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1993

University of Michigan Law School

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Articles 1 - 30 of 198

Full-Text Articles in Law

Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi Dec 1993

Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi

Michigan Law Review

This article attempts to define the constitutional principles that characterize Shaw and to suggest how those principles might be applied in a consistent, meaningful way. Part I, in which we argue that Shaw must be understood to rest on a distinctive conception of the kinds of harms against which the Constitution protects, is the theoretical heart of the article. We call these expressive harms, as opposed to more familiar, material harms. In Part II, we briefly survey the history of previous, largely unsuccessful, efforts in other legal contexts to give principled content to these kinds of harms in redistricting. …


Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper Dec 1993

Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper

Michigan Law Review

In the discussion that follows, we focus on the case of congressional districting rather than on districting in general. Although we proceed in this manner for the sake of clarity, it is also true that no single, all-purpose normative theory of electoral mechanics will cover every case of democratic representation, from county commissions to mosquito control districts to sovereign legislatures. We do not claim that one can generalize our argument to every sort of election to which the VRA might apply. Yet we think our argument does approximate a theory of general application.


Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff Dec 1993

Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff

Michigan Law Review

Shaw is no doubt a major opinion that attempts to define limits on the use of racial or ethnic classifications in electoral redistricting. The main thrust of this article is to assess the critical question of whether Shaw renders unconstitutional the type of race-conscious realignment of electoral configurations that have given meaning to the voting rights reforms of the past two decades. In making this assessment, we try to ascertain exactly how the Court has limited the use of race-conscious districting, and we try to determine whether there is any jurisprudential coherence to the Court's latest confrontation with the law …


Removal And The Eleventh Amendment: The Case For District Court Remand Discretion To Avoid A Bifurcated Suit, Mitchell N. Berman Dec 1993

Removal And The Eleventh Amendment: The Case For District Court Remand Discretion To Avoid A Bifurcated Suit, Mitchell N. Berman

Michigan Law Review

This Note concludes that the Sixth Circuit was half right: when a civil action names both state and private defendants - what this Note terms a "mixed case" - and when the claims against private defendants arise under federal law, the district court must grant removal of the case8 and must remand the claims against the state defendant. However, this Note also observes that the Fifth Circuit probably achieved the better result. After defendants have removed a mixed case to federal court and the district court has remanded the barred claims, the dual court systems and the parties will usually …


An Intent-Based Approach To The Acceptance Of Benefits Doctrine In The Federal Courts, Benson K. Friedman Dec 1993

An Intent-Based Approach To The Acceptance Of Benefits Doctrine In The Federal Courts, Benson K. Friedman

Michigan Law Review

This Note discusses the question of when federal courts should allow a party who accepts payment of a judgment subsequently to appeal the deficiency of the award. Part I examines the discrepancies currently existing in the acceptance of benefits doctrine as applied by the federal courts. Part II analogizes this issue to the law of implied-in-fact contracts and argues that accepting the benefits of a judgment should not prevent an appeal unless circumstances clearly indicate a mutual intent to settle all claims and thereby terminate litigation. Part III contends that, under the doctrine expressed in Erie Railroad v. Tompkins, …


Vol. 44, No. 6, November 22, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1993

Vol. 44, No. 6, November 22, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•'Boycott Colorado' Efforts Continue •Student Senate Responds to Racism Charges •LSSS Election Debacle Provides Instructive Lesson •Are Law Students 'Hissing' to be Clever in Class? •Excessive Posting Mars Halls of Academe •Alumnus Decries Moot Court Board Decision •Voluntary Imprisonment: The Life of a Prison Guard •The Docket •Catsup Please! Tater Tots Overrun Phid House •Study Hints for the Efficient Student •TV, Movies Offer Widely Divergent Choices •1st Annual Most Annoying Law Students Awards •Law in the Raw


Vol. 44, No. 5, November 8, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1993

Vol. 44, No. 5, November 8, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Moot Court Disqualifies 13 late Teams •An Interview with Patricia White •Journal of Gender & Law Approaches First Issues •Student Access LSSS of Botching First-Year Elections •The Docket •The Mailbag: Advice for the Lovelorn •The Lewdicrous and Profane: How 3Ls Kill Time


Experts, Stories, And Information, Richard O. Lempert Nov 1993

Experts, Stories, And Information, Richard O. Lempert

Articles

In the infancy of the jury trial, there were no witnesses. The jury was self-informing. Members of the jury were drawn from the community. It was expected that they would know, either firsthand or on the basis of what they had heard, the true facts of any disputed incident, and they were gathered together to say what those facts were. Ronald Allen and Joseph Miller, in their insightful paper, see the ideal of the self-informing jury as very much alive today. Allen and Miller tell us that jurors ideally should experience firsthand the factual information needed to arrive at rational …


Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter Nov 1993

Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter

Michigan Law Review

In this article, we take an approach fundamentally different from that of the labor law commentators. We start from a broader perspective than is common: successorship is as important an issue for corporate law as it is for labor law. Given that the two principal inputs to the firm are labor and capital, it would be surprising if the laws for labor law successorship were completely different from the laws for corporate law successorship. To the extent that differences exist, those differences should hinge upon differences between the employees' and the creditors' relationships with the firm.


