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1993

Constitution

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Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in Law

Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi Dec 1993

Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi

Michigan Law Review

This article attempts to define the constitutional principles that characterize Shaw and to suggest how those principles might be applied in a consistent, meaningful way. Part I, in which we argue that Shaw must be understood to rest on a distinctive conception of the kinds of harms against which the Constitution protects, is the theoretical heart of the article. We call these expressive harms, as opposed to more familiar, material harms. In Part II, we briefly survey the history of previous, largely unsuccessful, efforts in other legal contexts to give principled content to these kinds of harms in redistricting. …


Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper Dec 1993

Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper

Michigan Law Review

In the discussion that follows, we focus on the case of congressional districting rather than on districting in general. Although we proceed in this manner for the sake of clarity, it is also true that no single, all-purpose normative theory of electoral mechanics will cover every case of democratic representation, from county commissions to mosquito control districts to sovereign legislatures. We do not claim that one can generalize our argument to every sort of election to which the VRA might apply. Yet we think our argument does approximate a theory of general application.


Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff Dec 1993

Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff

Michigan Law Review

Shaw is no doubt a major opinion that attempts to define limits on the use of racial or ethnic classifications in electoral redistricting. The main thrust of this article is to assess the critical question of whether Shaw renders unconstitutional the type of race-conscious realignment of electoral configurations that have given meaning to the voting rights reforms of the past two decades. In making this assessment, we try to ascertain exactly how the Court has limited the use of race-conscious districting, and we try to determine whether there is any jurisprudential coherence to the Court's latest confrontation with the law …


Deadly Confusion: Juror Instructions In Capital Cases , Theodore Eisenberg, Martin T. Wells Nov 1993

Deadly Confusion: Juror Instructions In Capital Cases , Theodore Eisenberg, Martin T. Wells

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Persistence Of The Ancient Regime: Custom Utility And The Common Law In The Nineteenth Century , Andrea C. Loux Nov 1993

Persistence Of The Ancient Regime: Custom Utility And The Common Law In The Nineteenth Century , Andrea C. Loux

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos Nov 1993

Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos

Michigan Law Review

The single most important word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." The single most confusing word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." What accounts for this unhappy state of affairs?

I will try to show that Barry Friedman's assertions, as well as others that are but rephrasings of the same basic ideas, are not the common sense truths that so many constitutional theorists assume them to be, but are instead the products of an extraordinarily confused and ultimately incoherent set of assumptions regarding the interpretation of language.


The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham Nov 1993

The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that the Court should return to a reliance-based approach to Contract Clause challenges, fashioned loosely along the same lines as the HRID. Although it does not advocate that the Court revivify the rules created by the early decisions, the Note proposes that the Court look to the private parties' expectations and, more specifically, to the reasonableness of those expectations in deciding the clause's applicability to a particular case. Part I provides a brief history of the Contract Clause and its development. This Part follows the clause from the Constitutional Convention through the 1980s to illustrate the Court's …


The Advocacy Of "Constitutional" Conduct, Marshall C. Derks Oct 1993

The Advocacy Of "Constitutional" Conduct, Marshall C. Derks

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein Oct 1993

Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein

Michigan Law Review

One of the most striking developments of the last decade has been the new use of Article II in public law adjudication. Article II is a prominent feature not only of cases involving the creation of federal institutions that are independent of the President, but also of new disputes involving reviewability, scope of review, and standing.

Professor Krent and Mr. Shenkman have performed a valuable service in spelling out the argument that Article II, rather than Article III, justifies constitutional limits on legislative grants of standing. Indeed, on several important matters, we are very much in agreement. In this brief …


How To Limit Gerrymandering, Michael E Lewyn Jul 1993

How To Limit Gerrymandering, Michael E Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

An extensive discussion of constitutional issues related to partisan gerrymandering.


The Future Of Our Past: The Legal Mind And The Legacy Of Classical Common-Law Thought, Donald H. Gjerdingen Jul 1993

The Future Of Our Past: The Legal Mind And The Legacy Of Classical Common-Law Thought, Donald H. Gjerdingen

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Social Origins Of Property, Jack M. Beermann, Joseph William Singer Jul 1993

The Social Origins Of Property, Jack M. Beermann, Joseph William Singer

Faculty Scholarship

The takings clause of the United States Constitution requires government to pay compensation when private property is taken for public use.' When government regulates, but does not physically seize, property, the Supreme Court of the United States has had trouble defining when individuals have been deprived of property rights so as to give them a right to compensation. The takings clause serves "to bar Government from forcing some people alone to bear public burdens that, in all fairness and justice, should be borne by the public as a whole."' To determine when a regulation amounts to a "taking" of property …


Of Citizen Suits And Citizen Sunstein, Harold J. Krent, Ethan G. Shenkman Jun 1993

Of Citizen Suits And Citizen Sunstein, Harold J. Krent, Ethan G. Shenkman

Michigan Law Review

After briefly summarizing Lujan and addressing Sunstein's critique, we explore the concept of accountability underlying the creation of a single executive in Article II. We then apply our theory of the unitary executive to several examples of broad grants of statutory standing, concluding that Congress can confer standing on private citizens only if it specifically articulates and individuates the interests whose violation gives rise to a cognizable case. Although we agree with Sunstein's view that broad grants of statutory standing do not necessarily trench upon constitutional values, we ultimately side with Justice Scalia in concluding that universal citizen standing, as …


If The Eye Offend Thee, Turn Off The Color, John Harrison May 1993

If The Eye Offend Thee, Turn Off The Color, John Harrison

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Color-Blind Constitution by Andrew Kull


The Tribunal In Albania, John Paul Jones Apr 1993

The Tribunal In Albania, John Paul Jones

Law Faculty Publications

Professor Jones explains and critiques "The Organization of Justice and the Constitutional Court," the1992 amendments to Albania's provisional constitution that established the nation's post-revolution judicial system.


