated in light of the advent of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, in order to take an expanded account of "Charter values" such as freedom of expression. This case comment adopts the contrary view, and asserts that what Campbell has really done is clarify exactly which type of extraordinary …


Who’S In And Who’S Out? Can India’S Answer Help Us Determine Who Qualifies For Affirmative Action? , Sean A. Pager Mar 2006

Who’S In And Who’S Out? Can India’S Answer Help Us Determine Who Qualifies For Affirmative Action? , Sean A. Pager

ExpressO

Who should be the beneficiaries of racially targeted affirmative action? In its Croson decision, the Supreme Court answered part of the “Who Question” when it conditioned affirmative action eligibility on underrepresentation. What the Court did not tell us was underrepresentation of whom? The Court thus instructs us to select beneficiary groups by counting heads, but leaves open which heads get counted where and what categories to use.

By artificially separating what are necessarily related inquiries, the Court left a definitional lacuna that lower courts have struggled to fill. Such definitional issues matter because they often determine who benefits from affirmative …


Paid Family Leave In American Law Schools: Findings And Open Questions, Laura T. Kessler Mar 2006

Paid Family Leave In American Law Schools: Findings And Open Questions, Laura T. Kessler

ExpressO

There exists a substantial literature on the status of women in the legal profession, including studies on women students’ experiences in law schools, gender bias on law school faculties, and family leave policies and practices among legal employers. However, no recent study examines the family leave policies and practices in American law schools. This study seeks to fill that gap. Its findings are threefold. First, almost three quarters of law schools provide wage replacement during a family leave that is more generous than required by federal law. Second, there is a positive relationship between teaching at top-tier and private law …


Racially-Tailored’ Medicine Unraveled, Sharona Hoffman Mar 2006

Racially-Tailored’ Medicine Unraveled, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

In June 2005, the FDA approved BiDil, a heart failure medication that is labeled for use only by African-Americans and thus is the first treatment of its kind. The drug likely portends a future of growing interest in "race-based" medicine. This phenomenon is emerging at the same time that scientists, in light of the Human Genome Project, are reaching an understanding that "race" has no biological meaning, and consequently, "racially-tailored" medicine is both puzzling and troubling.

This Article explores the reasons for the new focus on "racial-profiling" in medicine. It analyzes the risks and dangers of this approach, including medical …


Second-Class Citizens: Jews, Freedom Of Speech, And Intolerance On Canadian University Campuses, Stefan Braun Mar 2006

Second-Class Citizens: Jews, Freedom Of Speech, And Intolerance On Canadian University Campuses, Stefan Braun

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


I'M Confused: How Can The Federal Government Promote Diversity In Higher Education Yet Continue To Strengthen Historically Black Colleges?, Sean B. Seymore Mar 2006

I'M Confused: How Can The Federal Government Promote Diversity In Higher Education Yet Continue To Strengthen Historically Black Colleges?, Sean B. Seymore

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Barriers To Accessible Housing: Enforcement Issues In "Design And Construction" Cases Under The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm Mar 2006

Barriers To Accessible Housing: Enforcement Issues In "Design And Construction" Cases Under The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Refusal Clauses & Pro-Life Pharmacists: How Can We Protect Ourselves From Them., Minh N. Nguyen Mar 2006

Refusal Clauses & Pro-Life Pharmacists: How Can We Protect Ourselves From Them., Minh N. Nguyen

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

The decades long pro-life and pro-choice debate recently broadened to now include controversy over reproductive contraception. This controversy stems from doctors refusing to participate in abortion procedures and other healthcare providers, such as pharmacists, declining to fill prescriptions for oral and emergency contraceptives. Pharmacists all over the United States claim religious and moral grounds for refusing to fill prescriptions from doctors and hospitals. This religious fundamentalism creates more than a minor inconvenience for women. The oral and emergency contraceptives in question include birth control pills and the morning after pill, both of which inhibit a woman’s ability to get pregnant. …


Inside The Outsider: Critical Race Theory Against Human Rights?, Eric Heinze Feb 2006

Inside The Outsider: Critical Race Theory Against Human Rights?, Eric Heinze

ExpressO

This article examines disturbing contradictions within critical race theory. Critical race theorists, such as Mari Matsuda, Richard Delgado, or Charles Lawrence, maintain that legal norms cannot be taken at face value, but must instead be understood in historical and social context. For example, the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted to guarantee ‘equal protection of the law’ to all citizens. However, on its face, that norm reveals little about the brutality and exclusion that ethnic minorities subsequently experienced, often with the complicity of legislatures and courts.

Matsuda applies that analysis to hate speech in the 1993 collection Words That Wound, which remains …


Reading, Writing, And Reparations: Systematic Reform Of Public Schools As A Matter Of Justice, Verna L. Williams Jan 2006

Reading, Writing, And Reparations: Systematic Reform Of Public Schools As A Matter Of Justice, Verna L. Williams

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

This Article examines reparations as a means of supporting systemic reform of public education, focusing on a recent enactment of the Virginia General Assembly, the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program and Fund (Brown Fund Act). This provision seeks to remedy the state's refusal to integrate schools after the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education by providing scholarships to persons denied an education between 1954 and 1964, a period known as massive resistance. Under this regime, the state's executive and legislative branches colluded to develop laws that defied Brown's mandate, including authorizing the governor to close …


Book Review: Michele Goodwin's Black Markets: The Supply And Demand Of Body Parts, Barbara A. Noah Jan 2006

Book Review: Michele Goodwin's Black Markets: The Supply And Demand Of Body Parts, Barbara A. Noah

Faculty Scholarship

The Author reviews Michele Goodwin’s book BLACK MARKETS: THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF BODY PARTS, published by Cambridge University Press, 2006. The book discusses the shortage of cadaveric organs available for transplantation. It argues that the shortage disproportionately impacts racial minorities. It then analyzes existing organ procurement laws and proposed alternatives, with a focus on market solutions.

