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2003

Federalism

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Law

Domestic Relations, Missouri V. Holland, And The New Federalism, Mark Strasser Dec 2003

Domestic Relations, Missouri V. Holland, And The New Federalism, Mark Strasser

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Nationwide, State Law Class Actions And The Beauty Of Federalism, Jesse Tiko Smallwood Dec 2003

Nationwide, State Law Class Actions And The Beauty Of Federalism, Jesse Tiko Smallwood

Duke Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Vectoral Federalism, Scott Dodson Nov 2003

Vectoral Federalism, Scott Dodson

Scott Dodson

In this Article, I offer a new framework for understanding federalism. “Vectoral federalism” engages directional metaphors—horizontal and vertical—to group various federalism doctrines together into two principal groups. Horizontal federalism concerns the battle between the federal and the state governments for the power to regulate individuals. Vertical federalism concerns the federal government’s power to regulate states and the states’ concomitant power to resist this regulation. Viewing federalism doctrines as having vertical or horizontal vectors (or both) identifies their common justifications and characteristics, which can assist in understanding and in applying the principles of federalism. The directional synthesis also ...


Eldred's Aftermath: Tradition, The Copyright Clause, And The Constitutionalization Of Fair Use, Stephen M. Mcjohn Oct 2003

Eldred's Aftermath: Tradition, The Copyright Clause, And The Constitutionalization Of Fair Use, Stephen M. Mcjohn

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Eldred v. Ashcroft offered the Supreme Court broad issues about the scope of Congress's constitutional power to legislate in the area of intellectual property. In 1998, Congress added twenty years to the term of all copyrights, both existing and future copyrights. But for this term extension, works created during the 1920s and 1930s would be entering the public domain. Now such works will remain under copyright until 2018 and beyond. Eldred v. Ashcroft rejected two challenges to the constitutionality of the copyright extension. The first challenge contended that Congress had exceeded its power to grant copyrights for "limited Times ...


Toward A Unifying Theory Of The Separation Of Powers, Bruce G. Peabody, John D. Nugent Oct 2003

Toward A Unifying Theory Of The Separation Of Powers, Bruce G. Peabody, John D. Nugent

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Nothing But Net: Renewable Energy And The Environment Midamerican Legal Fictions, And Supremacy Doctrine, Steven Ferrey Oct 2003

Nothing But Net: Renewable Energy And The Environment Midamerican Legal Fictions, And Supremacy Doctrine, Steven Ferrey

Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum

No abstract provided.


Section 7: Federalism In The Rehnquist Court, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2003

Section 7: Federalism In The Rehnquist Court, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


State Constitutional Rights As Resistance To National Power: Toward A Functional Theory Of State Constitutions, James A. Gardner Jun 2003

State Constitutional Rights As Resistance To National Power: Toward A Functional Theory Of State Constitutions, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

In the American legal order, constitutional rights are conventionally understood to apply to and restrain the level of government created by the constitution in which those rights appear. Thus, individual rights in a lower-order constitution are understood to apply solely to the lower level government and to have no relevance to the actions of any higher level of government. This article challenges the conventional understanding by arguing that individual rights appearing in state constitutions can in many circumstances play a meaningful role in restraining the exercise of national power. Specifically, the identification and enforcement of state constitutional rights can serve ...


If History Mattered: John Marshall And Reframing The Constitution, Aviam Soifer May 2003

If History Mattered: John Marshall And Reframing The Constitution, Aviam Soifer

Michigan Law Review

What more can there be to learn about John Marshall? We have been blessed recently with a flood of fine books about Marshall and the Supreme Court over which he presided from 1801 until 1835. We also now have readily available an impressive collection of documents concerning the Court before Marshall, as well as a fine series collecting, introducing, and annotating Marshall's papers. With recent bicentennial celebrations marking the beginning of Marshall's career as Chief Justice and the anniversary of Marbury v. Madison, an outpouring of law review articles and scholarly symposia have offered learned exchanges about the ...


