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2005

Vanderbilt University Law School

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Articles 1 - 30 of 148

Full-Text Articles in Law

Racial Integration And Community Revitalization: Applying The Fair Housing Act To The Low Income Housing Tax Credit, Myron Orfield Nov 2005

Racial Integration And Community Revitalization: Applying The Fair Housing Act To The Low Income Housing Tax Credit, Myron Orfield

Vanderbilt Law Review

A growing national debate about the future of race, housing, and urban policy in the United States is reflected in the recent controversy over the administration of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit ("LIHTC") program, the largest federal program that supports building low-income housing. Administered by the Treasury Department, the program allows investors in residential rental property to claim tax credits for the development or rehabilitation of property to be rented to low-income tenants. The program is implemented mainly through state agencies which distribute the credit to developers on a competitive basis. Part of the LIHTC statute, which passed without debate ...


"Gouging The Government": Why A Federal Contingency Fee Lobbying Prohibition Is Consistent With First Amendment Freedoms, Meredith A. Capps Nov 2005

"Gouging The Government": Why A Federal Contingency Fee Lobbying Prohibition Is Consistent With First Amendment Freedoms, Meredith A. Capps

Vanderbilt Law Review

Washington Post writer David Segal once observed, "[f]or most Americans the words 'Washington lobbyist' have roughly the same cachet as, say, 'deadbeat dad."" Both lawmakers and the public regard lobbying as an unsavory part of the political process. Much of this perception stems from the vast sums of money spent each year on lobbying activity. For example, in the first half of 2004 alone, mortgage funding companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac reported spending over $11 million on lobbying activities, General Electric spent $8.5 million, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce spent $20.1 million-and these were ...


Rethinking Place Of Business As Choice Of Law In Class Action Lawsuits, Allison M. Gruenwald Nov 2005

Rethinking Place Of Business As Choice Of Law In Class Action Lawsuits, Allison M. Gruenwald

Vanderbilt Law Review

In the past century, businesses have come to operate on a national and often global level. In the past century, the United States has seen an enormous nationalization and even globalization of business. As a result, the actions of a single company increasingly have the potential to affect people far beyond the boundaries of that company's home state. When one or a few companies injure large numbers of consumers across the country, aggregate litigation (namely the class action lawsuit) becomes an especially attractive remedy. Aggregating claims allows plaintiffs to save time and money and may also enable them to ...


The Untold Story Of The Rest Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Michael Waterstone Nov 2005

The Untold Story Of The Rest Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Michael Waterstone

Vanderbilt Law Review

The Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA")' can be described as the All-Star team of civil rights legislation. The framers of the ADA sought to create sweeping change in nearly every facet of the lives of people with disabilities. To achieve these ambitious goals, the framers assembled the best and brightest parts of other civil rights legislation: pieces of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 04 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Fair Housing Act. The end result was a comprehensive statute with three major parts ...


The Strategic Use Of Mexico To Restrict South American Access To The Diversity Visa Lottery, Jonathan H. Wardle Nov 2005

The Strategic Use Of Mexico To Restrict South American Access To The Diversity Visa Lottery, Jonathan H. Wardle

Vanderbilt Law Review

In 1990, Congress enacted the Family Unity and Employment Opportunity Act (the "1990 Act"), which created a visa lottery to enhance the diversity of the immigrant stream and to ensure that areas of the world sending relatively few immigrants to the United States could still have access to the immigrant stream. In order to achieve these goals, Congress created a complex formula by which 55,000 "diversity" visas would be distributed annually among six geographically defined regions based on the total number of immigrant admissions from each region. Under this formula, regions with relatively low admission rates are granted more ...


Rethinking Place Of Business As Choice Of Law In Class Action Lawsuits, Allison M. Gruenwald Nov 2005

Rethinking Place Of Business As Choice Of Law In Class Action Lawsuits, Allison M. Gruenwald

Vanderbilt Law Review

In the past century, businesses have come to operate on a national and often global level. In the past century, the United States has seen an enormous nationalization and even globalization of business. As a result, the actions of a single company increasingly have the potential to affect people far beyond the boundaries of that company's home state. When one or a few companies injure large numbers of consumers across the country, aggregate litigation (namely the class action lawsuit) becomes an especially attractive remedy. Aggregating claims allows plaintiffs to save time and money and may also enable them to ...


