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2005

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Full-Text Articles in Law

When Small Technology Is A Big Deal: Legal Issues Arising From Business Use Of Rfid, D. Zachary Hostetter Dec 2005

When Small Technology Is A Big Deal: Legal Issues Arising From Business Use Of Rfid, D. Zachary Hostetter

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Radio Frequency Identification (“RFID”) is a wireless tracking technology. Goods fitted with radio tags can communicate with computers via radio waves, revolutionizing methods to locate and catalogue goods at every stage of the supply line. Current research predicts that 40% of all inventory intensive businesses will have such wireless tracking systems by the end of 2005. This article examines current legal trends that impact business use of RFID including contractual considerations to properly allocate risks attendant with implementation of RFID, FCC regulation of RFID, and consumer privacy concerns.


What's So Great About Nothing? The Gnu General Public License And The Zero-Price-Fixing Problem, Heidi S. Bond Dec 2005

What's So Great About Nothing? The Gnu General Public License And The Zero-Price-Fixing Problem, Heidi S. Bond

Michigan Law Review

In 1991, Linus Torvalds released the first version of the Linux operating system. Like many other beneficiaries of the subsequent dot-com boom, Torvalds worked on a limited budget. Clad in a bathrobe, clattering away on a computer purchased on credit, subsisting on a diet of pretzels and dry pasta, hiding in a tiny room that was outfitted with thick black shades designed to block out Finland's summer sun, Torvalds programmed Linux. Like some other beneficiaries of the subsequent dot-com boom, Torvalds created a product that is now used by millions. He owns stock options worth seven figures. Computer industry giants, …


The Misery Of Mitra: Considering Criminal Punishment For Computer Crimes, James T. Tsai Nov 2005

The Misery Of Mitra: Considering Criminal Punishment For Computer Crimes, James T. Tsai

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the policies and philosophy of punishment for computer crimes under the post-Sept. 11th regime. I argue that the judicial discourse represented in Mitra represents a willingness to use the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act to go after defendants that cause trouble with critical infrastructures, the so-called “domestic terrorist.” This is manifested in the levels of punishments for such offenses and calls into question whether the traditional theories of punishment are applicable. I argue that as a policy, it makes good sense but the hazy definitions of terrorism may present problems for its success, and instead an approach …


Catch 1201: A Legislative History And Content Analysis Of The Dmca Exemption Proceedings, Bill D. Herman, Oscar H. Gandy Nov 2005

Catch 1201: A Legislative History And Content Analysis Of The Dmca Exemption Proceedings, Bill D. Herman, Oscar H. Gandy

ExpressO

17 USC Section 1201(a)(1) prohibits circumventing a technological protection measure (TPM) that effectively controls access to a copyrighted work. In the name of mitigating the innocent casualties of this new ban, Congress constructed a triennial rulemaking, administered by the Register of Copyrights, to determine temporary exemptions. This paper considers the legislative history of this rulemaking, and it reports the results of a systematic content analysis of its 2000 and 2003 proceedings.

Inspired by the literature on political agendas, policymaking institutions, venue shifting, and theories of delegation, we conclude that the legislative motivations for Section 1201 were laundered through international treaties, …


Password Theft: Rethinking An Old Crime In A New Era, Daniel S. Shamah Nov 2005

Password Theft: Rethinking An Old Crime In A New Era, Daniel S. Shamah

ExpressO

This is a discussion of the legal and economic ramifications of password theft.


Once And Future Copyright, James Gibson Nov 2005

Once And Future Copyright, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

Copyright is like a well-meaning but ultimately bothersome friend, eager to help but nearly impossible to get rid of. It attaches indiscriminately to the simplest acts of expression, without regard for whether the author needs or wants its protection. This automatic propertization made sense in the print era, when mass distribution of information was an expensive process rarely undertaken by those with no plans to profit from their creativity. It makes little sense today. The following article shows that copyright's overly solicitous nature is the source of several seemingly unrelated and intractable problems - e.g., closed code, copyright as censorship, …


Digital Wars -- Legal Battles And Economic Bottlenecks In The Digital Information Industries, Curt A. Hessler Oct 2005

Digital Wars -- Legal Battles And Economic Bottlenecks In The Digital Information Industries, Curt A. Hessler

ExpressO

The Digital Age has spawned major legal battles over the fundamental principles of intellectual property law and antitrust law. These diverse struggles can best be analyzed using the basic norm of "value added" from neo-classical normative economics. This analysis suggests that current intellectual property doctirnes provide excessive protection and current antitrust doctrines remain awkward in dealing with the cross-market leveraging of monopoly power in the presence of "natural monopolies" created by network effects.


