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2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 149

Full-Text Articles in Law

Politics And The Business Corporation, Robert H. Sitkoff Dec 2003

Politics And The Business Corporation, Robert H. Sitkoff

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This essay explores the policy bases for, and the political economy of, the law's long-standing regulation of corporate political speech. The essay has three parts. First, it contends that the conventional justifications for regulating corporate interventions in politics -- that corporate donations unnaturally skew the political discourse (bad politics) and that corporate political donations harm shareholders (agency costs) -- assume irrational investors and substantial capital market inefficiency. Drawing on public choice theory, the essay also explores the aim of retarding rent-seeking as an alternative justification for regulating corporate interventions in politics. Second, the essay reexamines the history of the regulation of ...


Determinantes Explícitos E Implícitos De La Deuda Externa Pública Peruana, José Manuel Martin Coronado Dec 2003

Determinantes Explícitos E Implícitos De La Deuda Externa Pública Peruana, José Manuel Martin Coronado

José-Manuel Martin Coronado

This research aims to prove that sound economic policies are nothing more that basic conditions for the foreign public debt problem. In fact, by studying the factors of public debt issues in Peru, Latin America and the emerging economies it’s clear that some implicit economic and non-economic factors have to be considered because of the social complexity and variable characteristics in emerging economies. This causes failures in economic policies assumptions, inefficiencies, distorted causality and nonrational behavior. This paper proposes, first, to perform a deep and comparative analysis of the foreign debt determinants in emerging economies, then, to allocate financial ...


Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Da Sociedade, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo Dec 2003

Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Da Sociedade, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo

carlos ragazzo

No abstract provided.


Dying To Get Out Of Debt: Consumer Insolvency Law And Suicide In Japan, Mark West Dec 2003

Dying To Get Out Of Debt: Consumer Insolvency Law And Suicide In Japan, Mark West

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article explores the complex relation between consumer insolvency law and suicide in Japan, where bankruptcies and suicides have increased dramatically in recent years. The statistical and interview evidence, some of which relates to the creation of a relatively efficient and socially acceptable insolvency mechanism in 2001, suggests that law is at least indirectly relevant to decisions to take one’s own life. Law can bring about debt control and stigma mitigation, each of which can lead to lower levels of stress and depression, each of which can lead to lower suicide rates. Still, responses to the law, even in ...


Employment Market Institutions And Japanese Working Hours, Mark West Dec 2003

Employment Market Institutions And Japanese Working Hours, Mark West

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Why do Japanese workers work such long hours? Beginning with a series of cases in the 1950s, Japanese courts drastically curtailed firms’ abilities to dismiss workers. As a consequence of the inability to dismiss workers legally, large Japanese firms hired a smaller number of workers than were necessary to fulfill capacity without overtime. Employers rely on the working hours of this undersized cadre of workers, carefully screened to rule out the slothful, as a buffer. In bad times, the size of the work force makes dismissal unnecessary. In good times, workers are forced to work long hours. While these court ...


Valuation Averaging: A New Procedure For Resolving Valuation Disputes, Keith Sharfman Dec 2003

Valuation Averaging: A New Procedure For Resolving Valuation Disputes, Keith Sharfman

Rutgers Law School (Newark) Faculty Papers

In this Article, Professor Sharfman addresses the problem of "discretionary valuation": that courts resolve valuation disputes arbitrarily and unpredictably, thus harming litigants and society. As a solution, he proposes the enactment of "valuation averaging," a new procedure for resolving valuation disputes modeled on the algorithmic valuation processes often agreed to by sophisticated private firms in advance of any dispute. He argues that by replacing the discretion of judges and juries with a mechanical valuation process, valuation averaging would cause litigants to introduce more plausible and conciliatory valuations into evidence and thereby reduce the cost of valuation litigation and increase the ...


