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2005

International Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 186

Full-Text Articles in Law

Extending Predation Analysis To Monopolist's Bundled Discounts Under Section 2: An Economic, Legal, And Comparative Perspective, Seth B. Chertok Dec 2005

Extending Predation Analysis To Monopolist's Bundled Discounts Under Section 2: An Economic, Legal, And Comparative Perspective, Seth B. Chertok

ExpressO

In LePage’s v. 3M, the Third Circuit decided the first case at the federal appellate court level that dealt with the subject of bundled discounts by a monopolist under Section 2 of the Sherman Act in the period following the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation. Prior to the decision in Brooke Group, the Third Circuit had only once before addressed this topic in Smithkline Corp. v. Eli Lilly and Company. Smithkline is only significant because it nearly suggested that any bundled discount, regardless of whether above or below cost ...


The Dual Purpose Of The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Dennis J. Kokenos Dec 2005

The Dual Purpose Of The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Dennis J. Kokenos

ExpressO

The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 claims to help bring offshore investments back to the United States. In reality, the AJCA does much more. The AJCA of 2004 makes adjustments to the U.S. tax code which helps bring the U.S. in line with existing international trade obligations as well as stimulating the U.S economy.


For Women, A Court Of Last Appeal, Saumya Uma Dec 2005

For Women, A Court Of Last Appeal, Saumya Uma

Dr. Saumya Uma

The article focusses on the significance of standards set and efforts made by the International Criminal Court, from the point of view of women's rights.


A Comparison Analysis Between The Standards Used In The Dneiper River Basin Clean-Up And European Union Legislation, Hannah H. Naumoff-Dulski Dec 2005

A Comparison Analysis Between The Standards Used In The Dneiper River Basin Clean-Up And European Union Legislation, Hannah H. Naumoff-Dulski

ExpressO

A recent case study involved the clean-up efforts of the Dnieper River Basin by three countries, Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The objective of the study was to provide a method for the identification, assessment, and prioritization of the most significant sources of pollution based on their impacts and characteristics. Herein, the standards employed in the Dnieper case study are comparatively analyzed against the relevant EU directives. The purpose in doing so was to determine if the standards employed in this project could serve as a benchmark for the necessary environmental regulations that would be required if these three countries were ...


“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic Dec 2005

“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic

ExpressO

At first glance, the Supreme Court of Canada's recent decision in GreCon Dimter Inc. v. J.R. Normand Inc. appears to be a case upholding the primacy of international commercial arbitration, choice of forum and choice of law clauses. Upon closer scrutiny, however, the Supreme Court of Canada failed to consider the application of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) to the overall dispute. Interestingly, the same choice of forum and choice of law clauses were considered by the United States Court of Appeals a year earlier in GreCon Dimter, Incorporated v. Horner ...


The Shari'a Factor In International Commercial Arbitration, Faisal M. Kutty Dec 2005

The Shari'a Factor In International Commercial Arbitration, Faisal M. Kutty

ExpressO

The world has witnessed a phenomenal growth in commercial disputes transcending national borders due to our increasingly interrelated and globalized world economy. In addition to issues in interpretation of commercial agreements and practices, differences in custom, language, culture and religion will continue to fuel conflicts and disagreements between commercial players. Over the last few decades there have been growing commercial interaction between Western companies and their Middle Eastern counterparts. Given this interaction and the great geo-political and economic importance of this region, it is imperative that Western lawyers and dispute resolution professionals have a reasonable grasp of the general principles ...


Human Rights Claims Vs. The State: Is Sovereignty Really Eroding?, Chandra L. Sriram Dec 2005

Human Rights Claims Vs. The State: Is Sovereignty Really Eroding?, Chandra L. Sriram

ExpressO

It is often argued that the increase in agreements, specialized courts, and litigation protecting human rights or responding to past abuses of human rights has begun to erode sovereignty. Contrary to traditional principles of non-interference in internal affairs, it is argued, genuine protection of human rights involves an invasion of the sovereign preserve of the state. While many examples might be adduced in support of this claim, ranging from the ad hoc criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda to the European Court of Human Rights, this article examines two types of transnational procedures: civil accountability through the use ...


Law And Politics Of Rights: Who Decides The Conditions For Trade Preferences? Institutional Choice In The General System Of Preferences Case, Gregory C. Shaffer Dec 2005

Law And Politics Of Rights: Who Decides The Conditions For Trade Preferences? Institutional Choice In The General System Of Preferences Case, Gregory C. Shaffer

Gregory C Shaffer

No abstract provided.


