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An Appellate Mechanism For Review Of Arbitral Decisions In Investor-State Disputes, David A. Gantz Jan 2006

An Appellate Mechanism For Review Of Arbitral Decisions In Investor-State Disputes, David A. Gantz

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

At a time when complaints and decisions in investor-state arbitration are proliferating as never before, concerns are being raised by the U.S. Congress, NGOs and some foreign governments over the lack of consistency (or serious errors) among the decisions that emanate from the largely ad hoc arbitral panels that are created under the provisions of bilateral investment treaties and the investment provisions of free trade agreements, such as NAFTA, Chapter 11. As a result, it is suggested that an appellate mechanism, perhaps patterned after the generally successful Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization, be created, possibly under the auspices …


Finding A Right To The City: Exploring Property And Community In Brazil And In The United States, Ngai Pindell Jan 2006

Finding A Right To The City: Exploring Property And Community In Brazil And In The United States, Ngai Pindell

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Increasing poor people's access to property and shelter in urban settings raises difficult questions over how to define property and, likewise, how to communicate who is entitled to legal property protections. An international movement--the right to the city--suggests one approach to resolving these questions. This Article primarily explores two principles of the right to the city--the social function of property and the social function of the city--to consider how to better achieve social and economic justice for poor people in urban areas. Using Brazil as one example of a country incorporating these principles within constitutional and statutory provisions and employing …


From The Oau To The Au: A Normative Shift With Implications For Peacekeeping And Conflict Management, Or Just A Name Change?, Jonathan D. Rechner Jan 2006

From The Oau To The Au: A Normative Shift With Implications For Peacekeeping And Conflict Management, Or Just A Name Change?, Jonathan D. Rechner

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Many of the nations of Africa have struggled with violence since their independence from colonial powers. The formation of an intercontinental body, the Organization for African Unity, did little to reduce the number or severity of the conflicts. The failure of this organization to maintain peace was due in large part to normative boundaries that prevented its involvement in the internal conflicts of its member nations. The Organization of African Unity was dissolved in favor of a new organization, the African Union, in 2001. The mandate of the African Union is much more proactive than that of its predecessor with …


Competing Claims: The Struggle For Title In Nicaragua, Michael Roche Jan 2006

Competing Claims: The Struggle For Title In Nicaragua, Michael Roche

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Nicaragua's Sandinista Revolution of the 1980s left the country's property scheme in a state of disarray. For eleven years, the leftist Sandinista government instituted mass land confiscations and agrarian reform that caused many individuals to lose their property and flee the country. The transition to democracy begun in 1990 has been a difficult process for the country's new presidents who have been forced to reconcile competing claims and fight corruption from within their own ranks. In this Note, the Author examines the property legacy created by the Sandinista Revolution. With another round of presidential elections scheduled for November 2006, the …


Trade And Morality: Preserving "Public Morals" Without Sacrificing The Global Economy, Miguel A. Gonzalez Jan 2006

Trade And Morality: Preserving "Public Morals" Without Sacrificing The Global Economy, Miguel A. Gonzalez

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The World Trade Organization (WTO) exists for the purpose of promoting and facilitating trade amongst its member nations. When those member nations acceded to the WTO's agreements, however, they acknowledged that sometimes trade barriers are useful tools in protecting themselves from certain evils. This Note addresses one of those useful tools--the public morals exception--which allows a member nation to maintain trade barriers with respect to certain goods or services.

Since the WTO agreements have been in effect, the public morals has lacked two critical things.: a definition and boundaries. This Note will attempt to define the public morals exception in …


Historic Preservation In Southeast Asia: The Role Of Public-Private Partnerships, Patrick Stough Jan 2006

Historic Preservation In Southeast Asia: The Role Of Public-Private Partnerships, Patrick Stough

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The role of globalization in the rapid economic success of Southeast Asia is exemplified by the growing westernization of the region's cities. While globalization has its benefits, such as encouraging investment and global connectivity, it also threatens the cultural heritage of a given area by encouraging a sort of homogeneity that makes modern cities all look alike. In particular, the goal of economic development often stands at odds with the preservation of structures and properties that reflect the cultural heritage of the region. Furthermore, many of the countries of the region are under pressure to better protect property rights, another …