Formalism, Pragmatism, And The Conservative Critique Of The Eleventh Amendment, Michael E. Solimine May 2003

Formalism, Pragmatism, And The Conservative Critique Of The Eleventh Amendment, Michael E. Solimine

Michigan Law Review

For many years the Second Amendment to the constitution was construed by most authorities to grant a communal right to bear arms, through state militias and the like. Some years ago Sanford Levinson labeled this interpretation "embarrassing" to liberal scholars. That characterization was deserved, Levinson argued, since liberal academics had been eager to defend expansive interpretations of other rights-granting provisions of the Constitution. But they failed to do so when it came to language in the Second Amendment, which could be plausibly construed to grant an individual right to bear arms. The failure might be attributed, in part, to the ...


Competing For The People's Affection: Federalism's Forgotten Marketplace, Todd E. Pettys Apr 2003

Competing For The People's Affection: Federalism's Forgotten Marketplace, Todd E. Pettys

Vanderbilt Law Review

In recent years, the United States Supreme Court frequently has invoked federalism principles when reviewing federal legislation but has failed to articulate an overarching vision of federal-state relations. The Court has relied instead on seemingly disparate premises, including a local-national distinction that some believe is disingenuous, notions of "commandeering" and political accountability that some believe are poorly rationalized, and a conception of state dignity that critics charge is ill suited for a nation in which the people are sovereign. The Court does occasionally recite the perceived benefits of federalism, but those benefits are framed at such a high level of ...


Federalism And Formalism, Allison H. Eid Apr 2003

Federalism And Formalism, Allison H. Eid

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Many commentators have criticized the Supreme Court's New Federalism decisions as "excessively formalistic. " In this Article, Professor Eid argues that this "standard critique" is wrong on both a descriptive and normative level. Descriptively, she argues that the standard critique mistakenly downplays the extent to which the New Federalism decisions consider the values that federalism serves, and contends that they employ the same sort of formalism/functionalism blend that is found in the Court's separation of powers jurisprudence. Professor Eid then contends that the standard critique's normative prescription - a case-by-case balancing test that would weigh the federal interest ...


Misguided Federalism, Peter J. Henning Apr 2003

Misguided Federalism, Peter J. Henning

Missouri Law Review

Federalism has moved to the forefront of constitutional analysis in recent years as a narrow majority of the Supreme Court has begun to rein in congressional assertions of authority to legislate in areas viewed as beyond the constitutional grant of power to the federal government. One means of curtailing congressional authority is by enforcing limits on the Commerce Clause, perhaps the broadest of Congress’s regulatory powers. In United States v. Lopez, the Court sent a “constitutional wake-up call” making clear that it would no longer acquiesce in every congressional enactment purportedly adopted as an exercise of the commerce power ...


State Courts As Agents Of Federalism: Power And Interpretation In State Constitutional Law, James A. Gardner Mar 2003

State Courts As Agents Of Federalism: Power And Interpretation In State Constitutional Law, James A. Gardner

William & Mary Law Review

In the American constitutional tradition, federalism is commonly understood as a mechanism designed to institutionalize a kind of permanent struggle between state and national power. The same American constitutional tradition also holds that courts are basically passive institutions whose mission is to apply the law impartially while avoiding inherently political power struggles. These two commonplace understandings conflict on their face. The conflict may be dissolved for federal courts by conceiving their resistance to state authority as the impartial consequence of limitations on state power imposed by the United States Constitution. This reconciliation, however, is unavailable for state courts, which, by ...


New Federalism's Unanswered Question: Who Should Prosecute State And Local Officials For Political Corruption?, George D. Brown Mar 2003

New Federalism's Unanswered Question: Who Should Prosecute State And Local Officials For Political Corruption?, George D. Brown

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Competing For The People's Affection: Federalism's Forgotten Marketplace, Todd E. Pettys Feb 2003

Competing For The People's Affection: Federalism's Forgotten Marketplace, Todd E. Pettys

Todd E. Pettys

Returning to forgotten themes in the Federalist Papers, the article argues that the state and federal governments compete with one another for the “affection” of their citizens and for the regulatory power that often accompanies that affection. The article further contends that citizens and politicians are able fully to participate in this affection-driven marketplace only if three prerequisites are met: each sovereign must be assured of an opportunity to demonstrate its competence; each sovereign must enjoy a significant measure of autonomy from the other; and the two sovereigns’ dealings with one another must be sufficiently transparent to enable citizens to ...


