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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Law

(Dis)Embedded Women, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann Jan 2002

(Dis)Embedded Women, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann

Michigan Journal of International Law

The position argued in this Article is that women's rights are individual rights. To explain this position, the Article will progress along the following arguments: 1) The dichotomy between Western individualism and non-Western collectivism is false. 2) Much of the debate regarding the role of women and women's rights confuses interest and identity. 3) Women do not necessarily constitute a social group. 4) "Women's" rights are actually universal human rights: they pertain mostly to women, but also to men. 5) The debate about whether women are a social group is rooted in part in differing conceptions of ...


A Ghost Is Haunting Europe, Maria Grahn-Farley Jan 2002

A Ghost Is Haunting Europe, Maria Grahn-Farley

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Responsible Selves: Women in the Nordic Legal Cultures (Kevät Nousiainen, Åsa Gunnarsson, Karin Lundström, & Johanna Niemi-Kiesiläinen eds.)


Multicultural Jurisdictions At The National And International Levels, Christina L. Brandt-Young Jan 2002

Multicultural Jurisdictions At The National And International Levels, Christina L. Brandt-Young

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women's Rights by Ayelet Shachar


The Cedaw As A Collective Approach To Women's Rights, Brad R. Roth Jan 2002

The Cedaw As A Collective Approach To Women's Rights, Brad R. Roth

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article will identify the individualist paradigm with the main current of contemporary liberal-individualist political thought, and more specifically with the approach to women's rights reflected in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which can be read most straightforwardly as reflecting a liberal-individualist conception of how the individual, society, and the State interrelate. This approach, dominant in the international human rights system as well as in the legal systems of some of the most influential States, can usefully be identified as that of the political Center.


Dueling Fates: Should The International Legal Regine Accept A Collective Or Individual Pradigm To Protect Women's Rights?, Michigan Journal Of International Law Jan 2002

Dueling Fates: Should The International Legal Regine Accept A Collective Or Individual Pradigm To Protect Women's Rights?, Michigan Journal Of International Law

Michigan Journal of International Law

Transcript for Symposium held at the University of Michigan Law School on Saturday, April 6, 2002.


The Precautionary Principle: Development Of An International Standard, Sonia Boutillon Jan 2002

The Precautionary Principle: Development Of An International Standard, Sonia Boutillon

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note characterizes and evaluates the current status of the precautionary principle in international law and suggests how it could be more effectively incorporated into bodies of law such as trade law. Much of the literature focuses on whether the principle is a legal rule. This Note shows that precaution need not necessarily fit into the traditional categories of international legal sources' but may derive its legal force from being interpreted as a standard. While the theme-and thesis-of this Note will strike some as provocative, it will appear as an understatement to others, thereby reflecting the ongoing controversy about the ...


The Promise Of Truth Commissions In Times Of Transition, Mariah Jackson Christensen Jan 2002

The Promise Of Truth Commissions In Times Of Transition, Mariah Jackson Christensen

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity by Priscilla B. Hayner


Cross-Examining Expertise In The Wto Dispute Settlement Process, Christopher T. Timura Jan 2002

Cross-Examining Expertise In The Wto Dispute Settlement Process, Christopher T. Timura

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this Note surveys some of the recent contributions that social theorists and social scientists have made to our understanding of the role of experts in society, and also the structure of expert communities. Experts are everywhere in modern life, and individuals are with increasing frequency asked to extend their trust to experts and bodies of knowledge that they have little or no opportunity to question. Part II highlights how the WTO Agreement deals with experts, using recent WTO panel reports to illustrate the ways in which the DSB has operationalized its various provisions. Part III suggests two ...


Using Immigration Law To Protect Human Rights: A Critique Of Recent Legislative Proposals, William J. Aceves, Paul L. Hoffman Jan 2002

Using Immigration Law To Protect Human Rights: A Critique Of Recent Legislative Proposals, William J. Aceves, Paul L. Hoffman

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article critiques several legislative proposals that sought to impose immigration restrictions on serious human rights abusers. Part I provides a brief overview of the international restrictions on immigration relief. In particular, it focuses on those restrictions that limit immigration relief available to individuals who have committed serious human rights abuses. Part II then reviews the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) and its restrictions on immigration relief. It also examines the federal agencies charged with investigating cases of serious human rights abusers in the United States. Part III describes recent legislative proposals that have sought to deny immigration relief to ...


