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2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 192

Full-Text Articles in Law

Back To The 1930s? The Shaky Case For Exempting Dividends, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2002

Back To The 1930s? The Shaky Case For Exempting Dividends, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

This article is based in part on the author’s U.S. Branch Report for Subject I of the 2003 Annual Congress of the International Fiscal Association, to be held next year in Sydney, Australia (forthcoming in Cahiers de droit fiscal international, 2003). He would like to thank Emil Sunley for his helpful comments on that earlier version, and Steve Bank, Michael Barr, David Bradford, Michael Graetz, and David Hasen for comments on this version. Special thanks are due to Yoram Keinan for his meticulous work on the EU regimes (see Appendix). All errors are the author’s. In this ...


'A Time To Build' - William W. Cook And His Architects: Edward York And Philip Sawyer, Margaret A. Leary Dec 2002

'A Time To Build' - William W. Cook And His Architects: Edward York And Philip Sawyer, Margaret A. Leary

Articles

The following narrative outlines the role of donor William W. cook and the architects who built the Law Quadrangle 70 years ago. The report is excerpted and adapted from 94 Law Library Journal 395-425 (2002-26). The author is director of the University of Michigan Law School's Law Library.


All My Rights, Carl E. Schneider Jul 2002

All My Rights, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Diane Pretty was an Englishwoman in her early 40s who had been married nearly a quarter of a century. In November 1999, she learned she had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-in Britain, motor neurone disease. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and soon she was "essentially paralysed from the neck downwards." She had "virtually no decipherable speech" and was fed by a tube. She was expected to live only a few months or even weeks. AB a court later explained, however, "her intellect and capacity to make decisions are unimpaired. The final stages of the disease are exceedingly distressing and undignified. AB she is ...


For Haven's Sake: Reflections On Inversion Transactions, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Jun 2002

For Haven's Sake: Reflections On Inversion Transactions, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

This article discusses “inversion” transactions, in which a publicly traded U.S. corporation becomes a subsidiary of a newly established tax haven parent corporation. In the last three years, an increasing number of these transactions have been taking place, undeterred by the shareholderlevel tax imposed by the IRS on them in 1994. The article first discusses the reasons for the increasing popularity of the transactions and the tax goals they aim at achieving (primarily avoiding subpart F and U.S. earnings stripping). The article then discusses the tax policy implications of these transactions. In the short run, the article suggests ...


Marxism And The Continuing Irrelevance Of Normative Theory (Reviewing G. A. Cohen, If You're An Egalitarian, How Come You're So Rich? (2000)), Brian Leiter May 2002

Marxism And The Continuing Irrelevance Of Normative Theory (Reviewing G. A. Cohen, If You're An Egalitarian, How Come You're So Rich? (2000)), Brian Leiter

Articles

No abstract provided.


How Underlying Patient Beliefs Can Affect Physician-Patient Communicaion About Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing, Michael H. Farrell, Margaret Ann Murphy, Carl E. Schneider May 2002

How Underlying Patient Beliefs Can Affect Physician-Patient Communicaion About Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing, Michael H. Farrell, Margaret Ann Murphy, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Routine cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is controversial, and practice guidelines recommend that men be counseled about its risks and benefits. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the process of decision making as men react to and use information after PSA counseling. DESIGN. Written surveys and semistructured qualitative interviews before and after a neutral PSA counseling intervention. PARTICIPANTS. Men 40 to 65 years of age in southeastern Michigan were recruited until thematic saturation—that is, the point at which no new themes emerged in interviews (n = 40). RESULTS. In a paper survey, 37 of 40 participants (93%) said that they interpreted the ...


The Perception Of Risk, Cass R. Sunstein Feb 2002

The Perception Of Risk, Cass R. Sunstein

Articles

No abstract provided.


Emerging Issues In Electronic Contracting, Technical Standards And Law Reform, Jane K. Winn Jan 2002

Emerging Issues In Electronic Contracting, Technical Standards And Law Reform, Jane K. Winn

Articles

The explosive growth of electronic commerce transactions in recent years has added fuel to efforts to harmonize international commercial law. Organizations such as the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and the Hague Conference on Private International Law are all participating in an emerging global debate concerning the changes that should be made to the form or substance of international commercial law to accommodate innovation in the technology of international trade.

Many of the important legal issues raised by cross-border electronic commerce in the 1970s and 1980s have ...


