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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Big Chill?: Contextual Judgment After R. V Hamilton, Richard Devlin, Matthew Sherrard Oct 2005

The Big Chill?: Contextual Judgment After R. V Hamilton, Richard Devlin, Matthew Sherrard

Dalhousie Law Journal

The tone and thrust of the Ontario Court ofAppeal's decision in R. v. Hamilton will serve to chill efforts by sentencing judges to tailor their responsibilities to accord with the recognized realities of systemic and intersectional inequality in Canadian society The decision presents an unduly conservative response to the judicial function question, and an understandable, if excessively cautious, answer with regard to the application of systemic, intersectional inequality issues in practice. Specifically, the decision underplays the overall remedial goal of section 718 of the Criminal Code by overemphasizing the particularity of Aboriginal peoples, and ignoring the specificity of especially vulnerable …


Uncovering The Presumption Of Factual Innocence In Canadian Law, Mark Herrema Oct 2005

Uncovering The Presumption Of Factual Innocence In Canadian Law, Mark Herrema

Dalhousie Law Journal

The presumption of innocence has long been regarded as a hallmark of our justice system. Rhetoric abounds and finding a more celebrated legal doctrine is difficult. For most in the legalprofession, the presumption of innocence represents the procedural requirement that the Crown prove all elements of an offence. Yet, aside from its procedural and evidentiary protections, does the presumption of innocence offer any protection at the pre-charge phase of the criminal justice process? Specifically, for the majority of Canadians who have never been, or never will be charged with an offence, does the presumption of innocence offer any protection? Regrettably, …


Law's Ambition And The Reconstruction Of Role Morality In Canada, David M. Tanovich Oct 2005

Law's Ambition And The Reconstruction Of Role Morality In Canada, David M. Tanovich

Dalhousie Law Journal

There is a growing disconnect and alienation between lawyers and the legal profession in Canada. One cause, which is the focus ofthe article, is philosophical in nature. There appears to be a disconnect between the role lawyers want to pursue (i.e., a facilitator of justice) and the role that they perceive the profession demands they play (i.e., a hired gun). The article argues that this perception is a mistaken one. Over the last fifteen years, we have been engaged in a process of role morality reconstruction. Under this reconstructed institutional role, an ethic of client-centred zealous advocacy has slowly begun …


Damages For Mental Distress And Other Intangible Loss In A Commercial Context, Shannon O'Byrne Oct 2005

Damages For Mental Distress And Other Intangible Loss In A Commercial Context, Shannon O'Byrne

Dalhousie Law Journal

As a general rule, contracts law does not permit an award of general damages for mental distress or other intangible loss. There are several rationales for this, including: plaintiffs are to bear their disappointment or upset with mental fortitude; without the rule, courts would be awash in litigation since every breach of contract brings with it some degree of emotional distress; without the rule, plaintiffs may fabricate or exaggerate the degree of their upset; and the rule simply reflects the lack of foreseeability of such loss under Hadley v. Baxendale. Notwithstanding the general rule, courts have awarded mental distress in …


Accountants, Privilege, And The Problem Of Working Papers, Paul Paton Oct 2005

Accountants, Privilege, And The Problem Of Working Papers, Paul Paton

Dalhousie Law Journal

Full and frank disclosure between corporate issuers and their auditors and accounting advisors is critical for maintaining access to the information required for audits and public confidence in the capital markets. While tax authorities in the United States, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have the power to make broad requests for working papers, in all four jurisdictions, legislation or administrative practice reflects the determination that the best approach for balancing tax and capital markets requirements is for the revenue authorities to seek working papers only in exceptional circumstances. Additionally, limited forms of privilege for accountants have been recognized …


The One That Got Away: Fishery Reserves In Prince Edward Island, Rusty Bittermann, Margaret E. Mccallum Oct 2005

The One That Got Away: Fishery Reserves In Prince Edward Island, Rusty Bittermann, Margaret E. Mccallum

Dalhousie Law Journal

In 1767, the British government divided Prince Edward Island into sixty-seven townships of about 20,000 acres each, and allocated all but one of these to about one hundred people who had some claim on the Crown's munificence. Subsequently, Island governments complained of their disadvantaged state in comparison with other British North American colonies, which could raise revenue by selling rights to Crown land and resources. Their complaints, although not totally unjustified, did not acknowledge the extensive and valuable lands which the Crown retained as fishery reserves. Most of the township grants reserved rights to the first 500 feet of land …


