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2003

Antitrust and Trade Regulation

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Antitrust And Trade Regulation Bulletin Ftc Releases Report On Intellectual Property And Antitrust, James Burling, John C. Christie Jr., Michelle Miller Dec 2003

Antitrust And Trade Regulation Bulletin Ftc Releases Report On Intellectual Property And Antitrust, James Burling, John C. Christie Jr., Michelle Miller

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

Last year the FTC and the Department of Justice jointly held hearings focused on the current balance of competition and patent law and policy. (See our December, 2001 Antitrust and Trade Regulation Bulletin at www.haledorr.com/antitrust.) The hearings spanned more than 24 days, involving more than 300 panelists and 100 separate written submissions. The first tangible by-product of those sessions came on October 28, 2003, with the release of a 266-page FTC report containing specific recommendations for changes in the existing patent system (the Patent Report)(http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2003/10/creport .htm). A second, joint ...


Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker Dec 2003

Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker

ExpressO

This paper explores the tortured history of developing countries’ pursuit of access to affordable generic medicines that they are unable to produce efficiently on their own. Having lost rights to treat medicines as essential commodities and as generalized exceptions to patent protections in the WTO TRIPS Agreement, developing countries and public health activists temporarily reasserted the primacy of health over profits in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health in November of 2001. However, since most developing countries lack meaningful pharmaceutical capacity to manufacture medicines efficiently on their own, they needed flexibility to import medicines from countries ...


Determinantes Explícitos E Implícitos De La Deuda Externa Pública Peruana, José Manuel Martin Coronado Dec 2003

Determinantes Explícitos E Implícitos De La Deuda Externa Pública Peruana, José Manuel Martin Coronado

José-Manuel Martin Coronado

This research aims to prove that sound economic policies are nothing more that basic conditions for the foreign public debt problem. In fact, by studying the factors of public debt issues in Peru, Latin America and the emerging economies it’s clear that some implicit economic and non-economic factors have to be considered because of the social complexity and variable characteristics in emerging economies. This causes failures in economic policies assumptions, inefficiencies, distorted causality and nonrational behavior. This paper proposes, first, to perform a deep and comparative analysis of the foreign debt determinants in emerging economies, then, to allocate financial ...


Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Da Sociedade, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo Dec 2003

Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Da Sociedade, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo

carlos ragazzo

No abstract provided.


The Summary Judgment Standard And Pleading Requirements For Conspiracy Claims Relying On The Doctrine Of Conscious Parallelism, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kanye, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth Dec 2003

The Summary Judgment Standard And Pleading Requirements For Conspiracy Claims Relying On The Doctrine Of Conscious Parallelism, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kanye, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

Last spring there was growing concern in the wake of the Seventh Circuit’s decision in In re High Fruc-tose Corn Syrup1 that the courts might be adopting a more receptive attitude toward antitrust claims based on allegations of consciously parallel pricing and other behavior in highly concentrated industries. Three decisions in the last few months suggest that High Fructose Corn Syrup may remain an aberration and that most courts remain deeply skeptical of claims that seek to infer agreement from consciously parallel conduct without any hard evidence of conspiracy. Two of these three decisions, Williamson Oil Co., Inc. v ...


Comparative Analysis Of Telecommunications Regulations: Pitfalls And Opportunities, Mary Newcomer Williams Dec 2003

Comparative Analysis Of Telecommunications Regulations: Pitfalls And Opportunities, Mary Newcomer Williams

Federal Communications Law Journal

Book Review: Controlling Market Power in Telecommunications: Antitrust vs. Sector-specific Regulation by Damien Geradin and Michel Kerf.
In this 2003 publication, the authors comprehensively review and analyze the telecommunications regulatory structure of five nations that have achieved some success in promoting competition in telecommunications markets. The authors engage in this analysis in order to evaluate the use of telecommunications sector-specific regulation versus more general, economywide antitrust regulation to accomplish specific goals related to promoting competition and efficiency in the provision of telecommunications services. This review describes the authors’ analysis and highlights its strengths and limitations. It also offers a few ...


Telric Vs. Universal Service: A Takings Violation?, Stuart Buck Dec 2003

Telric Vs. Universal Service: A Takings Violation?, Stuart Buck

Federal Communications Law Journal

While the Telecommunications Act of 1996 has had a profound positive impact on many sectors of the communications industry in the United States, local phone companies have recently faced a serious dilemma under a provision of the Act known as TELRIC. In this article, Stuart Buck presents a current analysis of the position of the telephone company and its struggle to meet costs under the TELRIC structure. The author argues that by forcing regional phone operators to grant wholesale pricing to competitors under TELRIC, while simultaneously maintaining Universal Service requirements of reduced-rate phone access to remote customers, the local phone ...