Truth As Right And Remedy In International Human Rights Experience, Thomas M. Antkowiak Jan 2002

Truth As Right And Remedy In International Human Rights Experience, Thomas M. Antkowiak

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note seeks to explore the origins, scope, and key possibilities of an evolving right to the truth. It will argue that truth is not only an essential component of the universally recognized "right to an effective remedy," but that it also serves as the gateway to a broader reparative framework necessary for victims of gross human rights abuse. The analysis shall span the Inter-American, European, and United Nations systems of human rights protection, and also will treat the burgeoning idea of the truth commission, a very prominent means of extra-judicial inquiry in contemporary transitional societies. At the conclusion, the ...


A Community Of Courts: Toward A System Of International Criminal Law Enforcement, William W. Burke-White Jan 2002

A Community Of Courts: Toward A System Of International Criminal Law Enforcement, William W. Burke-White

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article argues that, for political reasons, the future of international criminal law enforcement will largely be at the domestic level. It anticipates the emergence of a community of courts-domestic, semi-internationalized, and supranational. A decentralized system of international criminal law enforcement may give pause for concern: How can such a system be regulated? How can uniformity and effectiveness be assured? It is the claim of this Article that, in a world in which information is power, the relationships between these courts-the exchange of information, ideas, and personnel-brings order and regularity to the system. These interdependent relationships are defined by the ...


African Courts, International Law, And Comparative Case Law: Chimera Or Emerging Human Rights Jurisprudence?, Mirna E. Adjami Jan 2002

African Courts, International Law, And Comparative Case Law: Chimera Or Emerging Human Rights Jurisprudence?, Mirna E. Adjami

Michigan Journal of International Law

Though the potential creation of a supranational human rights court has brought international attention to the African human rights system, international law and human rights scholars rarely turn to African examples when studying the domestic application of international human rights norms. This Article seeks to fill that gap by analyzing cases from several Anglophone common law countries in sub-Saharan Africa that invoke international law and comparative case law as interpretive support in their national fundamental rights jurisprudence.


Nothing Is Written: Fundamentalism, Revivalism, Reformism And The Fate Of Islamic Law, Hamid M. Khan Jan 2002

Nothing Is Written: Fundamentalism, Revivalism, Reformism And The Fate Of Islamic Law, Hamid M. Khan

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part of any Muslim's effort to return to their religious past usually involves an invocation of Islamic law, or what has been termed the Shari'ah. This Note intends to cursorily examine Islamic law-where it was, and where it is going. More specifically, this Note will examine a growing fracture within the Islamic community and how a fissure among so-called fundamentalists will ultimately influence an understanding of Islamic law.


Repairing The Legacy Of Ins V. Elias-Zacarias, Shayna S. Cook Jan 2002

Repairing The Legacy Of Ins V. Elias-Zacarias, Shayna S. Cook

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article examines the evolution of the nexus requirement in United States refugee law since the Elias-Zacarias decision. Part I discusses the Supreme Court's decision in Elias-Zacarias, identifying the choices the Court made among the arguments presented before it that resulted in the motive-oriented approach to nexus. This Part also delves into the Court's statement about the evidence required to demonstrate motive, concluding that the Court's treatment of the evidence before it foreshadows the confusion lower courts have demonstrated in evaluating evidence of motive. Part II looks at appellate decisions on the nexus issue since 1992, highlighting ...


Persecution In The Fog Of War: The House Of Lords' Decision In Adan, Michael Kagan, William P. Johnson Jan 2002

Persecution In The Fog Of War: The House Of Lords' Decision In Adan, Michael Kagan, William P. Johnson

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, we argue that the House of Lords' reasoning in Adan was seriously flawed. The House of Lords correctly recognized that evidence that minorities face a heightened risk of being persecuted can be sufficient to show a nexus to a Convention ground. Yet it erred when it went on to hold that only differentially at-risk individuals or groups can benefit from refugee status. If a person's risk of being persecuted is causally linked to his or her race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, the nexus requirement is satisfied irrespective of whether ...


Causation In Context: Interpreting The Nexus Clause In The Refugee Convention, Michelle Foster Jan 2002

Causation In Context: Interpreting The Nexus Clause In The Refugee Convention, Michelle Foster

Michigan Journal of International Law

The aim of this Article is to explore current approaches to identifying and applying the causation test inherent in the "for reasons of" clause and to attempt to devise a sui generis test appropriate to the unique aims and objects of the Convention. Part I begins by reviewing both the principles governing the causation analysis and their methods of application in different jurisdictions. Part II then proceeds to review the considerations that might inform the development of a causation standard in refugee law, including guidance that might be obtained from other areas of law, against the background of the need ...