A Truly Level Playing Field For International Business: Improving The Oecd Convention On Combating Bribery Using Clear Standards, Christopher K. Carlberg Dec 2003

A Truly Level Playing Field For International Business: Improving The Oecd Convention On Combating Bribery Using Clear Standards, Christopher K. Carlberg

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Combating bribery in international business has become increasingly important in a global economic environment in which deregulation and privatization are popular trends. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's (OECD's) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions is an important step towards leveling the playing field for foreign companies competing for business abroad. However, this Note concludes that, in order to improve the uniform application of the Convention, the Convention's signatory parties should: (1) adopt a minimum five-year statute of limitations requirement; (2) adopt a five-year maximum term of imprisonment for natural ...


Hand, Posner, And The Myth Of The "Hand Formula", In Symposium, Negligence In The Law, Richard W. Wright Dec 2003

Hand, Posner, And The Myth Of The "Hand Formula", In Symposium, Negligence In The Law, Richard W. Wright

All Faculty Scholarship

There is a striking incongruence between the discussions of negligence in the legal literature, including the American Law Institute's Restatement of Torts, and the understandings of ordinary people and the actual practice of the courts. The legal literature generally assumes that an aggregate-risk-utility test is employed to determine whether conduct was reasonable or negligent. This test was invented by legal academics and inserted in the first Restatement during the first part of the twentieth century, although, as recent studies all conclude, it had almost no support in the cases prior to its adoption in the Restatement and for several ...


The Case For Registering Patents And The Law And Economics Of Present Patent-Obtaining Rules, F Scott Kieff Dec 2003

The Case For Registering Patents And The Law And Economics Of Present Patent-Obtaining Rules, F Scott Kieff

Boston College Law Review

Critics of the patent system suggest the rules for determining patentability should be stricter, subjecting patents to More scrutiny during Patent Office examination. This Article offers a counterintuitive model system under which patent applications are registered, not examined, to elucidate a new normative view that sees present positive law rules for obtaining patents as primarily operating to minimize social cost, and that accounts for otherwise puzzling aspects of the patent system. This "registration" theory for patent-obtaining rules is a companion to the "commercialization" theory for .patent-enforcing rules by the same author. This Article shows how these theories together offer a ...


Law, Share Price Accuracy, And Economic Performance: The New Evidence, Merritt B. Fox, Randall Morck, Bernard Yeung, Artyom Durnev Dec 2003

Law, Share Price Accuracy, And Economic Performance: The New Evidence, Merritt B. Fox, Randall Morck, Bernard Yeung, Artyom Durnev

Michigan Law Review

Mandatory disclosure has been at the core of U.S. securities regulation since its adoption in the early 1930s. For many decades, this fixture of our financial system was accepted with little examination. Over the last twenty years, however, mandatory disclosure has been subject to intensifying intellectual crosscurrents. Some commentators hold out the U.S. system as the standard for the world. They argue that adoption by other countries of a U.S.-styled system, with its greater corporate transparency, would enhance their economic performance. Other commentators, in contrast, insist that the U.S. mandatory disclosure regime represents a mistake ...


Medidas Cautelares En El Proceso Civil Como Justicia Anticipada, Ramón Antonio Morales Quintanilla Nov 2003

Medidas Cautelares En El Proceso Civil Como Justicia Anticipada, Ramón Antonio Morales Quintanilla

Ramón Antonio Morales Quintanilla

No abstract provided.


Trust Law, Corporate Law, And Capital Market Efficiency, Robert H. Sitkoff Nov 2003

Trust Law, Corporate Law, And Capital Market Efficiency, Robert H. Sitkoff

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

In both the publicly-traded corporation and the private donative trust a crucial task is to minimize the agency costs that arise from the separation of risk-bearing and management. But where the law of corporate governance evolved in the shadow of capital-market checks on agency costs, trust governance did not. Thus, even more than that of close corporations, the law and study of private trusts offers an illuminating counterfactual -- a control, as it were -­ for a playful thought experiment about the importance of capital market efficiency to the law and study of public corporations. The animating idea for this essay is ...