Are We There Yet?: Measuring Success Of Constitutional Reform, Maria Dakolias Jan 2006

Are We There Yet?: Measuring Success Of Constitutional Reform, Maria Dakolias

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Like many other countries in the world, the United Kingdom has been modernizing its constitutional arrangements. But unlike all other countries, there is no codified, written constitution. Since 1997, that unwritten constitution has undergone a radical overhaul. Taken together, the changes to systems and institutions represent the most sustained program of reform in the United Kingdom for a century. The main question is whether these reforms were successful. What does success mean? As is well known, implementation is the key to success. So evaluating the reforms and discussing successes and challenges are not only important for the U.K. internal dialogue …


A Teacher's Teacher, Lonnie T. Brown Jr. Jan 2006

A Teacher's Teacher, Lonnie T. Brown Jr.

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Jackie Robinson once said, "A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives." By that measure, Harold Maier has led an extraordinarily important life. I know that he has had a profound impact on innumerable students throughout his career and upon one in particular. I continue to learn because Professor Maier inspired me, and I teach others because of the wonderful example he set. Though he has now left the classroom, Professor Maier's legacy as a teacher will always endure through the countless minds he has awakened and lives he has touched.


Harold G. Maier: A World Class Fellow Indeed, Paul M. Kurtz Jan 2006

Harold G. Maier: A World Class Fellow Indeed, Paul M. Kurtz

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Hal Maier has played many roles in my life: he has been my teacher, my boss, my advisor, my colleague, and most and best of all, my friend. In all those roles, he has exhibited enthusiasm, patience, tact, and brilliance. Not at all a bad combination, I would say.

Come with me back to his classroom, circa 1970-1971. The subject is Conflict of Laws (which was required back then) or Law of the European Economic Community (which one with no interest in international law only took because of the masterful teacher). Clad in white shirt and oh-so-narrow tie which he …


Finding The Winning Combination: How Blending Organ Procurement Systems Used Internationally Can Reduce The Organ Shortage, Sarah E. Statz Jan 2006

Finding The Winning Combination: How Blending Organ Procurement Systems Used Internationally Can Reduce The Organ Shortage, Sarah E. Statz

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The shortage in transplantable organs worldwide not only leads to unnecessary death, but also to grave human rights abuses through illegal methods of procuring organs. The shortage leads some desperate to find an organ through any possible means, including purchasing an organ on the black market. The system for procuring organs in the United States is based on altruism, where potential donors have to opt in to the system in order for their organs to be donated. This creates issues at the time of death for medical professionals or the next of kin to decide whether their patient or loved …


Courts Of Limited Jurisdiction In A Post-Transition Cuba, Matias F. Travieso-Diaz, Armando A. Musa Jan 2006

Courts Of Limited Jurisdiction In A Post-Transition Cuba, Matias F. Travieso-Diaz, Armando A. Musa

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Cuba's eventual transition to a free-market society will likely be accompanied by a flood of litigation in areas such as property rights, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and human rights violation claims. Courts of limited jurisdiction should be established to hear these specialized matters and alleviate the burden on regular courts. As the transition unfolds, there will also be a need to create specialized tribunals to handle disputes in areas such as taxation, bankrtupcy, and intellectual property. The creation of the various courts of limited jurisdiction will have to be supported by creative strategies for retraining existing judges, training new ones, …


Doctrines Without Borders: Territorial Jurisdiction And The Force Of International Law In The Wake Of Rasul V. Bush, Brennan T. Brooks Jan 2006

Doctrines Without Borders: Territorial Jurisdiction And The Force Of International Law In The Wake Of Rasul V. Bush, Brennan T. Brooks

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States responded with military action aimed at eradicating terrorist networks around the world. The action in Afghanistan resulted in several hundred captured enemy combatants being sent to the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Because the base is not within the territory of the United States, the Bush administration took the position that the detainees could be held indefinitely without review in civilian courts. In a surprising move, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the detainees did have a right to petition civilian courts for habeas corpus review. Thus, the …


