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Full-Text Articles in Law

Ownership Of Electronic Rights And The Private International Law Of Copyright, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 1998

Ownership Of Electronic Rights And The Private International Law Of Copyright, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

When, in response to a French decision upholding the rights of employee journalists to prevent the publisher's unauthorized licensing of electronic rights in the journalists' articles, French newspaper publishers yearn for "American-style copyright," they must imagine a work-made-for-hire nirvana in which publishers dispose of all rights in contributions to their periodicals, heedless of (and legally shielded from) authors' pesty claims for payment or control. To the extent that the work-made-for-hire doctrine applies, the publishing paradise conjured up by these French fantasies of law "reform" is very real indeed. Under U.S. copyright law, employee creators are not statutory "authors;" their employer …


Authors As "Licensors" Of "Informational Rights" Under U.C.C. Article 2b, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 1998

Authors As "Licensors" Of "Informational Rights" Under U.C.C. Article 2b, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

U.C.C. Articles 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code was designed primarily to regulate online and mass market transactions, particularly the licensing of computer software. Its effects, however, will extend to authors of works other than computer software. This Article considers the effects Article 2B would have on dealings between those authors and the exploiters of the authors' works. By reducing procedural barriers to the formation of licenses, Article 2B would make it all too easy for an author to assent to contract terms that may heavily favor an exploiter of the author's work. On the other hand, default contract terms …


The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: Property In The Transition From Marx To Markets, Michael A. Heller Jan 1998

The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: Property In The Transition From Marx To Markets, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

Why are many storefronts in Moscow empty, while street kiosks in front are full of goods? In this Article, Professor Heller develops a theory of anticommons property to help explain the puzzle of empty storefronts and full kiosks. Anticommons property can be understood as the mirror image of commons property. By definition, in a commons, multiple owners are each endowed with the privilege to use a given resource, and no one has the right to exclude another When too many owners hold such privileges of use, the resource is prone to overuse – a tragedy of the commons. Depleted fisheries …


Electronic Rights In Belgium And France: General Association Of Professional Journalists Of Belgium V. Central Station (Brussels Court Of First Instance, October 16, 1996; Brussels Court Of Appeals, October 28, 1997); Union Of French Journalists V. Sdv Plurimedia (Strasbourg Court Of Grand Instance, February 3, 1998) Symposium On Electronic Rights In International Perspective, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 1998

Electronic Rights In Belgium And France: General Association Of Professional Journalists Of Belgium V. Central Station (Brussels Court Of First Instance, October 16, 1996; Brussels Court Of Appeals, October 28, 1997); Union Of French Journalists V. Sdv Plurimedia (Strasbourg Court Of Grand Instance, February 3, 1998) Symposium On Electronic Rights In International Perspective, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Like many national presses in Europe, the Belgian press divides ideologically. Each daily newspaper represents the views of a political party, or expresses the perspective of a political or religious belief. Newspaper readers therefore tend to select the newspaper that most closely corresponds to their world-view. Ten publishers of Belgian dailies and weeklies formed a consortium, Central Station, to operate a website that would offer a crossection of all the participating periodicals' articles on a variety of subjects. The articles would appear in print in their separate newspapers in the morning, but would be available that evening on the Central …


Symposium On Electronic Rights In International Perspective: Introduction, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 1998

Symposium On Electronic Rights In International Perspective: Introduction, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Recent litigation in the U.S., Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France has placed at issue the electronic publishing rights of employee and freelance journalists, contributors to print periodicals. In all five national controversies, the proprietors of the print publications, without securing the writers' express authorization, disseminated their articles in a variety of electronic media, including CD-ROM, third-party databases, and websites. Judicial resolution of the disputes required parsing the respective rights, under local copyright law (and in some cases, labor law as well), of the authors of the contributions to the periodicals, and of the copyright owners of the collective works …


Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons In Biomedical Research, Michael Heller, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1998

Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons In Biomedical Research, Michael Heller, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Faculty Scholarship

The "tragedy of the commons" metaphor helps explain why people overuse shared resources. However, the recent proliferation of intellectual property rights in biomedical research suggests a different tragedy, an "anticommons" in which people underuse scarce resources because too many owners can block each other. Privatization of biomedical research must be more carefully deployed to sustain both upstream research and downstream product development. Otherwise, more intellectual property rights may lead paradoxically to fewer useful products for improving human health.