The Situation: An Introduction To The Situational Character, Critical Realism, Power Economics, And Deep Capture, Jon Hanson, David Yosifon Nov 2003

The Situation: An Introduction To The Situational Character, Critical Realism, Power Economics, And Deep Capture, Jon Hanson, David Yosifon

Faculty Publications

Throughout most of this introductory Article, we will focus our arguments primarily on economics and law and economics. We believe, however, that the implications of our inquiry extend far beyond those domains. The tendencies we hope to elucidate find their origins in the human animal, not in any particular legal theoretic perspective. It happens that these tendencies are especially prominent in law and economics, currently the dominant theoretical paradigm for creating and analyzing legal policy. But the relevance of our thesis is not confined to one approach , or even to legal-political questions. All humans are more or less implicated, whether ...


Ethnography In The Realm Of The Pragmatic: Studying Pragmatism In Law And Politics, Annelise Riles Nov 2003

Ethnography In The Realm Of The Pragmatic: Studying Pragmatism In Law And Politics, Annelise Riles

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

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The False Promise Of One Person, One Vote, Grant M. Hayden Nov 2003

The False Promise Of One Person, One Vote, Grant M. Hayden

Michigan Law Review

It has now been four decades since the Supreme Court stepped into the political thicket with its groundbreaking series of reapportionment cases. Those cases rather quickly brought about radical changes in the structure of our national, state, and local governments and, in so doing, reshaped the political landscape of the country in many, mostly beneficial, ways. The reapportionment cases also signaled the beginning of a revolution in the way we view the rights associated with meaningful participation in a democratic society, a revolution that continues to this day. We now enjoy a right to vote that is much more comprehensive ...


Chicago Man, K-T Man, And The Future Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Robert A. Prentice Nov 2003

Chicago Man, K-T Man, And The Future Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Robert A. Prentice

Vanderbilt Law Review

Most law is aimed at shaping human behavior, encouraging that which is good for society and discouraging that which is bad.' Nonetheless, for most of the history of our legal system, laws were passed, cases were decided, and academics pontificated about the law based on nothing more than common sense assumptions about how people make decisions. A quarter century or more ago, the law and economics movement replaced these common sense assumptions with a well-considered and expressly stated assumption-that man is a rational maximizer of his expected utilities. Based on this premise, law and economics has dominated interdisciplinary thought in ...


Statement On The Third United Nations Conference On The Law Of The Sea In Caracas, July 15th 1974, Mochtar Kusumaatmadja Oct 2003

Statement On The Third United Nations Conference On The Law Of The Sea In Caracas, July 15th 1974, Mochtar Kusumaatmadja

Indonesian Journal of International Law

No abstract provided.


Political And Legal Governance Under The Judicial Reform: A Case Study On Basic-Level Political And Legal Committee(司法改革背景下的政法治理方式——基层政法委员会制度个案研究), Meng Hou Oct 2003

Political And Legal Governance Under The Judicial Reform: A Case Study On Basic-Level Political And Legal Committee(司法改革背景下的政法治理方式——基层政法委员会制度个案研究), Meng Hou

Hou Meng

No abstract provided.


Grading The Government, Richard Parker Oct 2003

Grading The Government, Richard Parker

Faculty Articles and Papers

For over a decade, scathing critiques of government have been fueled by a group of studies called regulatory scorecards, which purport to show that the costs of many government regulations vastly outweigh their benefits. One widely-cited study by John Morrall, an OMB economist, claims that government regulations cost up to $72 billion per life saved. Another study, co-authored by Bush's regulatory czar, John Graham, claims that over 60,000 people lose their lives each year due to irrational government regulation. A third group of scorecards - compiled by Robert Hahn of the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies - claims that ...