Section Five Overbreadth: The Facial Approach To Adjudicating Challenges Under Section Five Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Catherine Carroll Feb 2003

Section Five Overbreadth: The Facial Approach To Adjudicating Challenges Under Section Five Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Catherine Carroll

Michigan Law Review

In February 1996, the New York State Department of Transportation fired Joseph Kilcullen from his position as a snowplow driver in the Department's Highway Maintenance training program. Alleging that the state discharged him because of his epilepsy and learning disability, Kilcullen sued his former employer under the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), which abrogated states' sovereign immunity and permitted private suits for damages against states in a federal court. Kilcullen asserted only that he was not treated the same as similarly situated non-disabled employees; his claim did not implicate the ADA's requirement that employers provide "reasonable accommodation" to ...


The Enumerated Powers Of States, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2003

The Enumerated Powers Of States, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This article lists and discusses the powers reserved exclusively to the states, according the representations made to the ratifying public during the debates over the U.S. Constitution.


Can Federal Agencies Authorize Private Suits Under Section 1983? A Theoretical Approach, Brian D. Galle Jan 2003

Can Federal Agencies Authorize Private Suits Under Section 1983? A Theoretical Approach, Brian D. Galle

Brian D. Galle

Since 1980, private suits brought under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 have been a prime vehicle for enforcing federal statutory norms against state and local government. Federal regulations, however, affect a vast cross-section of state conduct not directly controlled by federal statutes. It is therefore surprising to discover that, notwithstanding some occasional acknowledgments of the considerable importance of the issue, there is almost no scholarly discussion concerning to what extent federal norms embodied in regulations can be enforced through private Section 1983 litigation. The federal Courts of Appeals are badly divided over the question, and no coherent rationale for ...


Federalism, Fig Leaves, And The Games Lawyers Play, Robert C. Power Jan 2003

Federalism, Fig Leaves, And The Games Lawyers Play, Robert C. Power

Robert C Power

No abstract provided.


Ethnic Federalism: Its Promise And Pitfalls For Africa, Alemante G. Selassie Jan 2003

Ethnic Federalism: Its Promise And Pitfalls For Africa, Alemante G. Selassie

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Federalism, U.S. Style, James S. Heller Jan 2003

Federalism, U.S. Style, James S. Heller

Library Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Democracy By Decree: What Happens When Courts Run Government (2003), Ross Sandler, David Schoenbrod Jan 2003

Democracy By Decree: What Happens When Courts Run Government (2003), Ross Sandler, David Schoenbrod

Books

Schools, welfare agencies, and a wide variety of other state and local institutions of vital importance to citizens are controlled by attorneys and judges rather than governors and mayors. In this book, Ross Sandler and David Schoenbrod explain how this has come to pass, why it has resulted in service to the public that is worse, not better, and what can be done to restore control of these programs to democratically elected - and accountable - officials.

Sandler and Schoenbrod tell how the courts, with the best intentions and often with the approval of elected officials, came to control ordinary policy making ...


Globalisation, Federalism And Legal Pluralism: The Challenges Of Diverse Legal Cultures In Federal Systems, J. M. Marychurch Jan 2003

Globalisation, Federalism And Legal Pluralism: The Challenges Of Diverse Legal Cultures In Federal Systems, J. M. Marychurch

Faculty of Law - Papers (Archive)

Australia has recently had to address the structure of corporate law and regulation as a result of decisions in two High Court cases, namely Re Wakim; Ex Parte McNally (1999) 198 CLR 511 and R v Hughes (2000) 171 ALR 155. The constitutional problems posed by these two cases have currently been resolved using a referral of powers by the states to the Commonwealth. However, this agreement was not reached without difficulty, and uncertainty persists due to a five year sunset clause. The intense debate surrounding these events shed light on the continuing diversity in political and legal culture in ...