The Role Of Efficiencies In Telecommunications Merger Review, Calvin S. Goldman Q.C., Ilene Knable Gotts, Michael E. Piaskoski Dec 2003

The Role Of Efficiencies In Telecommunications Merger Review, Calvin S. Goldman Q.C., Ilene Knable Gotts, Michael E. Piaskoski

Federal Communications Law Journal

As a result of the recent telecommunications industry slowdown and the rise of globally integrated communications networks, mergers and acquisitions have become a commonplace occurrence throughout the developed world. In this article, Calvin Goldman, Michael Piaskoski and Ilene Gotts review recent merger and acquisition activity and discuss how the decisions to allow or deny “M&A” are viewed by regulatory agencies in the United States, the European Union, and Canada. The first part of this article addresses these three parties’ approaches to M&A consideration and how the concept of “efficiencies” generated by consolidation enters those deliberations. The authors then ...


The Political Economy Of International Antitrust Harmonization, John O. Mcginnis Dec 2003

The Political Economy Of International Antitrust Harmonization, John O. Mcginnis

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Is Federal Preemption Efficient In Cellular Phone Regulation, Thomas W. Hazlett Dec 2003

Is Federal Preemption Efficient In Cellular Phone Regulation, Thomas W. Hazlett

Federal Communications Law Journal

While many recent state-level efforts to regulate various aspects of the cellular phone industry have been abandoned in favor of federal regulations, other attempts by state regulators still exist. For this reason, Thomas Hazlett proposes that federal regulation is generally more appropriate than state-level action, due to the nature of the cellular industry. After a brief history of the industry, the author analyzes the pros and cons associated with state and federal regulation. The Article then proceeds to address the efficiencies created by national networks and proposes that the fragmentation of controlling regulatory power would reduce these efficiencies. Following a ...


A Round "Peg" For A Round Hole: Advocating For The Town Of Oyster Bay's Public Access Channel Restrictions, Thomas Werner Dec 2003

A Round "Peg" For A Round Hole: Advocating For The Town Of Oyster Bay's Public Access Channel Restrictions, Thomas Werner

Federal Communications Law Journal

New technological devices which allow consumers to skip commercials are driving corporations to engage in alternative advertising. The development of more “organic” methods of integrating products into the content of television programs makes those advertisements much more difficult to detect. As it becomes more difficult to divorce the product being sold from the content of the program, it also becomes more difficult to determine whether or not an advertisement actually exists. Without such blatant references, these programs would be likely candidates to appear on public access channels. This poses a severe threat to the service that those channels were intended ...


Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen Nov 2003

Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the current legal principles regarding liabillity for harms from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the U.S. and E.U., as well as the various international policies and mechanisms affecting GMOs


Analyzing U.S. Antitrust Jurisdiction Over Foreign Parties After Empagran S.A. V. F. Hoffinan-Laroche, Ltd., Andrew Stanger Nov 2003

Analyzing U.S. Antitrust Jurisdiction Over Foreign Parties After Empagran S.A. V. F. Hoffinan-Laroche, Ltd., Andrew Stanger

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Antitrust And Trade Regulation Law, Michael F. Urbanski, James R. Creekmore, Ellen S. Moore Nov 2003

Antitrust And Trade Regulation Law, Michael F. Urbanski, James R. Creekmore, Ellen S. Moore

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Merger Of Guidelines And The Integration Of Efficiencies Into Antitrust Review Of Horizontal Mergers, William Kolasky, Andrew Dick Oct 2003

The Merger Of Guidelines And The Integration Of Efficiencies Into Antitrust Review Of Horizontal Mergers, William Kolasky, Andrew Dick

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

There is a widening consensus among jurisdictions with competition laws that “the basic objective of competition policy is to protect competition as the most appropriate means of ensuring the efficient allocation of resources—and thus efficientmarket outcomes—in free market economies.” 1 As this statement indicates, it is efficiency, not competition, that is the ultimate goal of the antitrust laws. One of the senior economists of the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division put it very well recently: “efficiency is the goal, competition is the process.”2 When the competitive process is allowed to run its course—unfettered by exclusionary practices ...


Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement, Warren S. Grimes Oct 2003

Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement, Warren S. Grimes

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement Decisions: A Reaction To Professor Grimes, John M. Nannes Oct 2003

Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement Decisions: A Reaction To Professor Grimes, John M. Nannes

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Comments On Warren Grimes: Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement, Robert Pitofsky Oct 2003

Comments On Warren Grimes: Transparency In Federal Antitrust Enforcement, Robert Pitofsky

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Transparency In Antitrust—Do What We Say And Not What We Do: Some Reflections On Professor Grimes's Quest, Peter C. Cartensen Oct 2003

Transparency In Antitrust—Do What We Say And Not What We Do: Some Reflections On Professor Grimes's Quest, Peter C. Cartensen

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Putting The Antitrust Modernization Commission Into Perspective, Albert A. Foer Oct 2003

Putting The Antitrust Modernization Commission Into Perspective, Albert A. Foer

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Surviving The Shipwreck: A Proposal To Revive The Failing Division Defense, Amanda L. Wait Oct 2003

Surviving The Shipwreck: A Proposal To Revive The Failing Division Defense, Amanda L. Wait

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Roundtable With Former Directors Of The Bureau Of Economics, Jonathan Baker Sep 2003

Roundtable With Former Directors Of The Bureau Of Economics, Jonathan Baker

Presentations

The roundtable commemorates the 100th anniversary of the FTC's predecessor agency, the Bureau of Corporations. It was sponsored by the FTC's Bureau of Economics (BE) and focused on BE history and contributions of BE and economic analysis to antitrust and consumer protection enforcement, and to research and economic knowledge and policy. BE was featured because the original functions of the Bureau of Corporations were to collect information, to conduct industry and policy research, to prepare reports at the request of the Congress and the President. The panelists for the roundtable consisted of former BE Directors and Acting Directors ...


