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2006

Columbia Law School

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Articles 1 - 30 of 111

Full-Text Articles in Law

Legislating Racial Fairness In Criminal Justice, Olatunde C.A. Johnson Dec 2006

Legislating Racial Fairness In Criminal Justice, Olatunde C.A. Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

Twenty years ago, in McCleskey v. Kemp, the Supreme Court rejected a capital defendant's claim that statistical evidence of racial discrimination in the administration of Georgia's death penalty system constituted a violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Yet, even as McCleskey effectively bars constitutional challenges to racial disparities in the criminal justice system where invidious bias is difficult to establish, the Court invites advocates to pursue legislation as a remedy to racial disparities. Indeed, the McCleskey Court offers as a rationale for its ruling the judiciary's institutional incompetence to remedy these disparities, holding that "McCleskey's arguments are best …


Recognizing Victimhood, Christine Wilke Jan 2006

Recognizing Victimhood, Christine Wilke

Studio for Law and Culture

The category of victimhood resonates deeply with many contemporary struggles for recognition without, however, receiving similar attention by political theories of recognition. Many “struggles for recognition” are fought with explicit reference to massive injustice that have ceased without having been publicly recognized as injustices. The state responses to claims for the recognition of victimhood mirror, I will argue, the state’s dominant conceptions of justice and injustice. In many cases, the state affirms its conceptions of injustice and moral innocence through the selective recognition of victims. For example, the U.S. government has granted Japanese-Americans interned during the Second World War an …


Healing The Bishop: Consent And The Legal Erasure Of Colonial History, Jennifer Anne Hamilton Jan 2006

Healing The Bishop: Consent And The Legal Erasure Of Colonial History, Jennifer Anne Hamilton

Studio for Law and Culture

During the summer of 1998, Hubert O’Connor, a white Catholic bishop and former Indian residential school principal in British Columbia, participated in what a local magazine termed “a centuries-old native ceremony”: an indigenous healing circle. In 1991, O’Connor was indicted on criminal charges for sexual offences he had allegedly committed some thirty years earlier against five indigenous women, all of whom were his former students and/or employees. While O’Connor acknowledged having sexual relations with these women, he denied having committed any illegal acts, maintaining that these relationships had been consensual. While the trial court originally convicted O’Connor of rape and …


Origins Of The Asymmetric Society: Freedom Of Incorporation In The Early United States And Canada, Jason Kaufman Jan 2006

Origins Of The Asymmetric Society: Freedom Of Incorporation In The Early United States And Canada, Jason Kaufman

Studio for Law and Culture

This article explores the origins of a phenomenon of lasting and profound impact on American society: the private business corporation. Business is only part of our concern here, however. Seen in comparative-historical terms, the modern private corporation was born in colonial (i.e. pre-Revolutionary) America. Surprisingly, this occurred not only because of the business needs of colonial Americans but also as a result of their own struggles for political autonomy. More specifically, the post-Revolutionary doctrine of freedom of incorporation first emerged in states that were originally chartered as private corporations. These “corporate colonies’” experienced repeated conflict with the Crown over their …


Equality With A Vengeance – Women Conscientious Objectors In Pursuit Of A "Voice" And Substantive Gender Equality, Noya Rimalt Jan 2006

Equality With A Vengeance – Women Conscientious Objectors In Pursuit Of A "Voice" And Substantive Gender Equality, Noya Rimalt

Studio for Law and Culture

This article examines the story of female draft resistors in Israel. The story serves as a case study that can provide important insights into the inherent constraints of contemporary legal discourse in promoting substantive gender equality and into the relationship between specific legal arrangements and the invisibility of women in the public sphere. This case study also sheds a more complex light on the nature of separate legal arrangements for women, and raises important questions about the appropriate feminist agenda for social and legal change.