Social Networks And Electronic Commerce In China, Jane K. Winn Jan 2002

Social Networks And Electronic Commerce In China, Jane K. Winn

Articles

Communication technologies that make up the emerging global information infrastructure have the power to regulate online behavior. Social networks in Chinese society have survived the growth of formal legal institutions and liberalization of China's economy, but it is not clear whether they can survive the regulatory pressures created by global information technology networks.

The spread of electronic commerce technologies in China may strengthen legal institutions and open local markets to international competition, but is likely to be resisted by all the same interests that resist those changes in other contexts. The Chinese response to the spread of electronic commerce ...


Defeating Environmental Law: The Geology Of Legal Advantage, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 2002

Defeating Environmental Law: The Geology Of Legal Advantage, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

My talk today will: (1) introduce the metaphor of geology, (2) suggest to you that complexity has "gainers" as well as "losers," and (3) show you how environmental laws can be defeated by these twin engines of complexity and clever human adversaries.

[Third Annual Lloyd K. Garrison Lecture on Environmental Law, Pace University School of Law.]


Lesbigay Identity As Commodity, David M. Skover, Kellye Y. Testy Jan 2002

Lesbigay Identity As Commodity, David M. Skover, Kellye Y. Testy

Articles

This Essay explores the deep dissonance that exists today between the validation of American LesBiGays in the commercial marketplace and their devaluation in political and legal arenas, and questions the failure of legal scholars and civil rights activists to account meaningfully for this dissonance in their theories and practices. I

n America's popular culture, LesBiGay identities abound. In its political culture, however, they emerge more tentatively. The commercial and entertainment industries increasingly commodify and celebrate LesBiGay identities. The courts and legislatures generally discount and condemn them. Thus, there is a deep dissonance between the validation of LesBiGay identities in ...


The Beginning Of Herstory For Corporate Law, Kellye Y. Testy Jan 2002

The Beginning Of Herstory For Corporate Law, Kellye Y. Testy

Articles

In The Gender Implications of Corporate Governance Change, Janis Sarra presents what has until now seemed oxymoronic to many: a feminist economic analysis of corporate governance in the global marketplace. In so doing, she joins a growing chorus of corporate governance scholars who are seeking to advance an alternative vision to the neoclassical, shareholder-centered model that is not only dominant in the United States, but is also widely exported-even to nations that do not share similar institutional configurations that support such a model. This diverse group of scholars--whose approaches have been labeled variously as "progressive," "communitarian," and "socio-economic,"--do not ...


Linking Progressive Corporate Law With Progressive Social Movements, Kellye Y. Testy Jan 2002

Linking Progressive Corporate Law With Progressive Social Movements, Kellye Y. Testy

Articles

Professor Testy critically assesses what has been termed a "new" corporate social responsibility project After noting the hegemony of shareholder primacy in corporate law, she critiques four major counter-hegemonic discourses: team production theory, corporate social accountabiity, stakeholder theory, and corporate social responsibility (or progressive corporate law). Finding the first three ineffective foils for the problems of corporate power that have spurred calls for reform, she turns to an examination of the progressive corporate law project. That project, presently poised at a defining juncture as it attempts to use the "master's tools" to "dismantle the master's house," nonetheless holds ...


Commentary: Convergence As Movement: Toward A Counter-Hegemonic Approach To Corporate Governance, Kellye Y. Testy Jan 2002

Commentary: Convergence As Movement: Toward A Counter-Hegemonic Approach To Corporate Governance, Kellye Y. Testy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Rethinking The United States First-To-Invent Principle From A Comparative Law Perspective: A Proposal To Restructure § 102 Novelty And Priority Provisions, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 2002

Rethinking The United States First-To-Invent Principle From A Comparative Law Perspective: A Proposal To Restructure § 102 Novelty And Priority Provisions, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

This Article first examines the novelty and priority provisions of first-to-file countries, and then compares them with U.S. counterparts to identify major differences and determine why these differences result. The Article discusses the origins of the complex structure adopted by § 102 to define prior art and the difficult interpretation given to terms used in the novelty definition. This Article then reviews the USPTO's practice of the novelty examination and the priority determination in interference proceedings. This review confirms the first-to-file patent professional's perception that the United States, in fact, follows the first-to-file principle, although it also provides ...


