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2003

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Shrinkwrap Snafu: Untangling The "Extra Element" In Breach Of Contract Claims Based On Shrinkwrap Licenses, Nathan Smith Nov 2003

The Shrinkwrap Snafu: Untangling The "Extra Element" In Breach Of Contract Claims Based On Shrinkwrap Licenses, Nathan Smith

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi Oct 2003

A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi

ExpressO

This paper examines the current trends in a predominantly sectoral U.S. privacy regime that appears to be becoming more comprehensive in nature with respect to data privacy protection. This trend has been greatly attributed to the European Union's comprehensive position on data privacy protection. This paper investigates the growth in U.S. data privacy protection in relation to federal and state legislative history, federal administrative procedures, and private industry efforts. This shift from sectoral to comprehensive regimes is significant in the backdrop of U.S-EU trade relations.


Verdugo In Cyberspace: Boundaries Of Fourth Amendment Rights For Foreign Nationals In Cybercrime Cases, Stewart M. Young Oct 2003

Verdugo In Cyberspace: Boundaries Of Fourth Amendment Rights For Foreign Nationals In Cybercrime Cases, Stewart M. Young

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

This Comment examines the current legal framework governing Fourth Amendment rights for foreign nationals accused of committing crimes within the United States. Over the past three years, federal courts have tried several cases charging foreign nationals with committing crimes through the use of the Internet; these cases demonstrate a lack of clarity in the standard for warrant requirements regarding these searches. Utilizing these cases, this Comment creates a hypothetical case that presents the issues of Fourth Amendment rights for foreign nationals and seeks to determine how such a question should be answered. It advocates the clear application of United States ...


Whose Music Is It Anyway?: How We Came To View Musical Expression As A Form Of Property -- Part I, Michael W. Carroll Sep 2003

Whose Music Is It Anyway?: How We Came To View Musical Expression As A Form Of Property -- Part I, Michael W. Carroll

Working Paper Series

Many participants in the music industry consider unauthorized downloading of music files over the Internet to be “theft” of their “property.” Many Internet users who exchange music files reject that characterization. Prompted by this dispute, this Article explores how those who create and distribute music first came to look upon music as their property and when in Western history the law first supported this view. By analyzing the economic and legal structures governing musicmaking in Western Europe from the classical period in Greece through the Renaissance, the Article shows that the law first granted some exclusive rights in the Middle ...


Securing Online Commercial Transactions By Digital Signatures: A Comparative Analysis Of The U.S. E-Sign Act And Thai E-Transactions Act, Watchara Neitivanich Sep 2003

Securing Online Commercial Transactions By Digital Signatures: A Comparative Analysis Of The U.S. E-Sign Act And Thai E-Transactions Act, Watchara Neitivanich

Theses and Dissertations

Main Objects and Purposes of Study: 1. To explore, analyze and identify characteristics of secure online commercial transactions concluded by digital signatures; 2. To study the technology used to create secure digital signatures as well as to harmonize the technical and operational criteria which set the technical standards of digital signatures; 3. To study various schools of thought concerning electronic signatures, which includes digital signatures; 4. To analyze the provisions of Thailand's Electronic Transactions Act; 5. To compare the differences in the Federal E-Sign Act and Thailand's ETransactions Act and to determine any prospective Royal Decree that may ...


Technological Protection Measures In The United States, The European Union And Germany - How Much Fair Use Do We Need In The "Digital World"?, Wencke Baesler Aug 2003

Technological Protection Measures In The United States, The European Union And Germany - How Much Fair Use Do We Need In The "Digital World"?, Wencke Baesler

ExpressO

This article analyzes the different approaches of the United States and the European Union in the EU Copyright Directive towards the protection of technological protection measures against circumvention. The European and German laws have a radically different approach to fair use that heretofore has not been satisfactorily examined. It is a basic principle of copyright law in the European countries not to provide for a broad fair use exception, but to enumerate specific uses that are excluded from the copyright owner’s right to intervene. However, mostly payment of a reasonable compensation is required. This system is preserved in the ...


Toward A Criminal Law For Cyberspace: Distributed Security, Susan Brenner Aug 2003

Toward A Criminal Law For Cyberspace: Distributed Security, Susan Brenner

ExpressO

The article analyzes the structure and evolution of the current, traditional model of law enforcement and explains why this model is not an effective means of addressing computer-facilitated criminal activity. It begins by analyzing the operation of rules in collective systems composed of biological or artificial entities; it explains that every such system utilizes basic, constitutive rules to maintain both internal and external order. The article explains that intelligence has a profound effect upon a system’s ability to maintain internal order. Intelligence creates the capacity for deviant behavior, i.e., the refusal to abide by constitutive rules, and this ...