“The Inalienable Rights Of The Beasts”: Organized Animal Protection And The Language Of Rights In America, 1865-1900, Susan Pearson Jan 2006

“The Inalienable Rights Of The Beasts”: Organized Animal Protection And The Language Of Rights In America, 1865-1900, Susan Pearson

Studio for Law and Culture

Contemporary animal rights activists and legal scholars routinely charge that state animal protection statutes were enacted, not to serve the interests of animals, but rather to serve the interests of human beings in preventing immoral behavior. In this telling, laws preventing cruelty to animals are neither based on, nor do they establish, anything like rights for animals. Their raison d’etre, rather, is social control of human actions, and their function is to efficiently regulate the use of property in animals. The (critical) contemporary interpretation of the intent and function of animal cruelty laws is based on the accretion of …


Paradoxes Of Constitutional Democracy, Kevin Olson Jan 2006

Paradoxes Of Constitutional Democracy, Kevin Olson

Studio for Law and Culture

Drawing on the work of Frank Michelman and Jürgen Habermas, I outline two interconnected paradoxes of constitutional democracy. The paradox of the founding prevents a purely democratic constitution from being founded, because the procedures needed to secure its legitimacy cannot be spontaneously self-generated. It displays an infinite regression of procedures presupposing procedures. The paradox of dynamic indeterminacy heads off any attempt to resolve this problem through constitutional amendment. It shows that a developing constitution needs some standard to guide it towards legitimacy. Without such a standard, constitutional reform will be aimlessly indeterminate. After rejecting proposed solutions to these paradoxes based …


An Introduction To The Governance And Taxation Of Not-For-Profit Organizations, Patrick Bolton, Hamid Mehran Jan 2006

An Introduction To The Governance And Taxation Of Not-For-Profit Organizations, Patrick Bolton, Hamid Mehran

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of the not-for-profit sector and discusses specific governance issues in not-for-profit organizations. We offer an in-depth analysis of the issues that arise when not-for-profit organizations compete against for-profit firms in the same markets. We argue that while competition by for-profit firms can discipline not-for-profit firms and mitigate their governance problems, the effects of this competition are distorted by the not-for-profits’ corporate income tax exemptions. Based on a simple general equilibrium analysis, we argue that there is little justification for such exemptions.


Issues In Article Iii Courts, Debra A. Livingston Jan 2006

Issues In Article Iii Courts, Debra A. Livingston

Faculty Scholarship

Cases implicating classified information can pose difficult legal issues for Article III courts, and these issues may well grow more complicated and arise more frequently as the global war on terror continues. The manner in which these issues are resolved has profound implications for the national security, for the procedural rights of litigants, and for the public's ability to scrutinize legal proceedings. Indeed, the expanded use of secret evidence in Article III courts may raise questions about the very character of the courts themselves. Is there a point at which the demands placed upon these courts, pushing them in the …


The Housing Court Act (1972) And Computer Technology (2005): How The Ambitious Mission Of The Housing Court To Protect The Housing Stock Of New York City May Finally Be Achieved, Mary Zulack Jan 2006

The Housing Court Act (1972) And Computer Technology (2005): How The Ambitious Mission Of The Housing Court To Protect The Housing Stock Of New York City May Finally Be Achieved, Mary Zulack

Faculty Scholarship

1972 to concentrate housing-related cases in a single court and to involve judges in the process of seeing that the housing stock was repaired. When I agreed to contribute an essay on how the Housing Court is fulfilling its obligation to preserve the housing stock, for the October 29, 2004 conference held by The Justice Center of the New York County Lawyers' Association, I imagined I would review annual court-produced statistics. I expected this to include 30 years worth of information about repairs claimed to be needed, orders to repair issued, number of repairs actually made, the range of enforcement …


Trade, Law And Product Complexity, Katharina Pistor, Daniel Berkowitz, Johannes Moenius Jan 2006

Trade, Law And Product Complexity, Katharina Pistor, Daniel Berkowitz, Johannes Moenius

Faculty Scholarship

How does the quality of national institutions that enforce the rule of law influence international trade? Anderson and Marcouiller argue that bad institutions located in the importer’s country deter international trade because they enable economic predators to steal and extort rents at the importer’s border. We complement this research and show how good institutions located in the exporter’s country enhance international trade, in particular, trade in complex products whose characteristics are difficult to fully specify in a contract. We argue that both exporter and importer institutions affect international as well as domestic transaction costs in complex and simple product markets. …