The Customer Is Always Right . . . Not!: Employer Liability For Third Party Sexual Harassment, Lea B. Vaughn Jan 2002

The Customer Is Always Right . . . Not!: Employer Liability For Third Party Sexual Harassment, Lea B. Vaughn

Articles

This article will ask a series of questions. What is third party sexual harassment? Under what conditions does it occur? Does it differ in any significant respects from traditional notions of sexual harassment? Should those differences, if any, make a difference in the way that the legal system addresses third party harassment? And indeed, should the problem be addressed solely through the legal system? What might an employer do to alleviate sexual harassment of this type?

The thesis of this article is that third party sexual harassment is a prevalent form of harassment that the legal system does not currently ...


Agency Rules With The Force Of Law: The Original Convention, Thomas W. Merrill, Kathryn Tongue Watts Jan 2002

Agency Rules With The Force Of Law: The Original Convention, Thomas W. Merrill, Kathryn Tongue Watts

Articles

The Supreme Court recently held in United States v. Mead Corp. that agency interpretations should receive Chevron deference only when Congress has delegated power to the agency to make rules with the force of law and the agency has rendered its interpretation in the exercise of that power.

The first step of this inquiry is difficult to apply to interpretations adopted through rulemaking, because often rulemaking grants authorize the agency to make "such rules and regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter" or words to that effect, without specifying whether "rules and regulations" encompasses rules ...


Of Punctilios And Paybacks: The Duty Of Loyalty Under The Uniform Trust Code, Karen E. Boxx Jan 2002

Of Punctilios And Paybacks: The Duty Of Loyalty Under The Uniform Trust Code, Karen E. Boxx

Articles

Loyalty has been cited as the most desired of traits from those who serve others. One reason that loyalty is so highly valued is that it is impossible to guarantee and impossible to buy. The trust law concept of the duty of loyalty acknowledges that human nature will cause any person to favor his or her personal interests over the interests of another, and it is this assumption of disloyalty that gives rise to the strict prohibitions of trustee conflicts of interest required under the label of "duty of loyalty."

The duty of loyalty has been called "the essence of ...


Atlantic Salmon, Pacific Bound: Initiative, Defiance, Courage, And Indian Tribes In Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 2002

Atlantic Salmon, Pacific Bound: Initiative, Defiance, Courage, And Indian Tribes In Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

I want to address my remarks to the students of the University of Maine School of Law who will face a great deal of unfinished legal business on the topics of salmon, Indian tribes, and environmental law.

Elsewhere, I have derived what I describe as the five virtues of effective action (genius, high-leveraging, symbolism, optimism, courage). People of achievement, lawyers or otherwise, are familiar with these virtues and display them in many creative forms.

Next, I will peer through this lens of effective action at some key moments in the history of Atlantic-Pacific Salmon Interactions. This coming together has been ...


Using Evaluations To Break Down The Male Corporate Hierarchy: A Full Circle Approach, Edward Adams Jan 2002

Using Evaluations To Break Down The Male Corporate Hierarchy: A Full Circle Approach, Edward Adams

Articles

This Article explores full circle evaluations in detail, arguing that corporate boards should implement such systems. Part I details full circle evaluations and explains the benefits associated with the use of such systems. Part II describes the potential legal duty to implement full circle evaluation systems. Part III argues that full circle evaluations consider the input of all persons in the corporation, thereby increasing the extent to which decisions concerning promotions are based on objective factors of merit and facilitating the advancement of women in the workplace. Part IV concludes that in light of all of the aforementioned considerations, the ...


The Most Difficult Ada Reasonable Accommodation Issues: Reassignment And Leave Of Absence, Stephen F. Befort Jan 2002

The Most Difficult Ada Reasonable Accommodation Issues: Reassignment And Leave Of Absence, Stephen F. Befort

Articles

The Americans with Disabilities Act obligates employers to provide reasonable accomodations to disabled workers as a means of enabling those workers to perform essential job duties. Of all the accomodations contemplated by the ADA, leaves of absence and reassignment to another position pose the most troublesome legal and human resource issues. These two types of accomodations do not merely tweak the job that a disabled employee is asked to perform, but instead excuse such employees from performing their original job assignment. While facilitating disabled employees to remain gainfully employed, these accomodations impose significant burdens on both employers and fellow employees ...