The Hidden Life Of Consumer Bankruptcy Reform, Jason J. Kilborn Jan 2006

The Hidden Life Of Consumer Bankruptcy Reform, Jason J. Kilborn

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article offers a unique perspective on the heavily revised U.S. consumer bankruptcy law, which went effect on October 17, 2005, in light of a surprising discovery: It turns out that the U.S. consumer bankruptcy system as "reformed" resembles in many critical respects the consumer bankruptcy system in place for the past six years in the Netherlands. As a result of this serendipitous U.S.-Dutch convergence, years of experience under the Dutch consumer debt relief system can provide a rare glimpse into the future of the new U.S. system. The Dutch law in practice has diverged in significant ways from legislative …


A Tale Of Two Countries: Parallel Visions For Informed Consent In The United States And The United Kingdom, Ben Sones Jan 2006

A Tale Of Two Countries: Parallel Visions For Informed Consent In The United States And The United Kingdom, Ben Sones

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

In recent years, the proper role of informed consent doctrine in an environment of healthcare cost containment has been a hotly contested legal and policy issue. The purpose of this Note is to probe the current informed consent debate in the United States and the United Kingdom and to draw out the respective roles informed consent ought to play in those two systems. In doing so, this Note draws on the history of the doctrine and several recent scholarly proposals, and offers a modest proposal synthesizing the best aspects of those proposals.


Criminal Defamation And The Evolution Of The Doctrine Of Freedom Of Expression In International Law, Jo M. Pasqualucci Jan 2006

Criminal Defamation And The Evolution Of The Doctrine Of Freedom Of Expression In International Law, Jo M. Pasqualucci

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Restrictions on freedom of expression may take direct and indirect forms. A state may censor speech, criminalize defamation, harass the media or individual journalists, fail to investigate crimes against the media , require the compulsory licensing of journalists, or fail to enact freedom of information laws or laws that prohibit monopoly ownership of the media. A victim of a restriction on freedom of expression that violates international law may have no recourse in domestic courts, either because state law offers no remedy or because judges are too intimidated to enforce the laws as written. In such instances, victims need recourse …


Motion Picture Piracy: Controlling The Seemingly Endless Supply Of Counterfeit Optical Discs In Taiwan, Stephen K. Shiu Jan 2006

Motion Picture Piracy: Controlling The Seemingly Endless Supply Of Counterfeit Optical Discs In Taiwan, Stephen K. Shiu

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Annually, Hollywood loses roughly $3.5 billion dollars in revenue to optical disc piracy in Taiwan. Optical disc piracy involves the camcording or copying of motion pictures onto laserdiscs, digital versatile discs, or video compact discs. Through the U.S. Trade Representative's satellite enforcement offices in Taiwan and coordination with the Taiwanese legislature and enforcement agencies, the U.S. motion picture companies have been able to influence some change in the frequency and severity of optical disc piracy in Taiwan. This can be mainly attributed to the Motion Picture Association of America's alliance with the U.S. Trade Representative in placing Taiwan on numerous …


Linking The International Legal Framework To Building The Formal Foundations Of A "State At Risk", Michael Schoiswohl Jan 2006

Linking The International Legal Framework To Building The Formal Foundations Of A "State At Risk", Michael Schoiswohl

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article describes and critically assesses the recent constitution-making process in Afghanistan in relation to the international legal framework. The Article provides an account of that process within the larger context of the state-building efforts as envisioned in the 2001 Bonn Agreement. Focusing on the interaction between national state-building and international normative benchmarks, the Article evaluates the extent to which the recently adopted Constitution links to the international legal framework. While paying lip service to the adherence of international law, including international human rights law, the Constitution does not adequately address the relationship between international legal obligations and municipal law. …


Universal Jurisdiction And The Pirate: Time For An Old Couple To Part, Joshua M. Goodwin Jan 2006

