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Full-Text Articles in Law

Framing A Texas Bill Of Rights Argument., James C. Harrington Jan 1993

Framing A Texas Bill Of Rights Argument., James C. Harrington

St. Mary's Law Journal

As federal courts have allowed individual rights to diminish, the Texas judiciary nurtures state constitutional jurisprudence. Texas has a unique history requiring special care in approaching the construction and presentation of arguments utilizing the Texas Constitution or Texas Bill of Rights. The state constitution evolved over six revisions resulting with the eventual ratification of the final version in 1876. A confluence of goals ultimately resulted in a document where the bill of rights appears in Article I and by specifically framing individual liberties as affirmative rights rather than restrictions of government power. Four modes of interpretation are typically employed when …


Private Property And Russia's Leap Of Faith., Douglas R. Haddock Jan 1993

Private Property And Russia's Leap Of Faith., Douglas R. Haddock

St. Mary's Law Journal

Popular notions of property are enshrined in constitutional protections which seem to make quite clear society’s emphasis on the individual’s preeminence in matters of property. Americans have never been able to accept the “socialist ownership” notions of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries as a viable scheme of property. It is probably irrefutable that the application of socialist ownership principles in the Soviet Union has been less efficient than the American model of private ownership. Yet, it is reactionary to entirely condemn the idea of socialist ownership and conclude the downfall of the Soviet Union proved the “rightness” of …


Comments On The Law On Property In The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic., Larisa Krasavchikova Jan 1993

Comments On The Law On Property In The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic., Larisa Krasavchikova

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Use Of Excessive Physical Force Against An Inmate May Constitute Cruel And Unusual Punishment Even Though The Prisoner Does Not Suffer Significant Injury., Anthony A. Avey Jan 1993

Use Of Excessive Physical Force Against An Inmate May Constitute Cruel And Unusual Punishment Even Though The Prisoner Does Not Suffer Significant Injury., Anthony A. Avey

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Hudson v. McMillian, the Supreme Court held that use of excessive physical force against an inmate may constitute cruel and unusual punishment even though the prisoner does not suffer any significant injury. The Eighth Amendment has evolved significantly since its adoption in 1791, becoming a complex line of authority which over time expanded the rights of criminals and convicts. Recent cases have attempted to mold the varying Eight Amendment standards into a more cohesive legal doctrine. These efforts were meant to clarify the doctrine of cruel and unusual punishments; however, the divergent interpretations of these decisions rendered Eighth Amendment …


The Legal Dilemma Of Groundwater Under The Integrated Environmental Plan For The Mexican-United States Border Area., M. Diane Barber Jan 1993

The Legal Dilemma Of Groundwater Under The Integrated Environmental Plan For The Mexican-United States Border Area., M. Diane Barber

St. Mary's Law Journal

This paper will explore the dilemma of implementing an appropriate legal format to best guide proposals for resolution of groundwater contamination. It will review groundwater under the Integrated Environmental Plan for the Mexico-United States Border Area (the Plan) and examine groundwater law in Mexico and in the four border states from a historical perspective. It will consider existing agreements between the two countries and propose adoption of the Bellagio Draft Treaty as the only legally viable means of achieving long-term remedial groundwater solutions. This paper, however, will also note isolated situations may be effectively addressed by the IBWC Minute, pending …


The Meat And Potatoes Of The North American Free Trade Agreement., Ruth K. Agather, Timothy N. Tuggey Jan 1993

The Meat And Potatoes Of The North American Free Trade Agreement., Ruth K. Agather, Timothy N. Tuggey

St. Mary's Law Journal

Agricultural trade has always been particularly susceptible to governmental intervention and imposition of protectionist barriers. This Article explores the evolution of agricultural trade regulation between the United States and Mexico culminating in the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). First, the Article reviews the existing regulatory framework governing United States-Mexico agricultural trade. The Article then highlights major, proposed revisions to this regime under the NAFTA and offers perspectives on the effect of these revisions upon the United States’ agricultural industry sectors. This analysis includes a commodity reference guide, which highlights specific commodity trade sectors and the NAFTA treatment of …


Proof Of Attorney's Fees In Texas., Scott A. Brister Jan 1993

Proof Of Attorney's Fees In Texas., Scott A. Brister

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Texas, the complex and confusing rules defining proof of attorney’s fees require simplification. Texas, like many other states, follows the American Rule, meaning the plaintiff and defendant each pay their own attorney’s fees. The United States is the only common-law jurisdiction and virtually the only industrialized democracy following the American Rule. Two primary justifications support following the American Rule. First, the American Rule supports individuals seeking a judicial remedy by removing the obstacle of paying an opponent’s legal fees. Second, it reduces potential litigation, attendant time and expense that would be necessary to dispute legal fees if they were …