Spaceship Sheriffs And Cosmonaut Cops, Lee Seshagiri Oct 2005

Spaceship Sheriffs And Cosmonaut Cops, Lee Seshagiri

Dalhousie Law Journal

This paper examines some of the current legal regimes applicable to criminal law in outer space and offers insights into options for future legal developments in the cosmos. It begins by setting out the context for law enforcement in outer space, emphasizing the commercial nature of future space exploration and the need for laws and law enforcement in that environment. Next, various methods for assigning legal jurisdiction in space are examined, and the underlying justifications for the exercise of such jurisdiction are considered. The paper goes on to explore preventative approaches to space crime, highlighting the usefulness of such approaches …


The Property Status Of Fishing Licences, David G. Henley Oct 2005

The Property Status Of Fishing Licences, David G. Henley

Dalhousie Law Journal

The property status of a fishing licence has for a long time been undecided. The judicial decisions have varied significantly on whether a fishing licence is property at common law or pursuant to various statutory definitions. The significance ofthe issue lies primarily in the financial arena. It is most often the case that the preponderance of the value in a fishing enterprise lies with the fishing licence rather than in the vessel. It is not uncommon for a lobster licence to approach one million dollars in value.' When quota is allocated to groundfish licences, the value of the package can …


Unmasking The John Does Of Cyberspace: Surveillance By Private Copyright Owners, Amy Min-Chee Fong Aug 2005

Unmasking The John Does Of Cyberspace: Surveillance By Private Copyright Owners, Amy Min-Chee Fong

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The goals of this paper are to: (1) explore the expectations of cyberspace privacy in a peer-to-peer context; (2) examine the consequences to Internet users arising from the surveillance tactics of private copyright owners; and (3) discuss possible ways in which a balance can be achieved between privacy and intellectual property rights. Part II of this paper sets out the meaning of information privacy, discusses the widespread use of peer-to-peer networks for trading copyrighted content, and examines the expectations of privacy in peer-to-peer networks. Part III discusses the surveillance tactics of private copyright owners, and explains how the surveillance of …


What The Dormouse Said: How The Sixties Counterculture Shaped The Personal Computer By John Markoff (New York: Penguin, 2005), Vaughan Black Aug 2005

What The Dormouse Said: How The Sixties Counterculture Shaped The Personal Computer By John Markoff (New York: Penguin, 2005), Vaughan Black

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

What the Dormouse Said is the revisionary back- story of Silicon Valley; in particular, the roots of the current model of human interface with personal com- puters (video screen, keyboard, mouse) and the early stabs at creating the Internet. Markoff is a long-standing hi-tech reporter for the New York Times who, over the past 20 years, has co-written three computer-related books. In Dormouse, his fourth book (but first solo effort), he takes us back to the pre-ironic age — ‘‘the Flintstones era of computers’’ — when batch processing and beatniks still roamed the earth. His claim is that the various …


The Role Of Levies In Canada's Digital Music Marketplace, Jeremy F. Debeer Aug 2005

The Role Of Levies In Canada's Digital Music Marketplace, Jeremy F. Debeer

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper considers whether such initiatives are a desirable alternative to the current system of exclusive proprietary copyrights. My goal is not to evaluate the nuances of any particular levy scheme or proposal, but to consider the implications of the concept from a specifically Canadian perspective. Despite the generality of the analysis, many of the observations and conclusions about the viability of levy schemes relate to Canada’s actual experiences with its existing private copying levy.

The paper concludes that tariffs or levies on the products and services of third parties are not the best method to support the Canadian music …


Cryptography Export Controls - Canada's Dichotomous Cryptography Policy, Paul Bates Aug 2005

Cryptography Export Controls - Canada's Dichotomous Cryptography Policy, Paul Bates

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The effort to erect strong legal barriers to trans-national distribution of cryptography has significant gaps because strong cryptography can be obtained and used within Canada without legal restrictions. This paper advocates that Canada should exercise its discretion under the WA to diminish, not fortify, the restrictions of the export control regime.