The Balance Of Forces And The Empire Of Liberty: States' Rights And The Louisiana Purchase, Robert Knowles Jan 2003

The Balance Of Forces And The Empire Of Liberty: States' Rights And The Louisiana Purchase, Robert Knowles

Law Faculty Publications

This Article challenges the conventional wisdom about the Louisiana Treaty and argues that it was unconstitutional. As many students of history know, President Jefferson had serious misgivings about its constitutionality, which scholars have dismissed as driven by an overly strict construction of the Constitution. The Article concludes that Jefferson's concerns were in fact motivated primarily by respect for federalism principles.

This Article identifies and discusses the underlying conflict between two radically different visions of federalism. While Jefferson s Republicans believed that the incorporation of new states in the West would merely expand the Constitutions form of government to more ...


Vectoral Federalism, Scott Dodson Jan 2003

Vectoral Federalism, Scott Dodson

Faculty Publications

In this Article, I offer a new framework for understanding federalism. “Vectoral federalism” engages directional metaphors—horizontal and vertical—to group various federalism doctrines together into two principal groups.Horizontal federalism concerns the battle between the federal and the state governments for the power to regulate individuals. Vertical federalism concerns the federal government’s power to regulate states and the states’ concomitant power to resist this regulation. Viewing federalism doctrines as having vertical or horizontal vectors (or both) identifies their common justifications and characteristics, which can assist in understanding and in applying the principles of federalism. The directional synthesis also ...


State Revocation Of Law Enforcement Officers’ Licenses And Federal Criminal Prosecution: An Opportunity For Cooperative Federalism, Roger L. Goldman Jan 2003

State Revocation Of Law Enforcement Officers’ Licenses And Federal Criminal Prosecution: An Opportunity For Cooperative Federalism, Roger L. Goldman

Saint Louis University Public Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Heart Of Federalism: Pretext Review Of Means-End Relationships, J. Randy Beck Jan 2003

The Heart Of Federalism: Pretext Review Of Means-End Relationships, J. Randy Beck

Scholarly Works

Section I of this article seeks to correct a common scholarly misconception regarding the sort of pretext review envisioned by McCulloch v. Maryland. All students of McCulloch understand the decision to call for judicial review of the means-end relationship underlying a federal statute. But McCulloch also indicated that the Court would strike down legislation "should Congress, under the pretext of executing its powers, pass laws for the accomplishment of objects not entrusted to the government." Various constitutional scholars construe this pretext passage to contemplate a second inquiry--separate from the Court's scrutiny of means-end relationships--into whether the legislative motive behind ...


Unmasking Federalism, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2003

Unmasking Federalism, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Judge John Noonan has astutely chronicled law and society over a half century. He was a professor for twenty-five years, authoring such classics as Persons and Masks of the Law, and has rendered distinguished service since 1985 on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.Thus, the publication of Narrowing the Nation's Power: The Supreme Court Sides with the States ("Narrowing') would be important, even if the monograph were only a venerated scholar's reflections on his long, rich experience. This book, however, is a provocative critique that meticulously and incisively exposes the Court's new ...


The Constitutionality Of An Executive Spending Plan, Paul E. Salamanca Jan 2003

The Constitutionality Of An Executive Spending Plan, Paul E. Salamanca

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Operation of government in the absence of appropriations has become relatively common in the United States, particularly when projected expenses exceed projected revenue, making adoption of a budget a difficult task for the legislature. This Article focuses on the budget crisis in the Commonwealth of Kentucky from 2002 through 2003. In Part I, this Article recapitulates the history of the spending plan, including the action filed in Franklin Circuit Court to affirm its constitutionality. In Part II, this Article discusses certain theoretical, historical, and legal principles that inform analysis of the plan. In Part III, it considers certain deviations and ...