The Law And Economics Of Contracts, Benjamin E. Hermalin, Avery W. Katz, Richard Craswell Jan 2006

The Law And Economics Of Contracts, Benjamin E. Hermalin, Avery W. Katz, Richard Craswell

Faculty Scholarship

This paper, which will appear as a chapter in the forthcoming Handbook of Law and Economics (A.M. Polinsky & S. Shavell, eds.), surveys major issues arising in the economic analysis of contract law. It begins with an introductory discussion of scope and methodology, and then addresses four topic areas that correspond to the major doctrinal divisions of the law of contracts. These areas include freedom of contract (i.e., the scope of private power to create binding obligations), formation of contracts (both the procedural mechanics of exchange, and rules that govern pre-contractual behavior), contract interpretation (what consequences follow when agreements are …


Embracing Chance: Post-Modern Meditations On Punishment, Bernard E. Harcourt Jan 2006

Embracing Chance: Post-Modern Meditations On Punishment, Bernard E. Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

Since the modern era, the discourse of punishment has cycled through three sets of questions. The first, born of the Enlightenment itself, asked: On what ground does the sovereign have the right to punish? Nietzsche most forcefully, but others as well, argued that the question itself begged its own answer. The right to punish, they suggested, is what defines sovereignty, and as such, can never serve to limit sovereign power. With the birth of the social sciences, this skepticism gave rise to a second set of questions: What then is the true function of punishment? What is it that we …


Taxes That Work: A Simple American Plan, Michael J. Graetz Jan 2006

Taxes That Work: A Simple American Plan, Michael J. Graetz

Faculty Scholarship

In November 2005, the President's Advisory Panel on Tax Reform, appointed by President Bush to suggest options for reforming and simplifying the federal tax code, unanimously recommended two alternative plans: a "simplified income tax" (SIT) and a "growth and investment tax" (GIT). The two plans shared much in common. For example, both would: (1) Reduce the top marginal tax rate-to 33% under the SIT plan and 30% under GIT plan; (2) eliminate the alternative minimum tax (AMT); (3) replace the earned income tax credit (EITC) and refundable child credits with a "work credit"; (4) replace personal exemptions, the standard deduction, …


Looking For Law In China, Stanley B. Lubman Jan 2006

Looking For Law In China, Stanley B. Lubman

Hong Yen Chang Center for Chinese Legal Studies

I have been looking for law in China for over forty years. When I started in 1963, only a handful of other Westerners had also embarked on what then seemed an exotic academic excursion. Since then, after U.S.-China relations were reestablished in 1972, many other Americans have had reason to join in the search. Now, the growing potency of China's economic strength and international reach has made efforts to understand China more important than ever, and law has become a necessary medium for use in such efforts.

This article offers insights into critical institutions and practices that mark the legal …


Paying For Delay: Pharmaceutical Patent Settlement As A Regulatory Design Problem, C. Scott Hemphill Jan 2006

Paying For Delay: Pharmaceutical Patent Settlement As A Regulatory Design Problem, C. Scott Hemphill

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

Over the past decade, drug makers have settled patent litigation by making large payments to potential rivals who, in turn, abandon suits that (if successful) would increase competition. Because such "pay-for-delay" settlements postpone the possibility of competitive entry, they have attracted the attention of antitrust enforcement authorities, courts, and commentators. Pay-for-delay settlements not only constitute a problem of immense practical importance in antitrust enforcement, but also pose a general dilemma about the proper balance between innovation and consumer access.

This Article examines the pay-for-delay dilemma as a problem in regulatory design. A full analysis of the relevant industry-specific regulatory statute, …


Interrogating Torture And Finding Race, Ayanna Thompson Jan 2006

Interrogating Torture And Finding Race, Ayanna Thompson

Studio for Law and Culture

Antonin Artaud’s second manifesto for the Theatre of Cruelty cries out for a theatre that will depict “great social upheavals” and “conflicts between peoples and races.” Opposed to “disinterested” theatre, Artaud designed the Theatre of Cruelty to depict and affect not only the “tortured victims,” but also the “executioner-tormentor himself.” Artaud viewed both as trapped by “a kind of higher determinism” which he sought to alter through the Theatre of Cruelty (102). To usher in this new theatrical tradition, Artaud declared that the “first spectacle of the Theatre of Cruelty will be entitled: The Conquest of Mexico” (126). Explaining …