Report Of The 1st National Consultation On International Criminal Court & India, Saumya Uma Dec 2005

Report Of The 1st National Consultation On International Criminal Court & India, Saumya Uma

Saumya Uma

This publication contains a detailed report of each session of the 1st National Consultation on the ICC & India, held in Delhi on 8-9 December 2005.


"Anticipatory Self-Defense" And Other Stories, Jeanne M. Woods, James M. Donovan Dec 2005

"Anticipatory Self-Defense" And Other Stories, Jeanne M. Woods, James M. Donovan

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

We argue that the specious justification for the invasion of Iraq -- a war based on a pretext of anticipatory self-defense -- necessarily exacerbates the inherent tendency of war to dehumanize and humiliate the enemy. This tendency is particularly evident in the variant of anticipatory self-defense that we have denominated as "capacity preemption," a type of claim that by definition depends upon characterizations of the opponent as utterly inhuman.

The Bush Doctrine tells a timeless story of self-defense. This story is shaped by an identifiable and predictable narrative structure, one that is able to transform the morally outrageous -- an unprovoked aggressive war ...


"Anticipatory Self-Defense" And Other Stories, Jeanne M. Woods, James M. Donovan Dec 2005

"Anticipatory Self-Defense" And Other Stories, Jeanne M. Woods, James M. Donovan

James M. Donovan

We argue that the specious justification for the invasion of Iraq -- a war based on a pretext of anticipatory self-defense -- necessarily exacerbates the inherent tendency of war to dehumanize and humiliate the enemy. This tendency is particularly evident in the variant of anticipatory self-defense that we have denominated as "capacity preemption," a type of claim that by definition depends upon characterizations of the opponent as utterly inhuman.

The Bush Doctrine tells a timeless story of self-defense. This story is shaped by an identifiable and predictable narrative structure, one that is able to transform the morally outrageous -- an unprovoked aggressive war ...


Recalibrating The War On Terror By Enhancing Development Practices In The Middle East, Kevin J. Fandl Nov 2005

Recalibrating The War On Terror By Enhancing Development Practices In The Middle East, Kevin J. Fandl

ExpressO

This research paper suggests that the cart has been placed before the horse, that democratization and open markets in the Middle East are more likely the result of effective development than the catalyst for it. The war on terror has been justified by the United States as an effective means of reducing the possibility of terrorist attacks. This paper analyzes the validity of those justifications by reviewing the linkage between democracy and economic growth and that between democracy and peace.

The paper begins by hypothesizing that the war on terror and forced democratization of the Middle East are leading to ...


Jurisdictional Competition In The European Community, Seth B. Chertok Nov 2005

Jurisdictional Competition In The European Community, Seth B. Chertok

ExpressO

The main purpose of this article is to analyze how four company law cases (Daily Mail, Centros, Uberseering, and Inspire Art) in the European Community have expanded the Freedom of Establishment to potentially open the door to corporate jurisdictional competition in the European Community, similar to the sort that exists in the United States through the Delaware effect. However, in Europe, this type of jurisdictional competition has traditionally been thought of as undesirable, particularly in certain Member States such as Germany that have co-determination and minimum capital requirements. These Member States have continued to adhere to the real seat and ...


Preparing For Cafta-Dr: The Need Of Commercial Law Reform In Central America, Omar E. Garcia-Bolivar Nov 2005

Preparing For Cafta-Dr: The Need Of Commercial Law Reform In Central America, Omar E. Garcia-Bolivar

ExpressO

This article explores the policies, laws and institutions that may prevent Central American States from exploiting the opportunities provided by the CAFTA-DR. In that sense, we examine several of the legal factors that appear to be important in determining economic growth as they apply to the commercial legal conditions of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.


A Tale Of Three Nations?: The Role Of United Nations Peacekeepers And Missions On The Concept Of Nation-State, Nationalism, And Ownership Of The State In Lebanon, The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, And Kosovo, Alexandra R. Harrington Nov 2005

A Tale Of Three Nations?: The Role Of United Nations Peacekeepers And Missions On The Concept Of Nation-State, Nationalism, And Ownership Of The State In Lebanon, The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, And Kosovo, Alexandra R. Harrington

ExpressO

The concept of nationalism of ideology and shared values has existed since Biblical times, and has only become more prominent in societal structure in the centuries which have followed . Many attempts to define what is and is not nationalism have been made throughout history, yet despite these attempts there is no perfect formula for what gives rise to nationalism or what makes a nation-state and how to create it. However, at its core a nation is made of people, and all nations, regardless of organization, ideology, or ethnicity, turn to law to control – if not shape – their societies. This duality ...


Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher Nov 2005

Transparency In Global Merger Review: A Limited Role For The Wto?, Keith R. Fisher

ExpressO

This article identifies certain problems faced by parties to transnational merger transactions in view of the global proliferation in recent years of competition (and, specifically, merger review) laws. After considering the pros and cons of merger remedies (both structural and behavioral) that may be offered to mitigate potentially anticompetitive effects and illustrating (through a case study of the GE/Honeywell transaction) the pitfalls of divergent market definition even as between two legal regimes employing substantially similar standards, the article reviews and critiques proposals for establishing a supranational competition authority under the aegis of the World Trade Organization. While rejecting the ...


Restorative Justice, Slavery And The American Soul, A Policy-Oriented Approach To The Question Of Slavery Reparations By The United States, Michael F. Blevins Nov 2005

Restorative Justice, Slavery And The American Soul, A Policy-Oriented Approach To The Question Of Slavery Reparations By The United States, Michael F. Blevins

ExpressO

This LL.M. Intercultural Human Rights thesis (May, 2005), awarded the best student paper prize for 2005 by the Institute of Policy Sciences at Yale University (in October, 2005), after analysing past and curent issues regarding the culture wars controversy of "reparations", proposes a specific process for establishing Truth and Reconciliation regarding the legacy of slavery in the United States. The proposal recommends commissions in each Federal judicial district under the supervision of a U.S. Slavery Justice and Reconciliation Commission (USSJRC), calling for "America's 21st Century Contract with Africa and African-Americans".


Resurrection From Babel: The Cultural, Political, And Legal Status Of Christian Communities In Lebanon And Syria And Their Prospects For The Future, Alexandra R. Harrington Nov 2005

Resurrection From Babel: The Cultural, Political, And Legal Status Of Christian Communities In Lebanon And Syria And Their Prospects For The Future, Alexandra R. Harrington

ExpressO

In the well-known Biblical story, the faithful, attempting to create a place of unity for themselves, set about building the Tower of Babel, only to see the Tower implode due to linguistic differences and power assertions. Thousands of years later, the world is still plagued by sectarian strife and warfare. Indeed, the situation has only become more involved since Babel, as there are now inter-communal and intra-communal conflicts for supremacy and superiority – a notable difference in these conflicts is that the ultimate tool of getting to Heaven is no longer a tower, it is now a state. Within the framework ...


The Teleology Of International Investment Law, Omar E. Garcia-Bolivar Oct 2005

The Teleology Of International Investment Law, Omar E. Garcia-Bolivar

Omar E Garcia-Bolivar

The article looks into the purpose of the international investment agreements and the role that has into the interpretation of those instruments.


Internationalizing U.S. Legal Education: A Report On The Education Of Transnational Lawyers, Carole Silver Oct 2005

Internationalizing U.S. Legal Education: A Report On The Education Of Transnational Lawyers, Carole Silver

ExpressO

This article analyses the role of U.S. law schools in educating foreign lawyers and the increasingly competitive global market for graduate legal education. U.S. law schools have been at the forefront of this competition, but little has been reported about their graduate programs. This article presents original research on the programs and their students, drawn from interviews with directors of graduate programs at 35 U.S. law schools, information available on law school web sites about the programs, and interviews with graduates of U.S. graduate programs. Finally, the article considers the responses of U.S. law schools ...


Does The Icj's Decision In Avena Really Mean Anything To Mexicans On Death Row?, Kenneth Williams Oct 2005

Does The Icj's Decision In Avena Really Mean Anything To Mexicans On Death Row?, Kenneth Williams

ExpressO

This article assesses the legality of President Bush's order to state courts that they review the convictions and sentences of certain Mexican nationals on death row in response to the ICJ's decision that the rights of these inmates had been violated. The article also discusses the review process and makes a proposal to ensure that the ICJ's mandate is carried out. Finally, there is a discussion as to the importance of these cases to both the U.S. and Mexico.


The Practice And Legality Of Rendition, Katherine R. Hawkins Oct 2005

The Practice And Legality Of Rendition, Katherine R. Hawkins

ExpressO

“Rendition” is the United States’ policy of sending terrorism suspects to be interrogated in Middle Eastern countries that practice torture.

This Article introduces the subject by describing a complaint filed in a lawsuit by Canadian citizen Maher Arar. The United States sent Arar from John F. Kennedy airport to Syria, where he was tortured and was held in a grave-sized cell for nearly a year. Arar alleges that his transfer violated the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (“CAT”).

Arar’s lawsuit may be dismissed before the court reaches the substance of his claims ...