Banning Bans On New Reproductive And Novel Genetic Technologies, Matthew Herder Aug 2003

Banning Bans On New Reproductive And Novel Genetic Technologies, Matthew Herder

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

Commentators argue that statutory prohibitions with the force of the criminal law should not be used to regulate new reproductive technologies (NRTs) and novel genetic technologies (NGTs). Bill C-13, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act, however, codifies 10 criminal bans. This paper considers the merits of the various arguments levied against Bill C-13, and the corollary claim that only a "non-prohibitive" model of legislation befits NRTs and NGTs. Three types of arguments are used to critique criminal bans: (1) "Structural" arguments hinge on the constraints of the Canadian legal system - legislation complete with prohibitions runs afoul of the Constitution Act 1867 ...


Technology And International Trade: Wille The Real Transformer Please Stand Up?, Todd Weiler Aug 2003

Technology And International Trade: Wille The Real Transformer Please Stand Up?, Todd Weiler

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The primary driver of change in Canada’s cultural sector has not been some kind of contrived, neo- liberal plot imposed upon an unsuspecting public with the promise of ‘‘jobs, jobs, jobs.’’ Rather, it has been technology. The role for liberalised trade and investment treaties comes only in the form of a conditioning force, limiting the panoply of choices available to govern- mental officials who want to respond to the changes being wrought by technological advances.

This paper begins with some brief definitions, moving next to an elaboration of its thesis, and finally explaining the application of this thesis to ...


Anonymity And The Supreme Court's Model Of Expression: How Should Anonymity Be Analysed Under Section 2(B) Of The Charter?, Peter Carmichael Keen Aug 2003

Anonymity And The Supreme Court's Model Of Expression: How Should Anonymity Be Analysed Under Section 2(B) Of The Charter?, Peter Carmichael Keen

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The first part of this article will discuss what anonymity is, and the costs and benefits that anonymity confers on expressive activity. I will demonstrate that anonymity is a double-edged sword in that it can both promote and harm free expression. In the second part, I will suggest that there is no doubt that anonymity can be protected under section 2(b) of the Charter. When I first began this article, I intended to examine ‘‘whether’’ anonymity can be constitutionally protected under section 2(b). As my research progressed, I quickly realised that I was asking the wrong question. I ...


Intellectual Property Laws In Harmony With Nafta: The Courts As Mediators Between The Global And The Local, Myra J. Tawfik Aug 2003

Intellectual Property Laws In Harmony With Nafta: The Courts As Mediators Between The Global And The Local, Myra J. Tawfik

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper will argue that domestic courts can pro- vide a forum within which to mediate between these two extremes, to reconcile the ‘‘global’’ and the ‘‘local’’ — but that the courts themselves must adapt to meet the challenges that globalization places upon them. More specifically, the paper begins by setting out a framework for understanding harmonization of laws under NAFTA as one that encourages rather than eliminates diversity of law. The paper then studies the prevailing approaches to statutory interpretation that Canadian courts, most especially the Supreme Court of Canada and the Federal Court of Appeal, have been employing in ...


Computer Law By George S. Takach (Toronto: Irwin Law Inc., 2000, 2nd Edition), David T.S. Fraser Aug 2003

Computer Law By George S. Takach (Toronto: Irwin Law Inc., 2000, 2nd Edition), David T.S. Fraser

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Student Protector, Internet Provider, Or Contractual Party? An Examination Of The Legal Relationship Between A University And Its Students, Anna Christine Milot Aug 2003

Student Protector, Internet Provider, Or Contractual Party? An Examination Of The Legal Relationship Between A University And Its Students, Anna Christine Milot

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

The legal relationship between a university and its students is becoming increasingly complex as the use of technology spreads. Accordingly, it is important to define a university’s responsibilities and legal boundaries in order to understand the liability universities can potentially incur when dealing with students. Each Canadian university is unique in its founding and enacting legislation, as will be discussed further later. The individuality of Canada’s universities means that the questions raised in this paper cannot be given answers that can necessarily be generalized across universities. The approach to analysis in this paper, however, is applicable to any ...


Monopoly Power In The Electronic Information Industry: Why, And So What?, Curt A. Hessler Jul 2003

Monopoly Power In The Electronic Information Industry: Why, And So What?, Curt A. Hessler

ExpressO

This "law and economics" article diagnoses why monopoly power infects so many markets in the electronic media, communications, and information technology industries (collectively the "Industry"),and recommends changes to prevailing intellectual property and antitrust doctrines to remedy this problem.

The analysis focuses on a single "norm" -- the maximization of economic value, as defined by standard welfare economic theory. Identifying three distinct functions that operate throughout this otherwise diverse Industry -- authoring, publishing, and distribution -- the article notes that two economic peculiarities characterize most Industry markets: the technical feasibility of "non-rivalrous use" of digitized information products, and the frequent "creative destruction" of ...