State Aid And The Financing Of Public Services: A Comment On The Altmark Judgment Of The Court Of Justice, Frederic Louis, Anne Vallery Sep 2003

State Aid And The Financing Of Public Services: A Comment On The Altmark Judgment Of The Court Of Justice, Frederic Louis, Anne Vallery

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

On 24 July 2003, the European Court of Justice handed down its judgment in the Altmark case, ending the controversy surrounding the application of the EC state aid control regime to compensation granted to undertakings in consideration for public service obligations imposed on them.


Antitrust And Competition Law Update: Busy Times For U.S. Antitrust Enforcement, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kayne, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth Aug 2003

Antitrust And Competition Law Update: Busy Times For U.S. Antitrust Enforcement, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kayne, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

The last several weeks have seen a flurry of important developments in antitrust enforcement, with major decisions in one merger and one joint venture case, an important Federal Trade Commission policy statement about disgorgement and restitution remedies, and an announced FTC challenge to a consummated merger. Each of these developments is significant standing alone; collectively, they reflect extremely active Justice Department and FTC antitrust enforcement programs, with the agencies at times adopting more aggressive positions than some might have expected from a Republican administration.


Institutional And Substantive Reform Of The Anti-Dumping And Subsidy Agreements – Lessons From The Israeli Experience, Arie Reich Aug 2003

Institutional And Substantive Reform Of The Anti-Dumping And Subsidy Agreements – Lessons From The Israeli Experience, Arie Reich

ExpressO

This article proposes several amendments to the Anti-Dumping (AD) Agreement and the chapter on Countervailing Duties (CVD) of the Subsidies Agreement, drawing from the experience of the State of Israel in AD and CVD administration over more than a decade. In particular, the Article argues for the need for international regulation of the institutional settings of such administration within Member States. To this end, provisions should be added to the relevant WTO agreements that relate to the nature and composition of the national administering authorities, with the guiding principle being to ensure independence of the authorities and objectivity, fairness and ...


Cuestiones Procesales En La Ley De Defensa De La Competencia, Gabriel Martinez Medrano Aug 2003

Cuestiones Procesales En La Ley De Defensa De La Competencia, Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Gabriel Martinez Medrano

No abstract provided.


Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Do Poder Judiciário, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo Aug 2003

Direito Da Concorrência: A Vez Do Poder Judiciário, Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo

carlos ragazzo

No abstract provided.


Licencias "Atadas" Sobre Derechos Intelectuales Y Defensa De La Competencia., Gabriel Martinez Medrano Aug 2003

Licencias "Atadas" Sobre Derechos Intelectuales Y Defensa De La Competencia., Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Gabriel Martinez Medrano

No abstract provided.


Monopoly Power In The Electronic Information Industry: Why, And So What?, Curt A. Hessler Jul 2003

Monopoly Power In The Electronic Information Industry: Why, And So What?, Curt A. Hessler

ExpressO

This "law and economics" article diagnoses why monopoly power infects so many markets in the electronic media, communications, and information technology industries (collectively the "Industry"),and recommends changes to prevailing intellectual property and antitrust doctrines to remedy this problem.

The analysis focuses on a single "norm" -- the maximization of economic value, as defined by standard welfare economic theory. Identifying three distinct functions that operate throughout this otherwise diverse Industry -- authoring, publishing, and distribution -- the article notes that two economic peculiarities characterize most Industry markets: the technical feasibility of "non-rivalrous use" of digitized information products, and the frequent "creative destruction" of ...


United States V. Amr Corp.: Non-Traditional Cost Measures And Expanding Predatory Pricing Exposure, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kayne, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth Jul 2003

United States V. Amr Corp.: Non-Traditional Cost Measures And Expanding Predatory Pricing Exposure, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kayne, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

Historically, industries with low average variable costs (AVC) have been as a practical matter largely immune from predatory pricing claims. The reason is simple. Predatory pricing claims require the plaintiff to establish, among other things, that the defendant priced below an appropriate measure of cost. Because marginal costs are notoriously difficult to measure, courts have commonly compared the defendant’s prices to AVC (total costs that vary with output/units of output). Consequently, in industries where average variable costs are very low, plaintiffs are unlikely to be able to prove that defendants have priced below AVC, even when defendants have ...