Special Project+ National Security, Elizabeth A. Cheney Oct 2005

Special Project+ National Security, Elizabeth A. Cheney

Vanderbilt Law Review

National security has become a hotly debated issue since September 11, 2001. National security has always been of great concern to the government; however former Defense Secretary McNamara's thoughts indicate that national security has now also become an important topic for all individuals to consider.2 The "policy and process" of U.S. national security has evolved significantly throughout this country's history, particularly in the years since September 11.


Combatant Status Review Tribunals And The Unique Nature Of The War On Terror, Robert A. Peal Oct 2005

Combatant Status Review Tribunals And The Unique Nature Of The War On Terror, Robert A. Peal

Vanderbilt Law Review

On September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the United States, killing 2,973 innocent civilians. This was the largest loss of life on U.S. soil due to a hostile act in the nation's history. Al Qaeda, an international terrorist organization, claimed responsibility for the act. Al Qaeda had been systematically targeting U.S. civilians and service members for at least the previous nine years. In response to the attacks, the United States conducted a series of military and legal actions that were highly controversial and unprecedented. As part of these actions, the executive branch claimed the authority to detain ...


How Do Corporations Play Politics?: The Fedex Story, Jill E. Fisch Oct 2005

How Do Corporations Play Politics?: The Fedex Story, Jill E. Fisch

Vanderbilt Law Review

Corporate political activity has been the subject of federal regulation since 1907, and the restrictions on corporate campaign contributions and other political expenditures continue to increase. Most recently, Congress banned soft money donations in the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 ("BCRA"), a ban upheld by the Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC. Significantly, although the omnibus BCRA clearly was not directed exclusively at corporations, the Supreme Court began its lengthy opinion in McConnell by referencing and endorsing the efforts of Elihu Root, more than a century ago, to prohibit corporate political contributions. Repeatedly, within the broad context of campaign ...


Symbiotic Federalism And The Structure Of Corporate Law, Marcel Kahan, Edward Rock Oct 2005

Symbiotic Federalism And The Structure Of Corporate Law, Marcel Kahan, Edward Rock

Vanderbilt Law Review

Enron. Worldcom. Adelphia. Global Crossing. Tyco. Corporate scandals have made the front pages. Congress has gotten in the act. Members have held numerous hearings, given speeches, and, ultimately, passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") has been busy writing regulations and leaning on the stock exchanges to modify their listing requirements, all in order to restore "investor confidence." Federal prosecutors have indicted executives of Enron, Worldcom, and Adelphia and their minions in the auditing and investment banking industries. State officials have also been active. Several states have passed statutes that resemble or go beyond the strictures of ...


The Revamped Fisa: Striking A Better Balance Between The Government's Need To Protect Itself And The 4th Amendment, J. Christopher Champion Oct 2005

The Revamped Fisa: Striking A Better Balance Between The Government's Need To Protect Itself And The 4th Amendment, J. Christopher Champion

Vanderbilt Law Review

The investigations of the 9/11 terrorist attacks highlighted a series of lapses in intelligence-sharing within the federal government regarding terrorist operations. One area closely examined by Congress,' the judiciary, and many legal and political commentators is the appropriate scope of intelligence collection within the United States "concerning foreign threats to the nation's security" ("foreign intelligence"). Domestic intelligence collection is a particularly complex sphere of national security as gathering intelligence on American soil requires balancing the privacy rights of individuals guaranteed by the Fourth Amendment against the nation's need to protect itself.

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of ...


Leaving No Loopholes For Terrorist Financing: The Implementation Of The Usa Patriot Act In The Real Estate Field, Elizabeth A. Cheney Oct 2005

Leaving No Loopholes For Terrorist Financing: The Implementation Of The Usa Patriot Act In The Real Estate Field, Elizabeth A. Cheney

Vanderbilt Law Review

September 11, 2001 began like any other day but took a drastic turn at 8:45 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time when a plane, hijacked by terrorists, crashed into the northern tower of the World Trade Center, setting it afire. As Americans mourned in silence, a second plane rammed through the southern tower of the World Trade Center at 9:05 a.m. and set it aflame. The horror continued, as a third plane crashed into the Pentagon, a fourth diverted into a field in Pennsylvania, and both towers of the World Trade Center collapsed.

It did not take long ...