No Logo, Robert Howse Jan 2002

No Logo, Robert Howse

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies by Naomi Klein


Fit And Functional In Legal Ethics: Developing A Code Of Conduct For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers Jan 2002

Fit And Functional In Legal Ethics: Developing A Code Of Conduct For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, the author develops a methodology for prescribing the normative content of a code of ethics for international arbitration, and in a forthcoming companion article, integrated mechanisms for making those norms both binding and enforceable are proposed. In making these proposals, the author rejects the classical conception of legal ethics as a purely deontological product derived from first principles. This Article argues, instead, that ethics derive from the inter-relational functional role of advocates in an adjudicatory system, and that ethical regulation must correlate with the structural operations of the system. The fit between ethics and function, the author ...


Let One Hundered Flowers Bloom, One Hundred Schools Contend: Debating Rule Of Law In China, Randall Peerenboom Jan 2002

Let One Hundered Flowers Bloom, One Hundred Schools Contend: Debating Rule Of Law In China, Randall Peerenboom

Michigan Journal of International Law

The Article proceeds in three stages. Part I provides a brief overview of thin versions of rule of law and their relation to thick theories. Part II then takes up the four thick versions of rule of law. Part III addresses a number of thorny theoretical issues that apply to rule of law theories generally and more specifically to the applicability of rule of law to China. For instance, can the minimal conditions for rule of law be sufficiently specified to be useful? Should China's legal system at this point be described as rule by law, as in transition ...


Antiterrorism Military Commissions: The Ad Hoc Dod Rules Of Procedure, Jordan J. Paust Jan 2002

Antiterrorism Military Commissions: The Ad Hoc Dod Rules Of Procedure, Jordan J. Paust

Michigan Journal of International Law

While the article Antiterrorism Military Commissions: Courting Illegality was set for publication, the Department of Defense formally issued its first set of Procedures for Trials by Military Commission of Certain Non-United States Citizens in the War Against Terrorism. The President's November 13th Military Order had set up several per se violations of international law. Instead of attempting to avoid them, the DOD Order of March 21, 2002 continued the violations, set up additional violations of international law, and created various rules of procedure and evidence that, if not per se violative of international law, are highly problematic. This is ...


No Black Names On The Letterhead? Efficient Discrimination And The South African Legal Profession, Lisa R. Pruitt Jan 2002

No Black Names On The Letterhead? Efficient Discrimination And The South African Legal Profession, Lisa R. Pruitt

Michigan Journal of International Law

Although there have long been black lawyers in South Africa, during apartheid only a handful joined the ranks of the country's large commercial firms. Now, in the post-apartheid period, these firms are keenly aware of a range of economic and political incentives to hire black attorneys, and most are doing so at a record pace. Very few black attorneys, however, are enduring the path to partnership in these firms. Based on more than seventy-five interviews conducted in South Africa in 1999 and 2000, this Article both documents and critically examines the reasons for black attrition. While firms' incentives to ...


Black Internationalism: Embracing An Economic Paradigm, Jeffery M. Brown Jan 2002

Black Internationalism: Embracing An Economic Paradigm, Jeffery M. Brown

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article proposes a paradigm shift away from the traditional rights-based, Pan-Africanist trajectory of black internationalism, grounded largely in concerns over racial justice and Pan-African solidarity, and instead embraces an economically grounded black empowerment strategy that is responsive first and foremost to the unique economic imperatives of the emerging world economy. Indeed, the growing complexity of the emerging global economic order as represented by a shift toward rule formalism in the, international trade sphere and embodied in multilateral initiatives like the North American Free Trade Agreement, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and the World Trade Organization, mandates that ...


The Principle Of Complementarity: A New Machinery To Implement International Criminal Law, Mohamed M. El Zeidy Jan 2002

The Principle Of Complementarity: A New Machinery To Implement International Criminal Law, Mohamed M. El Zeidy

Michigan Journal of International Law

According to the doctrine of State sovereignty each State has the right to exercise its jurisdiction over crimes committed in its territory-known as the territoriality principle. Even if the crimes committed are of a type that affects the international community as a whole, States are often hesitant to have their own nationals tried by an international judicial organ. History demonstrates that States rarely waived this right, which is inherent to their sovereignties, and did not rely exclusively on international justice. Rather they always preferred to exercise their jurisdiction exclusively, and only occasionally, when coerced by special circumstances, have they accepted ...