Knowledge About Legal Sanctions, Stephen Mcg. Bundy, Einer Elhauge Nov 1993

Knowledge About Legal Sanctions, Stephen Mcg. Bundy, Einer Elhauge

Michigan Law Review

Ironically, the dictum that "ignorance of the law is no excuse" itself illustrates selective transmission because, despite the widespread dissemination of this maxim to the public, ignorance of the law often is a permissible defense in actual adjudication. The divergence between the maxim and reality is a form of selective transmission that encourages individuals to learn the law, which improves their behavior, but avoids any injustice that would arise from punishing uninformed individuals for conduct they reasonably believed was lawful. We aim to offer a more systematic account of whether and when knowledge about legal sanctions, and restrictions on the …


Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos Nov 1993

Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos

Michigan Law Review

The single most important word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." The single most confusing word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." What accounts for this unhappy state of affairs?

I will try to show that Barry Friedman's assertions, as well as others that are but rephrasings of the same basic ideas, are not the common sense truths that so many constitutional theorists assume them to be, but are instead the products of an extraordinarily confused and ultimately incoherent set of assumptions regarding the interpretation of language.


Bankruptcy Policymaking In An Imperfect World, Elizabeth Warren Nov 1993

Bankruptcy Policymaking In An Imperfect World, Elizabeth Warren

Michigan Law Review

This essay is about bankruptcy policy. It attempts to articulate a comprehensive statement about the various and competing goals that underlie the bankruptcy system. The essay offers both a positive observation, drawn from the Code and its operation, and a normative evaluation, designed to outline the difficult value judgments that comprise the bankruptcy system. It also serves warning: before commentators propose any sweeping changes or policymakers take seriously any suggestions to scrap the system, they must consider the impact of such proposals on a number of competing normative goals.


The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham Nov 1993

The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that the Court should return to a reliance-based approach to Contract Clause challenges, fashioned loosely along the same lines as the HRID. Although it does not advocate that the Court revivify the rules created by the early decisions, the Note proposes that the Court look to the private parties' expectations and, more specifically, to the reasonableness of those expectations in deciding the clause's applicability to a particular case. Part I provides a brief history of the Contract Clause and its development. This Part follows the clause from the Constitutional Convention through the 1980s to illustrate the Court's …


Allocating The Burden Of Proof To Effectuate The Preservation And Federalism Goals Of The Coastal Zone Management Act, Martin J. Lalonde Nov 1993

Allocating The Burden Of Proof To Effectuate The Preservation And Federalism Goals Of The Coastal Zone Management Act, Martin J. Lalonde

Michigan Law Review

Primarily due to policy considerations, this Note argues that courts should allocate to the federal agency proposing an activity that may affect the coastal zone the burden of proving consistency with a state CMP. This allocation effectuates Congress's intent to vest states with primary control to preserve the coastal zone. Part I provides a general background of the Act's consistency requirement for federally conducted activities. Part II examines the various factors that courts traditionally consider when allocating burdens of proof in litigation. Part III evaluates these factors as applied to the consistency issue under the CZMA. Part IV concludes that …


Vol. 44, No. 4, October 25, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1993

Vol. 44, No. 4, October 25, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•More Than 1 in 4 3Ls Without Offers •Placement Office Hires Public Interest Director •Let's Hope Search for New Dean is Not a Farce •Search Committee Seeks Student Input on Bollinger's Replacement •Want a Public Interest Job? Search Yourself •ACLU Pits Itself Against Student Freedom, Learning •3L Entrepreneur Provides Letter Service for Job Seekers •Crossword •A Dogfight with J.J. White •Third-Year Makes Use of Kamisar in Summer Job •Detroit Residents Receive Aid from Student Clinic •Nirvana: The Beatles of the '90s? •The Lewdicrous and Profane •The Docket •More Tips on Interviewing, Costume Hints •Alice in Chains: The End of Flannel? …


Vol. 44, No. 3, October 11, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1993