How "Mead" Has Muddled Judicial Review Of Agency Action, Lisa S. Bressman Oct 2005

How "Mead" Has Muddled Judicial Review Of Agency Action, Lisa S. Bressman

Vanderbilt Law Review

When the Supreme Court decided United States v. Mead Corp. four years ago, Justice Scalia predicted that judicial review of agency action would devolve into chaos. This Article puts that prediction to the test by examining the court of appeals decisions applying the decision. Justice Scalia actually understated the effect of Mead. This Article suggests a remedy for the mess.

In Mead, the Court held that an agency is entitled to deference under Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. NRDC only if Congress has delegated to that agency the authority to issue interpretations that carry the force of law, and ...


Reconciling Consent Searches And Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence: Incorporating Privacy Into The Test For Valid Consent Searches, David J. Housholder May 2005

Reconciling Consent Searches And Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence: Incorporating Privacy Into The Test For Valid Consent Searches, David J. Housholder

Vanderbilt Law Review

The Fourth Amendment states: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Perhaps the most significant exception to the requirements of the Fourth Amendment is the consent search, which requires no warrant, exigent circumstances, probable cause, or reasonable suspicion.

Some scholars have suggested that the Supreme Court's voluntariness standard for determining consensual searches ...


Hmos Behind Bars: Constitutional Implications Of Managed Health Care In The Prison System, Richard Siever May 2005

Hmos Behind Bars: Constitutional Implications Of Managed Health Care In The Prison System, Richard Siever

Vanderbilt Law Review

In 1991, the Correctional Corporation of America (CCA) entered into a contract with the State of Tennessee to house and treat state prisoners at CCA facilities. In response to increased costs, CCA negotiated a contract with a physician to be the exclusive provider of medical services for one of its facilities. Essentially, this contract formed a managed health care system: the doctor's payment structure included a base salary, but it also incorporated financial incentives that could increase his overall compensation if he were to provide less care to inmates.

Later, Anthony Bowman, a prison inmate with sickle cell anemia ...


From No Means No To Only Yes Means Yes: The Rational Results Of An Affirmative Consent Standard In Rape Law, Nicholas J. Little May 2005

From No Means No To Only Yes Means Yes: The Rational Results Of An Affirmative Consent Standard In Rape Law, Nicholas J. Little

Vanderbilt Law Review

2003 saw the arrest of the star basketball player Kobe Bryant on charges of forcing a woman to have sex with him, charges that were dropped in 2004. This arrest is perhaps the most prominent in what has become a sordid procession of public shame: the charging of professional athletes with crimes of sexual assault. As is common in rape charges, neither party denies that the sex took place. Instead the argument is based on whether the woman consented to it. In the apology Bryant issued that led to the dismissal of the charges, he admits that "[a]lthough I ...


From "Predominance" To "Resolvability": A New Approach To Regulating Class Actions, Allan Erbsen May 2005

From "Predominance" To "Resolvability": A New Approach To Regulating Class Actions, Allan Erbsen

Vanderbilt Law Review

Class actions incite both delight and disgust. Several complementary themes in popular culture embrace the class action, including sympathy for underdog litigants challenging powerful malefactors, fascination with massive redistributions of wealth from corporations to individuals, and reluctance to permit large and influential wrongdoers to escape justice merely because of their size and clout. Class actions have thus become an appealing procedural counterweight to the burdens that modern society imposes on consumers and citizens, giving many little Davids a fighting chance for protection from or retribution against political and economic Goliaths. But class actions also expose and rile competing visions of ...


Donor Standing To Enforce Charitable Gifts: Civil Society Vs. Donor Empowerment, Iris J. Goodwin May 2005

Donor Standing To Enforce Charitable Gifts: Civil Society Vs. Donor Empowerment, Iris J. Goodwin

Vanderbilt Law Review

The cat is out of the bag: Donors are fast discovering what was once a well-kept secret in the philanthropic sector-that a gift to public charity donated for a specific purpose and restricted to that purpose is often used by the charity for its general operations or applied to other uses not intended by the donor. In most states, the Attorney General is the agent for enforcement of such gifts (an arrangement that recognizes the public's role as the ultimate beneficiary of any public charity). But Attorney General offices are beset with difficulties that make it virtually impossible to ...


Toward A New Federalism In State Civil Justice: Developing A Uniform Code Of State Civil Procedure Through A Collaborative Rule-Making Process, Glenn S. Koppel May 2005

Toward A New Federalism In State Civil Justice: Developing A Uniform Code Of State Civil Procedure Through A Collaborative Rule-Making Process, Glenn S. Koppel

Vanderbilt Law Review

There is a sense of "deja vu" to the vision of a uniform body of state procedural law applicable in every state court throughout the nation. "Swift v. Tysons'" dream of a nationally uniform body of state substantive common law that mirrored an evolving body of uniform federal common law never materialized because state courts refused to defer to federal common law, which was applied only in federal court. Swift itself was overturned in 1938 by the Supreme Court's ruling in "Erie Railroad v. Tompkins" that federal courts must defer to the substantive lawmaking authority of state courts. But ...