Rising Governmental Use Of Biometric Technology: An Analysis Of The United States Visitor And Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program, Lisa Madelon Campbell Apr 2005

Rising Governmental Use Of Biometric Technology: An Analysis Of The United States Visitor And Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program, Lisa Madelon Campbell

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This article explores increased governmental interest in the use of biometric measurements as a means of identifying individuals and tracing their movements. Private industries, of course, are equally interested in biometrics, and often similarly capable of collecting and storing biometric information. For example, merchants in the United Kingdom require customers who pay by cheque to provide a thumbprint as an additional security measure against potential fraud. The issues raised by the use of biometrics in the private sector are somewhat different than those that arise in the public context. This article explores the increased reli- ance upon individual biometric measurements …


The Dartmouth Schools Question And The Supreme Court Of Nova Scotia, Robert Nicholas Bérard Apr 2005

The Dartmouth Schools Question And The Supreme Court Of Nova Scotia, Robert Nicholas Bérard

Dalhousie Law Journal

Scholars have often demonstrated that courts in Canada have long been responsive to the political, social, cultural and economic contexts in which they operate. An illustration of the ways in which the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia embodied this role can be found in the Court's handling of a dispute between the Town of Dartmouth and the Roman Catholic Episcopal Corporation of Halifax, often referred to as the "Dartmouth Schools Question" in 1939 and 1940 The case concerned the attempt of the Town of Dartmouth, alone among municipalities in Nova Scotia, to collect local taxes on property used for Catholic …


I Click, You Click, We All Click - But Do We Have A Contract? A Case Comment On Aspenceri.Com V. Paysystems, Charles Morgan Apr 2005

I Click, You Click, We All Click - But Do We Have A Contract? A Case Comment On Aspenceri.Com V. Paysystems, Charles Morgan

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

It is trite to say that e-commerce has exploded over the last several years. Canadian individuals and businesses are entering into thousands and thousands of contracts online all the time. Yet, oddly enough, there is surprisingly little legal certainty or consistency regarding an essential legal question: what approach to online contract formation will create a binding legal contract? Such legal uncertainty is unfortunate, since buyers need to know when to ‘‘beware’’, merchants need to be able to manage risk, and courts need to have clear guidelines in order to be able to render informed, coherent decisions.

The issue of online …


Intelligent Agents: Authors, Makers, And Owners Of Computer-Generated Works In Canadian Copyright Law, Rex M. Shoyama Apr 2005

Intelligent Agents: Authors, Makers, And Owners Of Computer-Generated Works In Canadian Copyright Law, Rex M. Shoyama

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The central objective of this article is to propose a clarification of copyright law as applied to works created by intelligent agents. In Part I, the concepts of artificial intelligence and intelligent agents are introduced. Part II identifies the challenges that are presented to the tests of originality and authorship in the application of copyright to works generated by intelligent agents. It is argued that works created by intelligent agents may meet the tests of originality and authorship. It is also argued that the con- cepts of ‘‘author’’, ‘‘owner’’, and ‘‘maker’’ are distinct from one another in Canadian copyright law. …


L'Affaire Huntsman C. Soderbergh Ou Le Droit D'Expurger Les Films, René Pépin Apr 2005

L'Affaire Huntsman C. Soderbergh Ou Le Droit D'Expurger Les Films, René Pépin

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

Deux éléments nous motivent. D’abord, comme on le devine, la technologie évolue à un rythme rapide en ce domaine. On n’en est plus au temps où les films étaient produits unique- ment sur une véritable pellicule de plastique qu’un censeur pouvait insérer dans une machine qui lui permettait littéralement de couper des parties indésirables et de recoller les embouts. L’informatique a envahi ce domaine. Il y a maintenant des logiciels sophistiqués qui agissent comme interface entre un disque DVD et l’écran, permettant au consommateur de choisir lui-même les séquences qui seront enlevées dans un film. On comprend que ceci pose …


Biotechnology Unglued: Science, Society, And Social Cohesion By Michael D. Mehta, Ed. (Vancouver: Ubc Press, 2005), Chidi Oguamanam Apr 2005

Biotechnology Unglued: Science, Society, And Social Cohesion By Michael D. Mehta, Ed. (Vancouver: Ubc Press, 2005), Chidi Oguamanam

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

In Biotechnology Unglued, Mehta and his thirteen-member interdisciplinary team, comprising mainly of social scientists using a number of ‘‘case studies’’, explore in nine essays ‘‘how advances in agricultural, medical, and forensic biotechnology may threaten the social cohesiveness of different kinds of communities and at different scales’’. In a way, the project is a successful attempt to underscore the theme of (and imperative for) social accountability of science and bio/technological innovations. This 208-page collection of nine essays in a corresponding number of chapters is a remarkable effort. It is a departure from the traditional concerns regarding biotechnology innovations which, hitherto, emphasized …