Measuring Recovery For Non-Contractual Investment, Omri Ben-Shahar, Robert A. Mikos Sep 2003

Measuring Recovery For Non-Contractual Investment, Omri Ben-Shahar, Robert A. Mikos

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Parties who make investments that generate externalities may sometimes recover from the beneficiaries, even in the absence of contract. Previous scholarship has shown that granting recovery, based on either the cost of the investment or the benefit it confers, can provide optimal incentives to invest. However, this article demonstrates that the law often awards recovery that is neither purely cost-based, nor purely benefit-based, and instead equals either the greater-of or lesser-of the two measures. These hybrid approaches to recovery distort incentives to invest. The article demonstrates the prevalence of these practices, and explores informational and related reasons why they emerge ...


Roundtable With Former Directors Of The Bureau Of Economics, Jonathan Baker Sep 2003

Roundtable With Former Directors Of The Bureau Of Economics, Jonathan Baker

Presentations

The roundtable commemorates the 100th anniversary of the FTC's predecessor agency, the Bureau of Corporations. It was sponsored by the FTC's Bureau of Economics (BE) and focused on BE history and contributions of BE and economic analysis to antitrust and consumer protection enforcement, and to research and economic knowledge and policy. BE was featured because the original functions of the Bureau of Corporations were to collect information, to conduct industry and policy research, to prepare reports at the request of the Congress and the President. The panelists for the roundtable consisted of former BE Directors and Acting Directors ...


Reingeniería De La Corte Suprema De La Nación - Una Guía De Trabajo Y Propuestas Para Mejorar Los Aspectos Organizativos, Funcionales Y De Gobierno Del Alto Tribunal, Horacio M. Lynch, Luciano Hurtado, María Clara Pujol, Et Al Sep 2003

Reingeniería De La Corte Suprema De La Nación - Una Guía De Trabajo Y Propuestas Para Mejorar Los Aspectos Organizativos, Funcionales Y De Gobierno Del Alto Tribunal, Horacio M. Lynch, Luciano Hurtado, María Clara Pujol, Et Al

Horacio M. LYNCH

Esta investigación continúa y actualiza las propuestas e investigaciones de FORES sobre la Corte Suprema, originadas en el diagnóstico elaborado en las Conferencias sobre la Reforma Judicial de 1977 y 1978, y en los posteriores estudios “REFORMAS EN LA CORTE SUPREMA”, 1987 y “DIAGNÓSTICO DE LA JUSTICIA ARGENTINA”, 1988, dirigidas por el Dr. Horacio M. Lynch. Complementa el reciente trabajo de éste “CAMBIOS EN LA CORTE SUPREMA - ENFOQUES DEL SIGLO XXI”, (LL 30Jul03 / V. ANEXO), y con otro anterior “EL RECURSO EXTRAORDINARIO POR ARBITRARIEDAD - UN DILEMA PARA LA NUEVA CORTE SUPREMA”, de 1990 (LL 1990-D- 719). Está concentrado en los ...


What Counts As Fraud? An Empirical Study Of Motions To Dismiss Under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, Adam C. Pritchard, Hillary Sale Sep 2003

What Counts As Fraud? An Empirical Study Of Motions To Dismiss Under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, Adam C. Pritchard, Hillary Sale

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This article presents the findings of a study of the resolution of motions to dismiss securities fraud lawsuits since the passage of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act in 1995. Our sample consists of decisions on motions to dismiss in securities class actions by district and appellate courts in the Second and Ninth Circuits for cases filed after the passage of the Reform Act to the end of 2002. These circuits are the leading circuits for the filing of securities class actions and are generally recognized as representing two ends of the securities class action spectrum. Post-PSLRA, the Second Circuit ...


An Agency Costs Theory Of Trust Law, Robert H. Sitkoff Sep 2003

An Agency Costs Theory Of Trust Law, Robert H. Sitkoff

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article develops an agency costs theory of the law of private trusts, focusing chiefly on donative trusts. The agency costs approach offers fresh insights into recurring problems in trust law including, among others, modification and termination, settlor standing, fiduciary litigation, trust-investment law and the duty of impartiality, trustee removal, the role of so-called trust "protectors," and spendthrift trusts. The normative claim is that the law of trusts should minimize the agency costs inherent in locating managerial authority with the trustee and the residual claim with the beneficiaries, but only to the extent that doing so is consistent with the ...


Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Do Poder Judiciário, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo Aug 2003

Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Do Poder Judiciário, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo

carlos ragazzo

No abstract provided.


Following The Man On The Clapham Omnibus: Social Science Evidence In Malpractice Litigation, Richard O. Lempert Jul 2003

Following The Man On The Clapham Omnibus: Social Science Evidence In Malpractice Litigation, Richard O. Lempert

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This article responds to proposals to admit statistical evidence from empirical studies of actual health care practices to prove prevailing health practice standards in malpractice litigation by arguing that the case for doing so has numerous weaknesses that advocates of admitting such data commonly ignore. A fundamental concern is that the standard of practice defense co-evolved with prevailing modes of proof and might have been different had proof through experts not allowed for an aspirational as well as an empirical element to reach the jury. The article also argues that generating reliable statistical evidence of standard medical practice can be ...


“Black People’S Money”: The Impact Of Law, Economics, And Culture In The Context Of Race On Damage Recoveries, Regina Austin Jul 2003

“Black People’S Money”: The Impact Of Law, Economics, And Culture In The Context Of Race On Damage Recoveries, Regina Austin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“’Black People’s Money’: The Impact of Law, Economics, and Culture in the Context of Race on Damage Recoveries” is one of a series of articles by the author dealing with black economic marginalization; prior work considered such topics as shopping and selling as forms of deviance, street vending, restraints on leisure, and the importance of informality in loan transactions. This article deals with the linkage between the social significance of black people’s money and its material value. It analyzes the construction of “black money,” its association with cash, and the taboos and cultural practices that assure that black ...


Random Walks, Non-Cooperation Games, And The Complex Mathematics Of Patent Pricing, F. Russell Denton, Paul J. Heald Jul 2003

Random Walks, Non-Cooperation Games, And The Complex Mathematics Of Patent Pricing, F. Russell Denton, Paul J. Heald

Scholarly Works

Current patent valuation methods have been described charitably as “inappropriate,” “crude,” “inherently unreliable,” and a “guesstimate.” This article provides a more rational and systematic tool than any we have found in the existing literature or relevant case law. We believe our approach to patent valuation will be useful in improving investment decisions, in facilitating licensing negotiations, and in reducing error costs in litigation. An improved valuation metric also promises to make patents easier to take as collateral and to reduce the amount of “Blue Sky” in mergers and acquisitions involving high tech corporations. To the extent that valuation problems have ...


Legal Transitions, Rational Expectations, And Legal Progress, Kyle D. Logue Jun 2003

Legal Transitions, Rational Expectations, And Legal Progress, Kyle D. Logue

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This paper was written for a symposium on legal transitions. The central question in the transitions literature is whether or to what extent the government should provide compensation for (or seek in some way to ameliorate) the losses of wealth occasioned by unexpected changes in the law or social policy. This Article argues that the prevailing normative framework for evaluating legal transitions - the consequentialist or economic framework - relies critically on two assumptions: the assumption that private parties (whose incentives are sought to be affected by the choice of transition norm) will behave with rational expectations and the assumption that the ...


Against Preemption: How Federalism Can Improve The National Legislative Process, Roderick Hills May 2003

Against Preemption: How Federalism Can Improve The National Legislative Process, Roderick Hills

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

How easily should courts infer that federal statutes preempt state law? An ongoing debate exists on the question in Congress and among scholars and judges. One side calls for judges to protect federalism by adopting a rule of statutory construction that would bar preemption absent a clear statement of preemptive intent. Opponents argue against such a "clear statement" rule by arguing that state control over preemptable topics is often presumptively inefficient, because common-law juries lack expertise and because states are prone to imposing external costs on their neighbors. This article sidesteps these debates over preemption and instead argues that, quite ...