Revisiting Roe V. Wade: Substance And Process In The Abortion Debate, Margaret G. Farrell Apr 1993

Revisiting Roe V. Wade: Substance And Process In The Abortion Debate, Margaret G. Farrell

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Religious Values In Judicial Decision Making, Scott C. Idleman Apr 1993

The Role Of Religious Values In Judicial Decision Making, Scott C. Idleman

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Political Process As Final Solution, Charles M. Freeland Apr 1993

The Political Process As Final Solution, Charles M. Freeland

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Preemption Of State Hazardous And Solid Waste Regulations: The Dormant Commerce Clause Awakens Once More, Michael P. Healy Apr 1993

The Preemption Of State Hazardous And Solid Waste Regulations: The Dormant Commerce Clause Awakens Once More, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Last term, for the first time since its watershed decision in Philadelphia v. New Jersey, the Supreme Court considered the extent to which the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution constrains a state's ability to regulate the disposal of hazardous and solid waste within its borders. In two cases, Chemical Waste Management, Inc. v. Hunt and Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfill, Inc. v. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, the Supreme Court acted to limit substantially states’ ability to respond independently to the crisis of solid and hazardous waste disposal. The Article describes the harmful impact of the Court's …


Supreme Court's Tilt To The Property Right: Procedural Due Process Protections Of Liberty And Property Interests, Jack M. Beermann, Barbara A. Melamed, Hugh F. Hall Apr 1993

Supreme Court's Tilt To The Property Right: Procedural Due Process Protections Of Liberty And Property Interests, Jack M. Beermann, Barbara A. Melamed, Hugh F. Hall

Faculty Scholarship

The Due Process Clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution provide important protections against government oppression. They provide that government may not deprive any person of "life, liberty or property" without due process of law. In recent decisions, the Supreme Court has appeared willing to strengthen its protection of traditional property interests yet weaken its protection of liberty interests.

It has long been accepted, albeit with controversy, that due process has both procedural and substantive elements. This essay concerns the procedural elements. Procedural due process analysis asks two questions: first, whether there exists a liberty …


Legal Developments: Ethics In Government Federal Advisory Committees, Foreign Conflicts Of Interest, The Constitution, And Dr. Franklin's Snuff Box, Gerald S. Schatz Mar 1993

Legal Developments: Ethics In Government Federal Advisory Committees, Foreign Conflicts Of Interest, The Constitution, And Dr. Franklin's Snuff Box, Gerald S. Schatz

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Legislative Process And Commercial Law: Lessons From The Copyright Act Of 1976 And The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, William J. Woodward Jr. Feb 1993

Legislative Process And Commercial Law: Lessons From The Copyright Act Of 1976 And The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, William J. Woodward Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Overlap and conflict are inevitable in any legal system in which a federal government and state governments both have authority to enact laws. In our federal system, the Constitution's Supremacy Clause identifies federal law as preeminent in case of conflict. When conflict develops and litigation is required to determine whether state or federal law controls the issue at hand, our system analyzes the problem using the term preemption as a basis for analysis.

This Article explores the federal legislative process that precedes judicial preemption decisions. By studying the legislative process for its sensitivity to preemption issues, possible ways to modify …


A Constitutional Conspiracy Unmasked: Why "No State" Does Not Mean "No State", Mark A. Graber Jan 1993

A Constitutional Conspiracy Unmasked: Why "No State" Does Not Mean "No State", Mark A. Graber

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Right Of The People To Be Secure, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 1993

The Right Of The People To Be Secure, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article defines searches and seizures of property and person, discussing the Supreme Court's initially broad interpretation of the Fourth Amendment and its subsequent narrowing in later decisions. Part II discusses several police "chase cases" leading up to the elimination of accidental and attempted seizures from Fourth Amendment protection in Brower v. County of Inyo and California v. Hodari D. Part Ill analyzes the Brower decision and its effect on accidental seizures, concluding that the analysis set forth therein should be abolished and advocating an alternate test. Part IV confronts the Court's elimination of attempted seizures from …


Constitutional Interpretation And Activist Fantasies, Raoul Berger Jan 1993

Constitutional Interpretation And Activist Fantasies, Raoul Berger

Kentucky Law Journal

No abstract provided.


American Indian Influence On The United States Constitution And Its Framers, Robert J. Miller Jan 1993

American Indian Influence On The United States Constitution And Its Framers, Robert J. Miller

American Indian Law Review

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Posture Of Canine Sniffs, Lina Shahin Jan 1993

Constitutional Posture Of Canine Sniffs, Lina Shahin

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


There Goes The Neighborhood: The Evolution Of "Family" In Local Zoning Ordinances, William Graham Jan 1993

There Goes The Neighborhood: The Evolution Of "Family" In Local Zoning Ordinances, William Graham

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process Jan 1993

Due Process

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reapportionment Jan 1993

Reapportionment

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.