Virtual Playgrounds And Buddybots: A Data-Minefield For Tweens, Valerie Steeves, Ian R. Kerr Apr 2005

Virtual Playgrounds And Buddybots: A Data-Minefield For Tweens, Valerie Steeves, Ian R. Kerr

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This article examines the online places where tweens play, chat, and hang out. We argue that the vision behind these places is defined by commercial imperatives that seek to embed surveillance deeper and deeper into children’s playgrounds and social interactions. Online marketers do more than implant branded products into a child’s play; they collect the minute details of a child’s life so they can build a ‘‘relationship’’ of ‘‘trust’’ between the child and brand. Although marketing to children is not new, a networked environment magnifies the effect on a child’s identity because it opens up a child’s private online spaces …


Maritime Law, George Strathy Apr 2005

Maritime Law, George Strathy

Dalhousie Law Journal

This substantial work. written by three members of the faculty of the Marine and Environmental Law Institute at Dalhousie University, is part of the Irwin Law, Essentials of Canadian Law series. Running to just over 800 pages of text, it covers the waterfront, so to speak, of its subject matter. An indication of the scope of the text is reflected in the division of labour among the three authors. They co-authored an introductory chapter and each took responsibility for writing different chapters of the rest of the book. Edgar Gold, a former ship captain and a Master Mariner, has been …


Imposing Self-Interest: Behavioural Law And Economics, The Ultimatum Game, And Value Possibilities, Michael Ilg Apr 2005

Imposing Self-Interest: Behavioural Law And Economics, The Ultimatum Game, And Value Possibilities, Michael Ilg

Dalhousie Law Journal

With the recent emergence of the behavioural approach to law and economics, there is now a systematic critique of law and economics which remains sympathetic to its overall objectives. Rather than seek to undermine traditional law and economics, the intent of the behavioural approach is generally to augment it, and render its formulations more representative of reality. Drawing upon experimental evidence and well-known examples of anomalies within economic theory, behavioural scholars claim that the law needs to better account for instances of individual irrationality. Having identified the situations when rational maximization does not hold, behavioural scholars are then able to …


Foreign Judgments At Common Law: Rethinking The Enforcement Rules, Tanya J. Monestier Apr 2005

Foreign Judgments At Common Law: Rethinking The Enforcement Rules, Tanya J. Monestier

Dalhousie Law Journal

England and Canada have adopted divergent approaches to the enforcement of foreign civil and commercial judgments. An English court will only enforce a foreign judgment where the defendant submitted to the junsdiction of the foreign court, or was present in the foreign jurisdiction when served with process. This position. while protecting domestic defendants, is outdated and does little to further the objectives underpinning judgment enforcement- Canadian courts, by contrast, have been far more liberal than their English counterparts, enforcing foreign judgments in cases where there is a "real and substantial connection" between the dispute and the judgment forum. While this …


Deciding In The Heat Of The Constitutional Moment Constitutional Meaning And Change In The Quebec Secession Reference, Jonathon W. Penney Apr 2005

Deciding In The Heat Of The Constitutional Moment Constitutional Meaning And Change In The Quebec Secession Reference, Jonathon W. Penney

Dalhousie Law Journal

The Quebec Secession Reference addressed divisive issues with far-reaching implications for the Canadian constitutional order. Recently, commentators have called for a less traditional and more systematic approach to understanding the decision, and its place in the broader scheme of Canadian constitutionalism. Accordingly, this paper challenges the predominant narrative concerning the Quebec Secession Reference, which is largely judge-centred and shows little regard for the important historical, political, and popular forces so crucial to understanding the decision. The challenge is mounted through the work of Yale constitutional scholar Bruce Ackerman and his theory of constitutional moments. This paper uses Ackerman's criteria of …


Tribunals Imitating Courts - Foolish Flattery Or Sound Policy?, David Mullan Apr 2005

Tribunals Imitating Courts - Foolish Flattery Or Sound Policy?, David Mullan

Dalhousie Law Journal

In his 2004 Horace E Read Memorial Lecture, David Mullan assesses the impact of the "due process explosion." To what extent has the evolution of Canadian law (both statutory and common) in the domain of procedural fairness been responsible for the phenomenon of excessive judicialization of the administrative process? Has the increase in the number of decision-makers subject to the obligation of procedural fairness and the growth in the parallels between tribunal and court processes affected adversely the interests of the administrative justice system and the public that it is meant to serve? The author suggests that there is a …