"Electronic Fingerprints": Doing Away With The Conception Of Computer-Generated Records As Hearsay, Adam Wolfson Oct 2005

"Electronic Fingerprints": Doing Away With The Conception Of Computer-Generated Records As Hearsay, Adam Wolfson

Michigan Law Review

One night, in the hours just before daybreak, the computer servers at Acme Corporation's headquarters quietly hum in the silence of the office's darkened hallways. Suddenly, they waken to life and begin haphazardly sifting through their files. Several states away, a hacker sits in his room, searching through the mainframe via an internet connection. His attack is quick-lasting only a short five minutes-but the evidence of invasion is apparent to Acme's IT employees when they come in to work the next morning. Nearly a year later, federal prosecutors bring suit in the federal district court against the person they believe …


Breaking The Bank: Revisiting Central Bank Of Denver After Enron And Sarbanes-Oxley, Celia Taylor Sep 2005

Breaking The Bank: Revisiting Central Bank Of Denver After Enron And Sarbanes-Oxley, Celia Taylor

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


'Code' And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Bert-Jaap Koops, Ronald Leenes Sep 2005

'Code' And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Bert-Jaap Koops, Ronald Leenes

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The notion of software code replacing legal code as a mechanism to control human behavior--"code as law"--is often illustrated with examples in intellectual property and freedom of speech. This Article examines the neglected issue of the impact of "code as law" on privacy. To what extent is privacy-related "code" being used, either to undermine or to enhance privacy? On the basis of cases in the domains of law enforcement, national security, E-government, and commerce, it is concluded that technology rarely incorporates specific privacy-related norms. At the same time, however, technology very often does have clear effects on privacy, as it …


Information Security Breaches And The Threat To Consumers, Fred H. Cate Sep 2005

Information Security Breaches And The Threat To Consumers, Fred H. Cate

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Contracts Concluded By Electronic Agents - Comparative Analysis Of American And Polish Legal Systems, Aleksandra M. Jurewicz Aug 2005

Contracts Concluded By Electronic Agents - Comparative Analysis Of American And Polish Legal Systems, Aleksandra M. Jurewicz

ExpressO

This article analyzes the US and Polish law on contract formation by electronic agents. It persents the main similarities and differences in the approaches of common and civil legal systems. Finally, it discusses changes in legal theories in Poland that had to be made in order to comply with standards of electronic commerce.


Vol. Vi, Tab 38 - Ex. 30 - Email From Nino Ninov, Nino Ninov Aug 2005

Vol. Vi, Tab 38 - Ex. 30 - Email From Nino Ninov, Nino Ninov

Rosetta Stone v. Google (Joint Appendix)

Exhibits from the un-sealed joint appendix for Rosetta Stone Ltd., v. Google Inc., No. 10-2007, on appeal to the 4th Circuit. Issue presented: Under the Lanham Act, does the use of trademarked terms in keyword advertising result in infringement when there is evidence of actual confusion?


Defining Spyware: Necessary Or Dangerous, Andrew T. Braff Aug 2005

Defining Spyware: Necessary Or Dangerous, Andrew T. Braff

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

State legislation attempting to define and proscribe spyware has been criticized for either being under-inclusive or over-inclusive. This article provides an overview of the technology that is commonly considered spyware and examines the potential effects of attempting to legislatively define and curtail spyware as a specific technology. It concludes that a more appropriate method to regulate spyware would focus on prohibiting conduct associated with placing monitoring software on a computer and enforcing existing law regarding such conduct.


Will Wi-Fi Make Your Private Network Public? Wardriving, Criminal And Civil Liability, And The Security Risks Of Wireless Networks, Anita Ramasastry, Jane Winn Aug 2005

Will Wi-Fi Make Your Private Network Public? Wardriving, Criminal And Civil Liability, And The Security Risks Of Wireless Networks, Anita Ramasastry, Jane Winn

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Wireless networking is growing in popularity because it is often cheaper and more convenient than other computer networking systems. Wireless networks, however, are also very hard to secure. Locating insecure wireless networks and advertising their locations is an activity known as “wardriving.” Exploiting the vulnerability of a wireless network to hack into the computer system or to monitor the wireless transmissions can give rise to liability under federal felony and misdemeanor statutes, as well as federal civil liability and liability under state law private causes of action. When introducing wireless networking into business information systems, system administrators should use all …


Vol. Vi, Tab 38 - Ex. 31 - Survey Of Rosetta Stone Brand Health, Rosetta Stone Aug 2005

Vol. Vi, Tab 38 - Ex. 31 - Survey Of Rosetta Stone Brand Health, Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone v. Google (Joint Appendix)

Exhibits from the un-sealed joint appendix for Rosetta Stone Ltd., v. Google Inc., No. 10-2007, on appeal to the 4th Circuit. Issue presented: Under the Lanham Act, does the use of trademarked terms in keyword advertising result in infringement when there is evidence of actual confusion?