Prescriptive Jurisdiction Over Internet Activity: The Need To Define And Establish The Boundaries Of Cyberliberty, Samuel F. Miller Jul 2003

Prescriptive Jurisdiction Over Internet Activity: The Need To Define And Establish The Boundaries Of Cyberliberty, Samuel F. Miller

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

No abstract provided.


Ub Viewpoint – Aol/Microsoft Settlement Could Harm Consumers, Robert H. Lande Jun 2003

Ub Viewpoint – Aol/Microsoft Settlement Could Harm Consumers, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Is I-Voting I-Llegal?, Brett Stohs May 2003

Is I-Voting I-Llegal?, Brett Stohs

Duke Law & Technology Review

The Voting Rights Act was passed to prevent racial discrimination in all voting booths. Does the existence of a racial digital divide make Internet elections for public office merely a computer geek's pipe dream? Or can i-voting withstand scrutiny under the current state of the law? This i-Brief will consider the current state of the law, and whether disproportionate benefits will be enough to stop this extension of technology dead in its tracks.


The European Union’S Microsoft Case: No Time For Jingoism, Albert A. Foer, Robert H. Lande Apr 2003

The European Union’S Microsoft Case: No Time For Jingoism, Albert A. Foer, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Government Preferences For Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution In Search Of A Problem, David S. Evans, Bernard J. Reddy Apr 2003

Government Preferences For Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution In Search Of A Problem, David S. Evans, Bernard J. Reddy

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Governments around the world are making or considering efforts to promote open-source software (typically produced by cooperatives of individuals) at the expense of proprietary software (generally sold by for-profit software developers). This article examines the economic basis for these kinds of government interventions in the market. It first provides some background on the software industry. The article discusses the industrial organization and performance of the proprietary software business and describes how the open-source movement produces and distributes software. It then surveys current government proposals and initiatives to support open-source software and examines whether there is a significant market failure that ...


Snake-Oil Security Claims The Systematic Misrepresentation Of Product Security In The E-Commerce Arena, John R. Michener, Steven D. Mohan, James B. Astrachan, David R. Hale Apr 2003

Snake-Oil Security Claims The Systematic Misrepresentation Of Product Security In The E-Commerce Arena, John R. Michener, Steven D. Mohan, James B. Astrachan, David R. Hale

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The modern commercial systems and software industry in the United States have grown up in a snake-oil salesman's paradise. The largest sector of this industry by far is composed of standard commercial systems that are marketed to provide specified functionality (e.g. Internet web server, firewall, router, etc.) Such products are generally provided with a blanket disclaimer stating that the purchaser must evaluate the suitability of the product for use, and that the user assumes all liability for product behavior. In general, users cannot evaluate and cannot be expected to evaluate the security claims of a product. The ability ...


Fast Track Trade Authority And The Free Trade Agreements: Implications For Copyright Law, Samuel Trosow Apr 2003

Fast Track Trade Authority And The Free Trade Agreements: Implications For Copyright Law, Samuel Trosow

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

In 2002, Congress passed the Bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority Act, which restored the presidential fast-track trade-promotion authority that had lapsed in 1994. Fast-track trade promotion authority is a means by which Congress delegates to the president a portion of its constitutional authority over international trade policy. This paper reviews the development, scope, and application of fast-track trade-promotion authority, evaluates some of the copyright provisions in key Free Trade Agreements, and concludes that the process has been effectively captured by the information and entertainment industries. There are numerous negative consequences that flow from the resulting policy environment. Not only is an ...


Beyond Convergence And The New Media Decisions: Regulatory Models In Communications Law, Melanie Mortensen Apr 2003

Beyond Convergence And The New Media Decisions: Regulatory Models In Communications Law, Melanie Mortensen

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

While technological and economic changes have been the most influential factors in stimulating recent policy and regulatory reassessments in Canada with respect to telecommunications and broadcasting regulation, public interest and socio-political concerns should also remain significant in the design of new regulatory and policy responses to convergence and competition. When the CRTC announced that it would refrain from regulating broadcasting in new media for a period of five years, this occasion illustrated the increasing inapplicability of the sector-specific legislation from which the mandate of the CRTC is derived.

The first model addressed is the present sector-specific policy and regulatory treatment ...


Patent First, Litigate Later! The Scramble For Speculative And Overly Broad Genetic Patents: Implications For Access To Health Care And Biomedical Research, Ikechi Mgbeoji, Byron Allen Apr 2003

Patent First, Litigate Later! The Scramble For Speculative And Overly Broad Genetic Patents: Implications For Access To Health Care And Biomedical Research, Ikechi Mgbeoji, Byron Allen

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper will not directly address the ethical considerations of allowing patents on human genetic sequences, although this continues to be a controversial debate in itself. Rather, the aim is to consider the legality of such gene patents and the effects such patents have on biomedical research and health care delivery in definitive terms through an analysis of current developments and research relating to the subject. The operation of current intellectual property regimes regulating such patents will be examined, and amendments to these legal systems will be considered. An emphasis will be placed on identifying practical concerns rather than broad ...