Kernochan Center News - Summer 2006, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2006

Kernochan Center News - Summer 2006, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


The Rose Theorem?, Michael Heller Jan 2006

The Rose Theorem?, Michael Heller

Faculty Scholarship

Law resists theorems. We have hypotheses, typologies, heuristics, and conundrums. But, until now, only one plausible theorem – and that we borrowed from economics. Could there be a second, the Rose Theorem?

Any theorem must generalize, be falsifiable, and have predictive power. Law's theorems, however, seem to require three additional qualities: they emerge from tales of ordinary stuff; are named for, not by, their creators; and have no single authoritative form. For example, Ronald Coase wrote of ranchers and farmers. He has always shied away from the Theorem project. When later scholars formalized his parable, they created multiple and inconsistent …


The Accardi Principle, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 2006

The Accardi Principle, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

This article is organized as follows. Part I reviews the history of the Accardi principle in the Supreme Court. We learn that the Court has intimated three different theories about the source of the Accardi principle, and has left many questions about its dimensions unanswered. Part II surveys the use of the principle by the D.C. Circuit. This provides additional insights into how the Accardi principle works in practice, including the importance of questions about the meaning of agency regulations and whether agency regulations can render otherwise unreviewable agency action subject to judicial review. Part III seeks to restate the …


The American Transformation Of Waste Doctrine: A Pluralist Interpretation, Jedediah S. Purdy Jan 2006

The American Transformation Of Waste Doctrine: A Pluralist Interpretation, Jedediah S. Purdy

Faculty Scholarship

This Article draws on an episode of nineteenth-century American doctrinal history to develop a pluralist approach to explaining changes in property law. It addresses the question: What causes ac­count for the development of property regimes across time? The courts' answer emerges from examination of nineteenth-century American reform of the law of waste, which governs the changes te­nants may make in the estates they occupy. A line of state supreme court cases, beginning in 1810, transformed the doctrine from the strict rule of English common law to a flexible standard. Economic analysis helps to explain the change; the full story, however, …


Less Is Better: Justice Stevens And The Narrowed Death Penalty, James S. Liebman, Lawrence C. Marshall Jan 2006

Less Is Better: Justice Stevens And The Narrowed Death Penalty, James S. Liebman, Lawrence C. Marshall

Faculty Scholarship

In a recent speech to the American Bar Association, Justice John Paul Stevens "issued an unusually stinging criticism of capital punishment." Although he "stopped short of calling for an end to the death penalty," Justice Stevens catalogued a number of its "'serious flaws,'" including several procedures that the full Court has reviewed and upheld over his dissent – selecting capital jurors in a manner that excludes those with qualms about the death penalty, permitting elected state judges to second-guess jurors when they decline to impose the death penalty, permitting states to premise death verdicts on "victim impact statements," tolerating sub-par …


Intellectual Property, Innovation, And Decentralized Decisions, Tim Wu Jan 2006

Intellectual Property, Innovation, And Decentralized Decisions, Tim Wu

Faculty Scholarship

In 1945, Fredrick Hayek described the problem of economic development as "a problem of the utilization of knowledge not given to anyone in its totality." Hayek's insight has unexpected relevance for what has emerged as the central question in modern intellectual property and related fields: When might the assignment of property rights have anti-competitive consequences? The traditional, yet central, economic answer to this question emphasizes a tradeoff between incentives created by property grants and resulting higher prices and deadweight losses. Under this model intellectual property grants are desirable to the extent that they encourage new product development at a reasonable …