Labor And Employment Law At The Millennium: A Historical Review And Critical Assessment, Stephen F. Befort Jan 2002

Labor And Employment Law At The Millennium: A Historical Review And Critical Assessment, Stephen F. Befort

Articles

This Article uses a historical perspective as a basis to analyze the current state of labor and employment law in the United States. The Article first chronicles the decline in collective governance and the corresponding rise in the governmental regulation of the individual employment relation during the past 50 years, and attempts to ascertain the socio-economic forces contributing to this evolution. The Article then critiques the current state of workplace legal rules and finds a number of deficiencies in terms of both efficiency and equity. The Article pays particular attention to the impact of globalization and the resulting exacerbation in ...


Choice Of Organizational Form For The Start-Up Business, John H. Matheson Jan 2002

Choice Of Organizational Form For The Start-Up Business, John H. Matheson

Articles

Limited liability is a fundamental principle of corporate law. Yet liability has never been absolutely limited. Courts occasionally allow creditors to "pierce the corporate veil," which means that shareholders must satisfy creditors' claims. "Piercing" seems to happen freakishly. Like lightning, it is rare, severe, and unprincipled. There is a consensus that the whole area of limited liability, and conversely of piercing the corporate veil, is among the most confusing in corporate law. 1


Keeping Secrets, Dale Carpenter Jan 2002

Keeping Secrets, Dale Carpenter

Articles

The right to privacy is the power to keep secrets. It is a power conferred in one form or another by the Constitution, by statute, and by tort law. It hinders the ability of the government and other citizens to know things about us that we -- often for very good reasons - would rather not have them know. It is a power that acts as a counterweight to the power of the state and of other citizens to monitor-often for very good reasons-what we do, what we read, what we say, and with whom we associate


Convergence In Corporate Governance--Possible, But Not Desirable, Brett Mcdonnell Jan 2002

Convergence In Corporate Governance--Possible, But Not Desirable, Brett Mcdonnell

Articles

THE prospects for international convergence in corporate governance systems have become a hot topic in legal academia. For some time scholars have depicted American corporations and capital markets as optimal adaptations for governing large business enterprises. 1 More recently, American scholars have become more aware that other countries do things rather differently. While large American corporations have many dispersed shareholders and turn to public stock and bond markets for financing, large Japanese and German corporations have more concentrated shareholders and close financial relations with banks.


Beyond Interpretation, Pierre Schlag Jan 2002

Beyond Interpretation, Pierre Schlag

Articles

No abstract provided.


An Essay On The Professional Responsibility Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Emily Calhoun Jan 2002

An Essay On The Professional Responsibility Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Emily Calhoun

Articles

No abstract provided.


Do Jury Trials Encourage Harsh Punishment In The United States?, William T. Pizzi Jan 2002

Do Jury Trials Encourage Harsh Punishment In The United States?, William T. Pizzi

Articles

No abstract provided.


A Review Of The Fifty-Third Session Of The Sub-Commission On The Promotion And Protection Of Human Rights, David Weissbrodt, Bret Thiele, Mayra Gomez, Muria Kruger Jan 2002

A Review Of The Fifty-Third Session Of The Sub-Commission On The Promotion And Protection Of Human Rights, David Weissbrodt, Bret Thiele, Mayra Gomez, Muria Kruger

Articles

The term ‘fundamentalism’ means adherence to principles of one’s religion. Therefore, Islamic fundamentalism stands for a return to the doctrines of Islam in their original form as were practised in the medieval times. It could also mean idealising the historical past of Islam and calling for a return to ‘pure and original Islam’, which can be achieved through peaceful, lawful and cultural/spiritual means. In practice, the focus of Islamists has been Islamisation of the state rather than reform of the individuals. It has generated conflict as the Islamic fundamentalists seek to impose their will through coercion, violence and ...


Growth And Form: Indian Tribes, Terrorism, And The Durability Of Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr. Jan 2002

Growth And Form: Indian Tribes, Terrorism, And The Durability Of Environmental Law, William H. Rodgers, Jr.

Articles

My target audience is the body of extraordinary law students here at the Vermont Law School who will define the shape and direction of tomorrow's environmental law. My plan is to derive five virtues of significant achievement—genius, high-leveraging, symbolism, optimism, and courage—and to convince you that the Indian tribes of the United States are fortuitously blessed with these capacities for positive change.

I am obliged to defend my five virtues against the charge that they are "gray" virtues, mere tactics of opportunity open to use by the forces of hatred and destruction as freely as those of ...