Courts And Constitutional Usurpers Some Lessons From Fiji, Venkat Iyer Apr 2005

Courts And Constitutional Usurpers Some Lessons From Fiji, Venkat Iyer

Dalhousie Law Journal

Much concern and disappointment has been expressed by jurists and human rights campaigners over the inaction ofnational judiciaries in reversing the effects of coups d'etat and other acts which result in the unconstitutional overthrow of democratically constituted governments Against this backdrop, the decisive steps taken b) the superior courts of Fiji to nullify the attempted destabilisation of that country's elected government in May 2000 was a trail-blazing development The author analyses the jurisprudence in this area and explains the implications of the Fijian judgments.


Air Travel, Accidents And Injuries: Why The New Montreal Convention Is Already Outdated, Andrew Field Apr 2005

Air Travel, Accidents And Injuries: Why The New Montreal Convention Is Already Outdated, Andrew Field

Dalhousie Law Journal

The 1999 Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (the "Montreal Convention") came into force in 2003. It is the latest in a series of attempts to replace a number of variations on the 1929 Warsaw Convention with a single agreement which regulates the rights and liabilities of international air carriers, their passengers and shippers. At the time, the Montreal Convention was hailed as providing better protection and compensation for victims of air accidents. However despite its recent adoption, in relation to claims for death and personal injuries the Montreal Convention is still firmly planted …


Tax Discrimination In The Nafta Bloc: The Impact Of Tax And Trade Agreements On The Cross-Border Trade In Services, Catherine Brown Apr 2005

Tax Discrimination In The Nafta Bloc: The Impact Of Tax And Trade Agreements On The Cross-Border Trade In Services, Catherine Brown

Dalhousie Law Journal

This paper considers the impact of international agreements in disciplining tax discrimination affecting cross-bordertrade in services. It addresses three questions. First, how do tax and trade agreements interact in the discipline of tax measures affecting cross-border service providers? Second, does this interaction result in tax discrimination against foreign service providers in the NAFTA bloc? Third, if so, what remedies, if any, are available to cross-border service providers with respect to tax measures that are discnminatory? The paper concludes with illustrative examples that service providers in the NAFTA bloc, depending on the applicable treaty are subject to differing tax treatments, are …


Fundamentals Of Information Technology By Sunny Handa (Markham: Lexisnexis Canada Inc., 2004), Barbara Darby Jan 2005

Fundamentals Of Information Technology By Sunny Handa (Markham: Lexisnexis Canada Inc., 2004), Barbara Darby

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

In the early 1990s, I purchased my first stereo with a CD player. I found myself trapped in a conversation with someone who tried to convince me that it was utter folly not to buy a turntable, because CD technology simply couldn’t replicate the ‘‘warmth’’ of vinyl. Had I only Handa’s book to hand, I could have provided a straight- forward and understandable explanation for why my records were well enough left in my parents’ basement; although ‘‘digitization . . . fails to record all characteristics of analog data, even at the highest finite sampling rate . . . Complete …


Leveraging Knowledge Assets: Can Law Reform Help?, Margaret Ann Wilkinson, Mark Perry Jan 2005

Leveraging Knowledge Assets: Can Law Reform Help?, Margaret Ann Wilkinson, Mark Perry

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper asks whether there is a need for law-makers to aid in the efficient transition to a new knowledge-based economic and social environment through the use of intellectual property devices. The use of such devices was effective in assisting with the transition to an industrial society that, combined with developments in commercial law and secured transactions, further fuelled economic growth in Canada. Can these disparate areas of law be brought together to provide opportunities for the growth of knowledge-based business? The Law Commission of Canada instigated a two-part investigation into these questions. The investigation culminated in the Commission's report …


"Tpms": A Perfect Storm For Consumers: Replies To Professor Geist, Barry Sookman Jan 2005

"Tpms": A Perfect Storm For Consumers: Replies To Professor Geist, Barry Sookman

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This article has its origins in an article written by Professor Michael Geist and published in the Toronto Star entitled ‘‘‘TPMs’: A perfect storm for consumers’’. Following the publication of the article, John Gregory made a posting to the e-commerce listserv he moderates asking if anyone had any comments to the article. I responded on February 13, 2005 with a reply to John’s request. Professor Geist replied to my comments on February 17, 2005. On March 9, 2005 I posted a further reply to Professor Geist. The article set out below is based substantially on my two postings to John …