The World Trade Law Of Censorship And Internet Filtering, Tim Wu Jan 2006

The World Trade Law Of Censorship And Internet Filtering, Tim Wu

Faculty Scholarship

Consider the following events, all from the last five years: (1) An American newsmagazine, Barron's, posts an unflattering profile of an Australian billionaire named Joseph Gutnick on its web site – the publisher, Dow Jones, Inc., is sued in Australia and forced to settle; (2) Mexico's incumbent telephone company, Telmex, blocks Mexicans from reaching the web site of the Voice-over-IP firm Skype; (3) the United States begins a major crackdown on web gambling services, causing serious economic damage to several small Caribbean economies; (4) the Chinese government prevents its citizens from using various foreign Internet services, including foreign e-mail and …


The Media As Participants In The International Legal Process, Monica Hakimi Jan 2006

The Media As Participants In The International Legal Process, Monica Hakimi

Faculty Scholarship

We know what we know about current international events through the media. The media (with their instantaneous transmission of images and sound across great distances) inform us of everything from the train bombings in Madrid and London, to human rights abuses in Darfur, to the fall of Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. Yet the media do not simply communicate raw information; they selectively filter, define and give shape to the events that they cover — in terms of what is happening, whether it is appropriate, and how relevant international actors should and do respond. The media thus are the nerves of the …


Rights Myopia In Child Welfare, Clare Huntington Jan 2006

Rights Myopia In Child Welfare, Clare Huntington

Faculty Scholarship

For decades, legal scholars have debated the proper balance of parents' rights and children's rights in the child welfare system. This Article argues that the debate mistakenly privileges rights. Neither parents' rights nor children's rights serve families well because, as implemented, a solely rights-based model of child welfare does not protect the interests of parents or children. Additionally, even if well-implemented, the model still would not serve parents or children because it obscures the important role of poverty in child abuse and neglect and fosters conflict, rather than collaboration, between the state and families. In lieu of a solely rights-based …


Centennial Essays: Editors' Introduction, Lori Fisler Damrosch, Bernard H. Oxman Jan 2006

Centennial Essays: Editors' Introduction, Lori Fisler Damrosch, Bernard H. Oxman

Faculty Scholarship

The first words of the first essay published in our pages pose a challenge as prescient as it is timely:

The increase of popular control over national conduct, which marks the political development of our time, makes it constantly more important that the great body of the people in each country should have a just conception of their international rights and duties.

With this precept in mind, we begin our celebration of the one-hundredth anniversary of the American Journal of lnternational Law and its publisher, the American Society of International Law.


Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault Jan 2006

Home Rule And Local Political Innovation, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

As demonstrated by San Francisco's recent adoption of instant runoff voting and New York City's recent expansion of its program for funding candidates for municipal office, local governments around the country have been actively engaged in examining and revising electoral and governmental processes. These local initiatives include alternative voting systems, campaign finance reforms, conflicts of interest codes, term limits, and revisions to tax, budget and legislative procedures. These local innovations illustrate both the capacity of local governments to restructure basic features of their political organization and their interest in doing so. Local political innovations also test the scope of local …


Remapping The Charitable Deduction, David Pozen Jan 2006

Remapping The Charitable Deduction, David Pozen

Faculty Scholarship

If charity begins at home, scholarship on the charitable deduction has stayed at home. In the vast legal literature, few authors have engaged the distinction between charitable contributions that are meant to be used within the United States and charitable contributions that are meant to be used abroad. Yet these two types of contributions are treated very differently in the Code and raise very different policy issues. As Americans' giving patterns and the U.S. nonprofit sector grow increasingly international, the distinction will only become more salient.

This Article offers the first exploration of how theories of the charitable deduction apply …


Learning To Learn: Undoing The Gordian Knot Of Development Today, Charles F. Sabel, Sanjay G. Reddy Jan 2006

Learning To Learn: Undoing The Gordian Knot Of Development Today, Charles F. Sabel, Sanjay G. Reddy

Faculty Scholarship

The deep flaw of existing approaches to development is their dirigisme: the assumption, common to nearly all development theory, that there is an expert agent that already sees the future. A common thread connects the emergent alternatives to development orthodoxy: the enhancement of the conditions of individual and collective learning. This approach to development highlights the existence of unresolved problems and the necessity of problem solving in every sphere. The enhancement of the conditions of learning can be the key to improving performance, resolving deadlocks, and overcoming blockages, at every level at which common dilemmas and collective problem solving occur …