Universal Jurisdiction And The Pirate: Time For An Old Couple To Part, Joshua M. Goodwin

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

For hundreds of years, the world has allowed any nation-state to exercise universal jurisdiction over high seas piracy. This has been recently codified by the United Nations in the Convention on the Law of the Seas. It has been almost universally assumed that allowing states to do this was legitimate. As this Note will argue, however, the reasons for allowing states to exercise jurisdiction in this way no longer make sense in the modern world. Further, allowing states to exercise universal jurisdiction over pirates violates the due process rights of the pirates and poses a threat to international stability. To …


Sheldon Kennedy And A Canadian Tragedy Revisited, M. B. Preston Jan 2006

Sheldon Kennedy And A Canadian Tragedy Revisited, M. B. Preston

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

National Hockey League player Sheldon Kennedy's 1997 revelation that his award-winning junior hockey coach had molested him for years created a national outcry in Canada. It resulted in the appointment of a special commission and declarations from the United States and Canada that this must never happen again. However, Kennedy was not alone; child sexual exploitation occurs at the hands of youth coaches across geographic and class boundaries and across individual and team sports.

Youth sports organizations, including schools, have approached the human and legal issues presented by child sexual exploitation in numerous ways. This Note analyzes the differences between--and …


Two (Or Five, Or Ten) Heads Are Better Than One: The Need For An Integrated Effort To International Election Monitoring, Rachel Ricker Jan 2006

Two (Or Five, Or Ten) Heads Are Better Than One: The Need For An Integrated Effort To International Election Monitoring, Rachel Ricker

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Election monitoring efforts have a crucial role to play in attaining the goals of self-determination and democratic sovereignty. Yet current election monitoring practice suffers from variance in the goals, standards, and strategies employed by the many organizations that engage in election monitoring and observation programs. This Note examines the current state of election monitoring within the framework for analyzing the legitimacy of rules proposed by Thomas Franck in his 1992 article "The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance," and concludes that the shortcomings of the current system fail to address many necessary aspects of legitimate self-governance of monitored nations. The Author …


On The Occasion Of His Retirement: A Tribute To Professor Harold G. Maier, Editorial Board Jan 2006

On The Occasion Of His Retirement: A Tribute To Professor Harold G. Maier, Editorial Board

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Editorial Board of the Journal is pleased to publish the following tributes to Professor Maier on the occasion of his retirement.


He Knew Why He Was Here, D. D. Welch Jan 2006

He Knew Why He Was Here, D. D. Welch

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Hal was passionate about his Transnational Legal Studies Program. He was brought to Vanderbilt in 1965 to build an international law program from scratch. In these days of globalization, it is difficult to remember how innovative his work was. In his first year, there were three international law courses at the Law School, all taught by him. There was a testy difference of opinion on campus about whether international law materials should be housed in the Law Library or remain in the University's Central Library...and there were not many materials in that collection. When Maier was named Director of the …


Is The Cisg Benefiting Anybody?, Gilles Cuniberti Jan 2006

Is The Cisg Benefiting Anybody?, Gilles Cuniberti

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG) was supposed to increase legal certainty and reduce the transaction costs of international buyers and sellers. This Article argues that none of these goals has been met. A survey of 181 court decisions and arbitral awards applying the CISG shows that the vast majority of international buyers and sellers do not address the issue of the law governing their contracts, irrespective of the value at stake. Although the data is not easy to interpret, it follows that international buyers and sellers are simply not concerned with the legal regime governing …


When Globalization Hits Home: International Family Law Comes Of Age, Barbara Stark Jan 2006

When Globalization Hits Home: International Family Law Comes Of Age, Barbara Stark

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Not that long ago, international family law (IFL) referred to a series of multilateral conventions basically concerned with conflicts of law questions. It could be studied as part of a course on family law or as part of a course on conflicts of law. But IFL, or family law in which more than one State has an interest, has grown up and become a subject of its own. This is not merely a curricular development. Rather, it reflects and reinforces two of the most powerful trends of the last fifteen years: globalization and the spread of human rights. Globalization is …