Unmasking The John Does Of Cyberspace: Surveillance By Private Copyright Owners, Amy Min-Chee Fong Aug 2005

Unmasking The John Does Of Cyberspace: Surveillance By Private Copyright Owners, Amy Min-Chee Fong

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The goals of this paper are to: (1) explore the expectations of cyberspace privacy in a peer-to-peer context; (2) examine the consequences to Internet users arising from the surveillance tactics of private copyright owners; and (3) discuss possible ways in which a balance can be achieved between privacy and intellectual property rights. Part II of this paper sets out the meaning of information privacy, discusses the widespread use of peer-to-peer networks for trading copyrighted content, and examines the expectations of privacy in peer-to-peer networks. Part III discusses the surveillance tactics of private copyright owners, and explains how the surveillance of …


What The Dormouse Said: How The Sixties Counterculture Shaped The Personal Computer By John Markoff (New York: Penguin, 2005), Vaughan Black Aug 2005

What The Dormouse Said: How The Sixties Counterculture Shaped The Personal Computer By John Markoff (New York: Penguin, 2005), Vaughan Black

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

What the Dormouse Said is the revisionary back- story of Silicon Valley; in particular, the roots of the current model of human interface with personal com- puters (video screen, keyboard, mouse) and the early stabs at creating the Internet. Markoff is a long-standing hi-tech reporter for the New York Times who, over the past 20 years, has co-written three computer-related books. In Dormouse, his fourth book (but first solo effort), he takes us back to the pre-ironic age — ‘‘the Flintstones era of computers’’ — when batch processing and beatniks still roamed the earth. His claim is that the various …


The Role Of Levies In Canada's Digital Music Marketplace, Jeremy F. Debeer Aug 2005

The Role Of Levies In Canada's Digital Music Marketplace, Jeremy F. Debeer

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper considers whether such initiatives are a desirable alternative to the current system of exclusive proprietary copyrights. My goal is not to evaluate the nuances of any particular levy scheme or proposal, but to consider the implications of the concept from a specifically Canadian perspective. Despite the generality of the analysis, many of the observations and conclusions about the viability of levy schemes relate to Canada’s actual experiences with its existing private copying levy.

The paper concludes that tariffs or levies on the products and services of third parties are not the best method to support the Canadian music …


Cryptography Export Controls - Canada's Dichotomous Cryptography Policy, Paul Bates Aug 2005

Cryptography Export Controls - Canada's Dichotomous Cryptography Policy, Paul Bates

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The effort to erect strong legal barriers to trans-national distribution of cryptography has significant gaps because strong cryptography can be obtained and used within Canada without legal restrictions. This paper advocates that Canada should exercise its discretion under the WA to diminish, not fortify, the restrictions of the export control regime.


Creative Commons And The New Intermediaries, Michael W. Carroll Aug 2005

Creative Commons And The New Intermediaries, Michael W. Carroll

Working Paper Series

This symposium contribution examines the disintermediating and reintermediating roles played by Creative Commons licenses on the Internet. Creative Commons licenses act as a disintermediating force because they enable end-to-end transactions in copyrighted works. The licenses have reintermediating force by enabling new services and new online communities to form around content licensed under a Creative Commons license. Intermediaries focused on the copyright dimension have begun to appear online as search engines, archives, libraries, publishers, community organizers, and educators. Moreover, the growth of machine-readable copyright licenses and the new intermediaries that they enable is part of a larger movement toward a Semantic …


Legal Restrictions On Transborder Data Flows To Prevent Government Access To Personal Data: Lessons From British Columbia, Fred H. Cate Aug 2005

Legal Restrictions On Transborder Data Flows To Prevent Government Access To Personal Data: Lessons From British Columbia, Fred H. Cate

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


From International Law To Law And Globalization, Paul Schiff Berman Jul 2005

From International Law To Law And Globalization, Paul Schiff Berman

ExpressO

International law’s traditional emphasis on state practice has long been questioned, as scholars have paid increasing attention to other important – though sometimes inchoate – processes of international norm development. Yet, the more recent focus on transnational law, governmental and non-governmental networks, and judicial influence and cooperation across borders, while a step in the right direction, still seems insufficient to describe the complexities of law in an era of globalization. Accordingly, it is becoming clear that “international law” is itself an overly constraining rubric and that we need an expanded framework, one that situates cross-border norm development at the intersection …


Towards A Cosmopolitan Vision Of Conflict Of Laws: Redefining Governmental Interests In A Global Era, Paul Schiff Berman Jul 2005

Towards A Cosmopolitan Vision Of Conflict Of Laws: Redefining Governmental Interests In A Global Era, Paul Schiff Berman