Vol. 44, No. 3, October 11, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Survey: Some Claim Sex Harassment •Computer Lab Undergoes Improvements •Temper Hope for Mid-East Peace Process •The Bad, the Worse and the Ugly •Oktoberfest Raises Funds for Loan Forgiveness •New Curve will Help Most Only Slightly •Interview with a Defensive Prosecutor •The Docket •How to and Not to Interview for a Job •Law in the Raw


War And P.E.A.C.E.: A Preliminary Report And A Model Statute On An Interdisciplinary Educational Program For Divorcing And Separating Parents, Andrew Schepard Oct 1993

War And P.E.A.C.E.: A Preliminary Report And A Model Statute On An Interdisciplinary Educational Program For Divorcing And Separating Parents, Andrew Schepard

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article is a report on P.E.A.C.E. (Parent Education and Custody Effectiveness), an interdisciplinary attempt to create a parent education program in New York. P.E.A.C.E. is an educational program that provides information to parents on three topics: the legal process for determining custody and child support; the effects of divorce and separation on adults; and the effects of divorce and separation on children, and how parents can help children cope with this difficult transition. P.E.A.C.E. is education-nothing more. It is not mediation or therapy. Parents do not talk to each other directly during P.E.A.C.E. sessions and the program makes no …


Bankruptcy Courts And Stare Decisis: The Need For Restructuring, Jeffrey J. Brookner Oct 1993

Bankruptcy Courts And Stare Decisis: The Need For Restructuring, Jeffrey J. Brookner

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Part I of this Note provides background by summarizing the rules of stare decisis. Part II refutes the contention that the present court structure allows bankruptcy judges not to follow domestic district court precedent. Part II asserts that, in pursuit of legitimate ends, bankruptcy judges have employed illegitimate means. Finally, Part II contends that bankruptcy judges are better equipped to make bankruptcy decisions than district judges. Part III concludes that the bankruptcy system should be restructured to allow bankruptcy judges to make decisions without being constrained by district court precedent or appeals. Such reform could achieve the substantive goals desired …


Excuses, Excuses: Neutral Explanations Under Batson V. Kentucky, Michael J. Raphael, Edward J. Ungvarsky Oct 1993

Excuses, Excuses: Neutral Explanations Under Batson V. Kentucky, Michael J. Raphael, Edward J. Ungvarsky

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The legal struggle for racial justice in the United States has always been in part a struggle to determine how best to achieve racial equality. In 1986, in Batson v. Kentucky, the United States Supreme Court attempted to curb racial discrimination in the use of peremptory challenges to strike potential members of a jury. The Court mandated procedures for determining whether a prosecutor had struck members of the venire because of their race. The procedures furnished in Batson are quite general, however, and lower courts have used a variety of standards in implementing them. This Article examines how lower …


Nothing Lasts Forever: Toward A Coherent Theory In American Preservation Law, Kathryn R.L. Rand Oct 1993

Nothing Lasts Forever: Toward A Coherent Theory In American Preservation Law, Kathryn R.L. Rand

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Part I of this Note examines Grégoire's liberty-based theory of preservation and discusses the three rationales that underlie his theory. Part II examines the development of preservation law in the United States, following it through three stages: patriotic inspiration, aesthetic merit, and community. Part III examines Italy's experience with preservation in order to identify and discuss several problems inherent in preservation law. Part IV suggests preservation rationales for courts and legislators to consider and identifies problems for them to avoid.


Lawyers At The Prison Gates: Organizational Structure And Corrections Advocacy, Susan P. Sturm Oct 1993

Lawyers At The Prison Gates: Organizational Structure And Corrections Advocacy, Susan P. Sturm

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article attempts to fill the gaps in the discussion of public interest advocacy by exploring the roles of various legal organizations in providing representation to inmates challenging the conditions and practices in prisons, jails, and juvenile justice institutions. It is an outgrowth of a study conducted for the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation on the extent and quality of representation in corrections litigation. It puts forward an organizational change model of public interest advocacy as the most promising strategy for legal representation in the corrections area. It then identifies the major organizational providers of representation, assesses where they fall on …


Life-Cycle Justice: Accommodating Just Cause And Employment At Will, Stuart J. Schwab Oct 1993

Life-Cycle Justice: Accommodating Just Cause And Employment At Will, Stuart J. Schwab

Michigan Law Review

The goal of this article is to articulate a coherent framework for understanding the default rules for employment termination. While most observers see chaos here, I find a certain logic in the leading cases. The courts have been boldest when job protection is most appropriate, and they have hesitated precisely when at will plays its most useful role.


Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein Oct 1993

Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein

Michigan Law Review

One of the most striking developments of the last decade has been the new use of Article II in public law adjudication. Article II is a prominent feature not only of cases involving the creation of federal institutions that are independent of the President, but also of new disputes involving reviewability, scope of review, and standing.

Professor Krent and Mr. Shenkman have performed a valuable service in spelling out the argument that Article II, rather than Article III, justifies constitutional limits on legislative grants of standing. Indeed, on several important matters, we are very much in agreement. In this brief …


The Constitutionality Of Employer-Accessible Child Abuse Registries: Due Process Implications Of Governmental Occupational Blacklisting, Michael R. Phillips Oct 1993

The Constitutionality Of Employer-Accessible Child Abuse Registries: Due Process Implications Of Governmental Occupational Blacklisting, Michael R. Phillips

Michigan Law Review

This Note discusses the due process implications of permitting employer access to state child abuse registries when disclosure affects registry members' employment.


Postconviction Review Of Jury Discrimination: Measuring The Effects Of Juror Race On Jury Decisions, Nancy J. King Oct 1993

Postconviction Review Of Jury Discrimination: Measuring The Effects Of Juror Race On Jury Decisions, Nancy J. King

Michigan Law Review

In Part I, I review the empirical evidence concerning the effect of jury discrimination on jury decisions. Using the work of social and cognitive psychologists, I argue that the influence of jury discrimination on jury decisions is real and can be measured by judges in certain circumstances. The empirical studies suggest criteria that courts could use to identify the cases in which jury discrimination is most likely to affect the verdict. I also refute the argument that white judges can never predict the behavior of jurors of racial backgrounds different than their own and conclude that judicial estimates of the …


Eleonora V. Eckert, Kent D. Syverud, Gregory P. Magarian, Christina B. Whitman, Rodney D. Martin Oct 1993

Eleonora V. Eckert, Kent D. Syverud, Gregory P. Magarian, Christina B. Whitman, Rodney D. Martin

Michigan Law Review

Tributes to Eleonora V. Eckert


Vol. 44, No. 2, September 27, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 1993

Vol. 44, No. 2, September 27, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Student Seek Support for Boycott •First-Time Professors Join Law Faculty •Students Deserve to Have Exams Read •Lawyer-Bashing Reaches New Heights, Takes New Forms •Colorado Boycott Inappropriate for Law School •QLSA Asks for Support in Boycott of Colorado •Melon, Harvey Tell Musical Tales of Angst •Outside the Classroom: Lounging by the Pooley •The Docket •Fashion Hints for the Novice Law Student •Law in the Raw


Dna, Science And The Law: Two Cheers For The Ceiling Principle, Richard O. Lempert Sep 1993

Dna, Science And The Law: Two Cheers For The Ceiling Principle, Richard O. Lempert

Articles

The ceiling principle is an intentionally conservative way of estimating the frequency with which individuals who share particular alleles appear in the general population. It establishes frequencies for each allele by taking random samples of 100 individuals from each of 15 to 20 populations and using the largest frequency with which the allele is found in any of these populations or 5 percent, whichever is larger, as an estimate of the allele's frequency in the population of interest. These frequencies are then multiplied to yield an estimate of the likelihood that a randomly selected person would exhibit the same allelic …


The Suspect Population And Dna Identification, Richard O. Lempert Sep 1993

The Suspect Population And Dna Identification, Richard O. Lempert

Articles

Forensic DNA analysis typically proceeds by first determining whether alleles (one of two or more alternative forms of a gene) found in DNA apparently left by the perpetrator of a crime at a crime scene (the "evidence sample") match alleles extracted from a sample of the suspected criminal's blood (the "suspect sample"). If alleles drawn from the two sources match, the next step is to provide information about the probative value of the match by estimating the probability that alleles extracted from the blood of some random individual would have matched the alleles in the evidence sample. Thinking in terms …


Fraudulent Concealment, Self-Concealing Conspiracies, And The Clayton Act, Richard F. Schwed Aug 1993

Fraudulent Concealment, Self-Concealing Conspiracies, And The Clayton Act, Richard F. Schwed

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that courts should apply a self-concealment standard to section 4B of the Clayton Act rather than require a showing of additional affirmative acts. Part I examines the history of the fraudulent concealment doctrine and its application to antitrust cases. It identifies three different standards used by courts to satisfy the concealment element and finds that courts apply the doctrine inconsistently. Part II analyzes the relationship between the fraudulent concealment doctrine and the self-concealment standard in antitrust cases by examining the judicial development of the doctrine and Congress' intent in enacting section 4B. Part II concludes that the …