How Should A Court Deal With A Primary Question That The Legislature Seeks To Avoid?, Gidon Sapir Jan 2006

How Should A Court Deal With A Primary Question That The Legislature Seeks To Avoid?, Gidon Sapir

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Legislative avoidance of principled decisions on substantive questions by transferring the decision-making task to the executive branch, is a frequent scenario. The legislature does this by way of either express or hidden delegation, i.e., by using ambiguous wording that on its face only requires interpretation but which in fact requires a substantive decision on the matter at stake. The Israeli legislature resorted to the hidden delegation tactic to avoid the adoption of a substantive decision in the dispute over the question of who is a Jew--a dispute that has divided Israeli society and World Jewry (especially its U.S. component) since …


Professor Harold G. Maier At Pepperdine, W H. Bigham Jan 2006

Professor Harold G. Maier At Pepperdine, W H. Bigham

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

A curious concatenation of events brought Hal Maier and me together, once again, in school year 2000-2001 at Malibu and Pepperdine. We had labored concurrently in the Vanderbilt vineyard for a decade and a half, where we were close friends and colleagues on the Vanderbilt Law School faculty--a time of thrilling growth and maturing in the law school. We went our separate ways at the end of the '70s, but on the invitation of a former Vanderbilt student of both of us, Pepperdine Dean Richard Lynn, whom I had recommended for a faculty position at Pepperdine years earlier, Hal Maier …


In Honor Of Professor Harold G. Maier, David P. Stewart Jan 2006

In Honor Of Professor Harold G. Maier, David P. Stewart

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Among his many other significant accomplishments and career achievements, Professor Maier can count a singular experience which few in the field of international law are privileged to enjoy-that of spending a year as the Counselor on International Law at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C.

The Counselor occupies a senior position within the Office of the Legal Adviser. Organizationally, the incumbent reports to and works directly with the Legal Adviser and his Deputies in advising the Secretary of State and other senior officials on whatever fast-moving issues might occupy the foreign policy attention of the government at a …


Criminalizing Marital Rape: A Comparison Of Judicial And Legislative Approaches, Theresa Fus Jan 2006

Criminalizing Marital Rape: A Comparison Of Judicial And Legislative Approaches, Theresa Fus

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Even though many countries still permit husbands to rape their wives with little or no consequence, there is a growing trend that marital exemption is unjust and has no place in a civilized society. Recognition of the inappropriateness of marital exemption is, however, only the first step towards its elimination. To effectively equalize treatment of marital and non-marital rape, legislatures and judiciaries must take action. Several countries have already been host to the abolition of marital immunity, but their approaches may not be the most effective. This Note examines the experiences of England and Canada as examples of judicial and …


Services As Objects Of International Trade: Bartering The Legal Profession, Louise L. Hill Jan 2006

Services As Objects Of International Trade: Bartering The Legal Profession, Louise L. Hill

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The General Agreement on Trade in Service calls for members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to further liberalize and expand opportunities for international trade in services. With legal services included in this mandate, requests for specific commitments and offers have been made by WTO Member States. While services as components of international trade is new to many of the WTO Member States, free movement of services has been addressed by the European Union (EU) since the inception of the European Economic Community. Thus EU directives, declarations, codes and case law serve as valuable resources to WTO Member States as …


From Fretting Takeovers To Vetting Cfius: Finding A Balance In U.S. Policy Regarding Foreign Acquisitions Of Domestic Assets, Gaurav Sud Jan 2006

From Fretting Takeovers To Vetting Cfius: Finding A Balance In U.S. Policy Regarding Foreign Acquisitions Of Domestic Assets, Gaurav Sud

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Merger law in the United States has historically relied on a system of private ordering with as little intervention from the federal government as possible. This scheme lies in stark contrast to the merger law of many other developed nations and, as such, has become a trademark of U.S. corporate law. Recent events, however, have brought into question the system's desirability in cross-border transactions where foreign entities are investing in U.S. assets. Proponents of reform argue that the federal government should become more involved in the approval process for these transactions given increased concerns of national security, while opponents argue …