Damaged Goods: Why, In Light Of The Supreme Court's Recent Punitive Damages Jurisprudence, Congress Must Amend The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Michael S. Vitale May 2005

Damaged Goods: Why, In Light Of The Supreme Court's Recent Punitive Damages Jurisprudence, Congress Must Amend The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Michael S. Vitale

Vanderbilt Law Review

Since the 1980s, a wide range of courts and commentators have expressed concern over large punitive damages awards handed out by civil juries against a wide array of tortfeasors. A late 2001 study revealed that from 1985 to 2001, eight multi-billion dollar punitive damages awards were granted, with four of them being handed down in the years 1999 to 2001 alone.' Not surprisingly, all but one of these verdicts were handed down against large corporations. Among the current members of the U.S. Supreme Court, Justice John Paul Stevens in particular has regularly noted the especially dangerous tendency the current ...


Purging Foreseeability, Ricardo J. Bascuas Apr 2005

Purging Foreseeability, Ricardo J. Bascuas

Vanderbilt Law Review

For those responsible for understanding tort doctrine, the concept of foreseeability is a scourge, and its role in negligence cases is a vexing, crisscrossed morass. Indeed, one torts professor teaches that foreseeability might as well be called "strawberry shortcake," having been bent, muddled, and co-opted to such a degree that it has lost any real meaning.

Foreseeability's role in the element of "duty" in negligence is especially problematic. Courts have long tied the existence of a duty- that is, whether an allegedly negligent defendant owed an obligation of care under the circumstances-to foreseeability. The more foreseeable the risk, the ...


Introduction: Special Project - Current Issues In Intellectual Property, W. Russell Taber Apr 2005

Introduction: Special Project - Current Issues In Intellectual Property, W. Russell Taber

Vanderbilt Law Review

A single legal concept has produced some of the greatest achievements of the human mind: intellectual property. Thousands of years ago, Aristotle denounced the then novel notion of rewarding those who create inventions beneficial to the state. History has been kind to Aristotle, but not because of his insights on intellectual property. The Venetian Senate's passage of the 1474 Act marked the beginning of systematic patent protection on European soil. Along with blown glassware, Venice later exported its penchant for patent protection to the rest of Europe, including Great Britain by the mid- sixteenth century. During the same era ...


Protecting The Frontiers Of Biotechnology Beyond The Genome: The Limits Of Patent Law In The Face Of The Proteomics Revolution, J. Jason Williams Apr 2005

Protecting The Frontiers Of Biotechnology Beyond The Genome: The Limits Of Patent Law In The Face Of The Proteomics Revolution, J. Jason Williams

Vanderbilt Law Review

Scientific knowledge and invention rapidly accelerated in the past few decades, resulting in an untold number of broken barriers and realized benefits. In 2001, scientists announced that the human genome, consisting of 30,000 to 40,000 genes, had been fully characterized. Arguably one of the most important scientific breakthroughs in history, this accomplishment came far sooner than anyone could have anticipated. Fueled by the enormous marketing potential in finding causes and cures for many diseases, the biotechnology industry invested heavily in the project with the hope of maximizing control of genetic intellectual property and its potential downstream value.

While ...


Copyright Infringement And Poetry: When Is A Red Wheelbarrow The Red Wheelbarrow?, Jennifer Understahl Apr 2005

Copyright Infringement And Poetry: When Is A Red Wheelbarrow The Red Wheelbarrow?, Jennifer Understahl

Vanderbilt Law Review

Copyright does not protect facts or ideas, but only an author's original expression. Often, though, it is difficult to distill protected expression from unprotected ideas or facts that reside in the public domain. Copyright protection for poetry is particularly problematic because a poem's ideas are often intertwined with a poem's sounds, shape, and images. It is often not only difficult to extract ideas from a poem's surface, but once ideas are "discovered," it may even be difficult to articulate exactly what these main ideas or themes are. William Carlos Williams' poem, The Red Wheelbarrow, one of ...