The Transnational Judicial Discourse And Felon Disenfranchisement: Re-Examining The Textual Premise Of Richardson V. Ramirez, Jason G. Morgan-Foster Oct 2005

The Transnational Judicial Discourse And Felon Disenfranchisement: Re-Examining The Textual Premise Of Richardson V. Ramirez, Jason G. Morgan-Foster

ExpressO

This article is simultaneously an international comparative law piece about prisoner disenfranchisement in various countries, a transnational work of legal theory providing a framework for the use of foreign law in domestic constitutional courts, and a domestic analysis of the constitutional underpinnings of felon disenfranchisement.

The article begins with a comprehensive comparative analysis of the recent prisoner disenfranchisement decisions in Canada, South Africa, and Europe. It notes that the over-arching theme of these decisions is to view the acceptability of prisoner disenfranchisement along a continuum, where it becomes more acceptable the more serious the offense committed.

The article then examines ...


Imputed Conflicts Of Interest In International Law Practice, Geoffrey C. Hazard Jr. Oct 2005

Imputed Conflicts Of Interest In International Law Practice, Geoffrey C. Hazard Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Up Against A Wall: Europe’S Options For Regulating Biotechnology Through Regulatory Anarchy, Aaron A. Ostrovsky Sep 2005

Up Against A Wall: Europe’S Options For Regulating Biotechnology Through Regulatory Anarchy, Aaron A. Ostrovsky

ExpressO

Based on the current state of EU law and the political sentiment surrounding Genetically Modified Organisms, this paper argues that the best approach to regulating the import and export of GMOs into the Community and between Member States is by what I will call for the purposes of this Paper “regulatory anarchy.” This system sits in opposition to a hierarchical regulatory approach which may be associated with traditional neo-functionalist theories of Community integration. Applied in the context of GMOs, regulatory anarchy envisions integration not coming solely from Community rules conceived by the Commission, but by Member State negotiated rules accomplished ...


Modern Day Slavery In Our Own Backyard, Ellen L. Buckwalter, Meredith S. Salvaggio, Susan L. Pollet, Maria Perinetti Sep 2005

Modern Day Slavery In Our Own Backyard, Ellen L. Buckwalter, Meredith S. Salvaggio, Susan L. Pollet, Maria Perinetti

ExpressO

Trafficking in persons is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity. Each year an estimated 600,000 – 800,000 human beings are bought, sold or forced across the world’s borders. Approximately 2.5 million men, women and children are victims of trafficking at any point in time throughout the world. Approximately 14,500 – 17,500 individuals are trafficked annually into the United States, making the United States the third largest destination country in the world for victims of human trafficking.

In order to fight trafficking in the United States effectively, legislation at the state level, in ...


Sovereignty, Self-Determination, And Environment-Based Cultures: The Emerging Voice Of Indigenous Peoples In International Law, Peter Manus Sep 2005

Sovereignty, Self-Determination, And Environment-Based Cultures: The Emerging Voice Of Indigenous Peoples In International Law, Peter Manus

ExpressO

This article presents a survey of both the rhetoric and applications of international law addressing indigenous peoples' environmental rights. Part I assesses three terms that are widely used in international instruments - sovereignty, human rights, and self-determination - for their applicability to the environment-related interests of indigenous peoples. Part II presents a sixty year litany of international instruments as a means of tracing the evolution of global awareness of the uniquely vulnerable position that indigenous people occupy in the world community in connection with their environmental interests. Part III offers a comparative analysis of the cases Kitok v. Sweden and the Awas ...


Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee Sep 2005

Towards A Development-Oriented Multilateral Framework On Competition Policy, Jae Sung Lee

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Broken Borders: Decanas V. Bica, And The Standards That Govern The Validity Of State Measures Designed To Deter Undocumented Immigration, Joshua J. Herndon Sep 2005

Broken Borders: Decanas V. Bica, And The Standards That Govern The Validity Of State Measures Designed To Deter Undocumented Immigration, Joshua J. Herndon

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Getting Around The Gatt: Passing Gatt-Legal Legislation To Protect Marine Living Resources, Brad L. Milkwick Sep 2005

Getting Around The Gatt: Passing Gatt-Legal Legislation To Protect Marine Living Resources, Brad L. Milkwick

ExpressO

The WTO has been called, among other things, anti-environment. This is due in large part to the position that GATT dispute settlement panels have taken on environment-friendly legislation—such legislation is often struck down as being unduly restrictive of trade and therefore unenforceable under the GATT/WTO agreement. For example, in three seminal disputes that were brought before the GATT (often referred to as the Tuna/Dolphin I, Tuna/Dolphin II, and Shrimp/Turtle disputes), GATT dispute settlement bodies “recommended” against the United States and in favor of the countries which were allegedly engaging in environmentally-destructive practices. This article looks ...