Rescuing The Balance?: An Assessment Of Canada's Proposal To Limit Isp Liability For Online Copyright Infringement, Scott Nesbitt Apr 2003

Rescuing The Balance?: An Assessment Of Canada's Proposal To Limit Isp Liability For Online Copyright Infringement, Scott Nesbitt

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper attempts both to explain the technological and legal imperatives pressing Canada to address the issue of ISP liability in reforms to the Copyright Act and to raise some concerns about the impact of the government’s proposed amendments in this area. The basic elements of copyright law, the impact of digital technology on copyright and the policy arguments surrounding ISP liability are briefly discussed to set the context for judicial treatment of and legislative action on this issue. Next, the paper focuses on the development of American jurisprudence with respect to limitation of ISP liability for third party ...


Cyberlaw 2.0, Michael Geist Mar 2003

Cyberlaw 2.0, Michael Geist

Boston College Law Review

This Article outlines two versions of cyberlaw, The first, characteristic of the scholarship of the late 1990s, is typified by a borclerless Internet and national laws that cease to have effect at their real-space borders, the regulatory power of code, and the virtue of selfregulatory solutions to Internet and e-commerce issues. In Cybet'law 2.0, the borderless Internet becomes bordered, bordered laws become borderless. the regulation of code becomes regulated code, and selfregulation becomes industry consultation, as government shifts toward a more traditional regulatory approach. The Article assesses each of these changes, calling attention to recent developments in copyright ...


The Legacy Of The Federal Communications Commission’S Computer Inquiries, Robert Cannon Mar 2003

The Legacy Of The Federal Communications Commission’S Computer Inquiries, Robert Cannon

Federal Communications Law Journal

The FCC and the computer industry have learned much in the 35 years since the agency first began to regulate computer networks. Safeguards were imposed on common carriers for the benefit of the networks. This Article examines the so-called Computer Inquiries and how they have repeatedly re-examined and redefined the nature of the regulatory treatment of computer networks over communications networks. The Author reviews Computer I, in which the FCC first attempted to divide the world technologically between computers that ran communications networks ("pure communications") and computers at the end of telephone lines with which people interacted ("pure data processing ...


Manual De Derecho Procesal Civil, Edward Ivan Cueva Feb 2003

Manual De Derecho Procesal Civil, Edward Ivan Cueva

Edward Ivan Cueva

No abstract provided.


Is Assent Still A Prerequisite For Contract Formation In Today's E-Conomy?, Melissa Robertson Feb 2003

Is Assent Still A Prerequisite For Contract Formation In Today's E-Conomy?, Melissa Robertson

Washington Law Review

A browse-wrap agreement is an online contract that governs the use of a Web site but does not require users of the site to affirmatively agree to the terms and conditions of the contract. The terms of a browse-wrap agreement are accessible to the user only by clicking on an Internet link, often inconspicuously located at the bottom of a Web page, marked "Terms and Conditions." Browse-wrap agreements purport to bind users to these terms and conditions when the user merely performs a function of the Web site, such as submitting a query on the site's database or downloading ...


Copyright' S Digital Reformulation, Brodi Kemp Jan 2003

Copyright' S Digital Reformulation, Brodi Kemp

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

Digital technologies permit the wide distribution of perfect copies at virtually no marginal cost. Evidently this poses a problem for content providers: how could they make money if their product is freely available after its first sale? As we all know, reframing the copyright laws has become the answer. Notably, these revisions were an integrated international policy campaign, not distinct national fights. The newly extended control, based on legally reinforced digital "containers" and trade law, arguably permits those who sell content effectively to "enclose" the public domain, to insulate their business models, and to define technological development. In this article ...


Lessons From The United States Trade Policies To Convert A "Pirate": The Case Of Pharmaceutical Patents In Argentina., Hernan L. Bentolila Jan 2003

Lessons From The United States Trade Policies To Convert A "Pirate": The Case Of Pharmaceutical Patents In Argentina., Hernan L. Bentolila

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

This analysis describes the radical transformations in pharmaceutical intellectual property protection in Argentina during the 1990s. Most importantly, it highlights the consequences of the use by the United States of unilateral trade weapons to pressure Argentina to adopt certain standards in this field. The enforcement or threatened enforcement of Section 301 of the US Trade Act, along with GSP restrictions, have proven to be controversial tools in protecting US interests abroad, as is demonstrated by the Argentine case. Some positive results were achieved for United States' interests but the United States created at the same time negative implications by pressuringf ...