The Unconstitutionality Of "Hold Until Cleared": Reexamining Material Witness Detentions In The Wake Of The September 11th Dragnet, Ricardo J. Bascuas Apr 2005

The Unconstitutionality Of "Hold Until Cleared": Reexamining Material Witness Detentions In The Wake Of The September 11th Dragnet, Ricardo J. Bascuas

Vanderbilt Law Review

On March 11, 2004, terrorists affiliated with the Al Qaida networkl detonated bombs on four commuter trains in Madrid, Spain, killing 191 people and injuring 2,000 others. Hours later, the Spanish National Police (SNP) recovered a fingerprint from a bag of detonators found in a stolen van parked at a station from which three of the bombed trains departed. The SNP requested assistance from the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation to identify the owner of the print. FBI experts concluded that the print belonged to Brandon Mayfield, a U.S. citizen living in a suburb of Portland, Oregon ...


Taking Miranda's Pulse, William T. Pizzi, Morris B. Hoffman Apr 2005

Taking Miranda's Pulse, William T. Pizzi, Morris B. Hoffman

Vanderbilt Law Review

The Supreme Court decided five Miranda1 cases in 2003-2004, making this one of the most active fifteen-month periods for the law of self-incrimination since the controversial case was decided in 1966. In this Article, we consider three of those five cases-Chavez v. Martinez, Missouri v. Seibert and United States v. Patane-along with the blockbuster decision four years ago in Dickerson v. United States. in an attempt to decipher what, if anything, this remarkable level of activity teaches us about the direction of the Court's self-incrimination jurisprudence. In the end, while these cases, like those before them, may not entirely ...


Special Project: Current Issues In Intellectual Property, W. Russell Taber Apr 2005

Special Project: Current Issues In Intellectual Property, W. Russell Taber

Vanderbilt Law Review

A single legal concept has produced some of the greatest achievements of the human mind: intellectual property. Thousands of years ago, Aristotle denounced the then novel notion of rewarding those who create inventions beneficial to the state. History has been kind to Aristotle, but not because of his insights on intellectual property. The Venetian Senate's passage of the 1474 Act marked the beginning of systematic patent protection on European soil. Along with blown glassware, Venice later exported its penchant for patent protection to the rest of Europe, including Great Britain by the mid- sixteenth century. During the same era ...


Copyright "Deja Vu": A New Definition Of "Publication" Under The Copyright Act Of 1909, W. Russell Taber Apr 2005

Copyright "Deja Vu": A New Definition Of "Publication" Under The Copyright Act Of 1909, W. Russell Taber

Vanderbilt Law Review

"I have a dream," Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., declared from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington in 1963. About 200,000 people had gathered to listen to Dr. King's famous speech and to participate in the events of the day. Millions more witnessed the live broadcast on major television and radio stations. Others read the text of the speech in newspapers across the country.

Just over a month later, Dr. King applied for federal copyright protection for the speech. Under federal copyright law at the time, an owner who published a work prior ...


Purging Foreseeability, W. Jonathan Cardi Apr 2005

Purging Foreseeability, W. Jonathan Cardi

Vanderbilt Law Review

For those responsible for understanding tort doctrine, the concept of foreseeability is a scourge, and its role in negligence cases is a vexing, crisscrossed morass. Indeed, one torts professor teaches that foreseeability might as well be called "strawberry shortcake," having been bent, muddled, and co-opted to such a degree that it has lost any real meaning.

Foreseeability's role in the element of "duty" in negligence is especially problematic. Courts have long tied the existence of a duty- that is, whether an allegedly negligent defendant owed an obligation of care under the circumstances-to foreseeability. The more foreseeable the risk, the ...


Certifying Mandatory Punitive Damages Classes In A Post-Ortiz And State Farm World, Aileen L. Nagy Mar 2005

Certifying Mandatory Punitive Damages Classes In A Post-Ortiz And State Farm World, Aileen L. Nagy

Vanderbilt Law Review

Punitive damages are a civil penalty "aimed at deterrence and retribution" that further the state's interest in punishing unlawful conduct.' They are meant to "sting" and should be imposed proportionally according to the "egregiousness of the harm and the wealth of the transgressor." While compensatory damages are intended to compensate plaintiffs for their concrete losses, punitive damages use the plaintiff as an instrument for "visiting [] punishment upon [the] extreme tortious misdeeds" of defendants. As such, it is well settled that no individual plaintiff is entitled to punitive damages; however, "it is equally true that no transgressor is entitled to ...