BLACK MARKETS is impeccably researched and persuasively argued, though some of its points are certainly controversial. The book is aimed at and very accessible to a general audience, but it will also prove interesting and informative to legal, medical and public health academic …


Disparate Impact And The Use Of Racial Proxies In Post-Mcri Admissions, Matthew S. Owen, Danielle S. Barbour Jan 2006

Disparate Impact And The Use Of Racial Proxies In Post-Mcri Admissions, Matthew S. Owen, Danielle S. Barbour

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (“MCRI”) amended the Michigan Constitution to provide that public universities, colleges, and school districts may not “discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of . . . public education.” We argue that, in addition to prohibiting the overt use of racial preferences in admissions, the MCRI also prohibits using racial proxies such as socioeconomic status or a “Ten Percent Plan” that aim to prefer minorities in admissions. Though the MCRI does not expressly say so, we stipulate …


The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative And The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Carl Cohen Jan 2006

The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative And The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Carl Cohen

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

The underlying principle of the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI), adopted by state wide vote on 7 November 2006, is identical to that of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Section 601 of the Civil Rights Act provides: “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” The recent passage of the MCRI results now in the inclusion [in Article 1, Section 26 of the Michigan constitution] of section …


Documenting Discrimination In Voting: Judicial Findings Under Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Since 1982, Ellen D. Katz, Margaret Aisenbrey, Anna Baldwin, Emma Cheuse, Anna Weisbrodt Jan 2006

Documenting Discrimination In Voting: Judicial Findings Under Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Since 1982, Ellen D. Katz, Margaret Aisenbrey, Anna Baldwin, Emma Cheuse, Anna Weisbrodt

Other Publications

The Voting Rights Initiative ("VRI") at the University of Michigan Law School was created during the winter of 2005 to help inform [...] the debates that led to this latest congressional reauthorization and the legal challenge to it that is certain to follow. A cooperative research venture involving 100 students working under faculty direction set out to produce a detailed portrait of litigation brought since 1982 under Section 2. This Report evaluates the results of that survey. The comprehensive data set may be found in a searchable form at http://www.votingreport.org or http://www.sitemaker.umich.edu/votingrights. The aim of this report and the accompanying …


Equal Protection - Florida's Disenfranchisement Law: Appellate Court Affirms Decision Finding Disenfranchisement Provision Does Not Violate Constitution - Johnson V. Governor Of The State Of Florida, Et. Al., 405 F.3d 1214 (11th Cir. 2005), Arthenia L. Joyner Jan 2006

Equal Protection - Florida's Disenfranchisement Law: Appellate Court Affirms Decision Finding Disenfranchisement Provision Does Not Violate Constitution - Johnson V. Governor Of The State Of Florida, Et. Al., 405 F.3d 1214 (11th Cir. 2005), Arthenia L. Joyner

Florida A & M University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fielding A Team For The Fans: The Societal Consequences And Title Vii Implications Of Race-Considered Roster Construction In Professional Sport, N. Jeremi Duru Jan 2006

Fielding A Team For The Fans: The Societal Consequences And Title Vii Implications Of Race-Considered Roster Construction In Professional Sport, N. Jeremi Duru

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Professional sports organizations' relationships with their players are, like other employer-employee relationships, subject to scrutiny under the antidiscrimination mandates embedded in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Professional sports organizations are, however, unique among employers in many respects. Most notably, unlike other employers, professional sports organizations attract avid supporters who identify deeply with the teams and their players. To the extent an organization racially discriminates, therefore, such discrimination creates the risk that fans will identify with the homogenous or racially disproportionate roster that results. The consequences of such race-based team identification are wide-reaching and potentially tragic. Through …


Traditional Values Or New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson Jan 2006

Traditional Values Or New Tradition Of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts Of America Vs. The Unitarian Universalist Association Of Congregations, Eric Alan Isaacson

Eric Alan Isaacson

President William Howard Taft, a Unitarian leader whose liberal faith had been viciously attacked by religious conservatives in the 1908 presidential campaign, used the White House as a platform in 1911 to launch a new nonsectarian organization for youth: The Boy Scouts of America (“BSA”). Lately, however, the BSA itself has come under the control of religious conservatives – who in 1992 banned Taft’s denomination from the BSA’s Religious Relationships Committee, and in 1998 threw Taft’s denomination out of its Religious Emblems Program. The denomination’s offense: A tradition of teaching its children that institutionalized discrimination is wrong. Unitarian Universalist religious …


Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit Jan 2006

Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit

Nancy Levit

The thesis of The Heuristics Problem is that the societal problems about which identity theorists are most concerned often spring from and are reinforced by thinking riddled with heuristic errors. This article first investigates the ways heuristic errors influence popular perceptions of feminist issues. Feminists and critical race theorists have explored the cognitive bias of stereotyping, but have not examined the ways probabilistic errors can have gendered consequences. Second, The Heuristics Problem traces some of the ways cognitive errors have influenced the development of laws relating to gender issues. It explores instances in judicial decisions in which courts commit heuristic …