ExpressO

It has now been ten years since the idea of global online communication first entered the popular consciousness. And while the internet has undoubtedly opened up new worlds of interaction and cooperation across borders, this increased transnational activity has also at times inspired parochialism, at least among the legislatures and courts of nation-states around the globe. Thus, we have seen a slew of national laws and court decisions purporting to regulate a wide variety of online activities, from gambling to chat rooms to auction sites, and seeking to enforce territorially based rules regarding trademarks, contractual relations, privacy norms, “indecent” content, …


Thieves In Cyberspace: Examining Music Piracy And Copyright Law Deficiencies In Russia As It Enters The Digital Age, Michael F. Mertens Jul 2005

Thieves In Cyberspace: Examining Music Piracy And Copyright Law Deficiencies In Russia As It Enters The Digital Age, Michael F. Mertens

ExpressO

The article discusses broadly the music piracy problem in Russia, the current state of Russia’s copyright laws, and how its laws and problems compare to the U.S. and the rest of the world. In particular, the article focuses on music piracy through the Internet and how it has exploded in Russia. One of the websites I target is the infamous Allofmp3.com, which has attracted a large amount of U.S. attention in recent times by consumers as well as lawmakers. The article analyzes the legislative and enforcement deficiencies in Russia that led to the enormous problem with traditional music piracy and …


New Jersey’S Adult Internet Luring Statute: An Appropriate Next Step?, John W. Lomas Jr. Jun 2005

New Jersey’S Adult Internet Luring Statute: An Appropriate Next Step?, John W. Lomas Jr.

Duke Law & Technology Review

New Jersey recently enacted legislation prohibiting the use of the Internet to lure or entice someone to a location with the purpose of committing a crime with or against that person or some other person. Most states have similar laws pertaining to pedophiles, but this is the first adult Internet luring statute. State measures to regulate the Internet, even in the context of criminal justice, will likely face constitutional challenge since the Internet has become such a critical vehicle for both protected speech and interstate commerce. Furthermore, while the use of the Internet in the commission of crimes against other …


‘Code’ And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Ronald Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops May 2005

‘Code’ And The Slow Erosion Of Privacy, Ronald Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops

ExpressO

The notion of software code replacing legal code as a mechanism to control human behavior – ‘code as law’ – is often illustrated with examples in intellectual property and freedom of speech. This article examines the neglected issue of the impact of ‘code as law’ on privacy. To what extent is privacy-related ‘code’ being used, either to undermine or to enhance privacy? On the basis of cases in the domains of law enforcement, national security, E-government, and commerce, it is concluded that technology rarely incorporates specific privacy-related norms. At the same time, however, technology very often does have clear effects …


Vol. Ix, Tab 41 - Ex. 24 - Fax From Allstate Insurance Company, Allstate Insurance Company May 2005

Vol. Ix, Tab 41 - Ex. 24 - Fax From Allstate Insurance Company, Allstate Insurance Company

Rosetta Stone v. Google (Joint Appendix)

Exhibits from the un-sealed joint appendix for Rosetta Stone Ltd., v. Google Inc., No. 10-2007, on appeal to the 4th Circuit. Issue presented: Under the Lanham Act, does the use of trademarked terms in keyword advertising result in infringement when there is evidence of actual confusion?


A Model For Emergency Service Of Voip Through Certification And Labeling, Patrick S. Ryan, Tom Lookabaugh, Douglas Sicker May 2005

A Model For Emergency Service Of Voip Through Certification And Labeling, Patrick S. Ryan, Tom Lookabaugh, Douglas Sicker

ExpressO

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) will transform many aspects of traditional telephony service, including the technology, the business models, and the regulatory constructs that govern such service. Perhaps not unexpectedly, this transformation is generating a host of technical, business, social, and policy problems. In attempting to respond to these problems, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could mandate obligations or specific solutions to VoIP policy issues; however, it is instead looking first to industry initiatives focused on the key functionality that users have come to expect of telecommunications services. High among this list of desired functionality is user access to emergency …


The Drm Dilemma: Re-Aligning Rights Under The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Jacqueline D. Lipton May 2005

The Drm Dilemma: Re-Aligning Rights Under The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Jacqueline D. Lipton

ExpressO

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (‘DMCA’) prevents unauthorized copying and distribution of digital copyright works by regulating devices that can be used to circumvent Digital Rights Management (‘DRM’) measures that are used to restrict access to those works. A significant problem is that those devices, like many new technologies, have the potential to be used for both socially harmful and socially beneficial purposes. There is no obvious way for Congress to regulate circumvention devices to prevent the social harms, while at the same time facilitating the social benefits they might provide. Recent judicial interpretations of the DMCA have unsurprisingly erred …