The Brain Gets Sick, Too - The Case For Equal Insurance Coverage For Serious Mental Illness., Brian D. Shannon Jan 1993

The Brain Gets Sick, Too - The Case For Equal Insurance Coverage For Serious Mental Illness., Brian D. Shannon

St. Mary's Law Journal

Recent brain research has revealed that the major mental illnesses are organic diseases of the brain. Like other organs of the body, the brain can become ill. Dr. E. Fuller Torrey, a psychiatrist whose sister suffers from schizophrenia, has commented that "[t]he evidence that serious mental illnesses are diseases is now overwhelming..." Notwithstanding recent medical findings regarding the organic underpinnings of mental illnesses, private insurers generally do not provide health insurance coverage for the treatment of these brain diseases at the same coverage levels as for other physical illnesses. In fact, "[m]ost private insurers require larger co-payments and set lower …


Criminal Trespass And The Exclusionary Rule In Texas., Paul R. Stone, Henry De La Garza Jan 1993

Criminal Trespass And The Exclusionary Rule In Texas., Paul R. Stone, Henry De La Garza

St. Mary's Law Journal

In State v. Hobbs, the Texas Fourth Court of Appeals held a warrantless intrusion by police onto private property to obtain evidence constitutes criminal trespass under Section 30.05 of the Texas Penal Code. The resulting evidence falls within the exclusionary rule and this article considers whether this protection, which goes beyond constitutional guarantees, is necessary or desirable. The first part of this paper reviews existing federal and state constitutional protections against unreasonable searches. Next, the paper analyzes the history and purpose of criminal trespass and the exclusionary rule in Texas. Finally, the paper considers a question the court of appeals …


Expert Witness Fees In Federal Diversity Cases., Wade P. Webster Jan 1993

Expert Witness Fees In Federal Diversity Cases., Wade P. Webster

St. Mary's Law Journal

Even with the increasing complexity of litigation and the increased utilization of expert witnesses to provide expensive evidence on narrow scientific and technical issues, Congress still limits compensation of expert witnesses to only forty dollars per day, the same rate as ordinary fact witnesses. The justification for the low rate is that the witness fee statute was not intended by Congress to compensate witnesses fully for their lost time and income. Presumably this same reasoning also applies to expert witnesses. The problem with this reasoning, unlike law witnesses who may be compelled by subpoena, individual litigants must pay the fees …


Property And Small-Scale Privitization In Russia., Richard C. Schneider Jr. Jan 1993

Property And Small-Scale Privitization In Russia., Richard C. Schneider Jr.

St. Mary's Law Journal

Knowing who owns what suddenly became important in Russia because of dramatic economic and market reforms of the Yeltsin government. The transfer of property, from the state to the private sector is at the heart of the reforms. It is generally recognized the “foundations of a market-based economic system are property rights and private ownership.” The purposes of this article are to (1) summarize reforms which successfully introduced a scheme of private ownership in Russia, as demonstrated by the Nizhny Novgorod experiment, and (2) discuss those property rights which remain unclear. Accordingly, the second and third parts of the article …


Enactments Altering Or Reallocating Elected Officials' Powers Do Not Directly Relate To Or Affect Voting And Are Therefore Not Subject To Judicial Or Administrative Preclearance Under Section 5 Of The Voting Rights Act Of 1965., Sharon N. Humble Jan 1993

Enactments Altering Or Reallocating Elected Officials' Powers Do Not Directly Relate To Or Affect Voting And Are Therefore Not Subject To Judicial Or Administrative Preclearance Under Section 5 Of The Voting Rights Act Of 1965., Sharon N. Humble

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Presley v. Etowah County Comm’n, the Court held enactments altering or reallocating elected officials’ powers do not directly relate to or affect voting. Therefore, not subject to judicial or administrative preclearance under Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. However, the Court’s holding in Presley, that the changes at issue must directly relate to voting, contradicts the Court’s earlier holdings that indirect or minor changes affecting voting must meet Section 5 preclearance requirements. In Presley, the Court limited the coverage of Section 5 by holding that enactments reallocating elected officials’ decision-making authority do not require judicial or …


The Filing Of An Indictment Against A Criminal Defendant Activates His Sixth Amendment Right To A Speedy Trial, Notwithstanding The Fact That The Defendant Had No Knowledge Of The Indictment Until The Time Of His Arrest., Ronna A. Laidley Jan 1993

The Filing Of An Indictment Against A Criminal Defendant Activates His Sixth Amendment Right To A Speedy Trial, Notwithstanding The Fact That The Defendant Had No Knowledge Of The Indictment Until The Time Of His Arrest., Ronna A. Laidley

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Doggett v. United States, the Supreme Court held the filing of an indictment against a defendant activates his Sixth Amendment right to a speedy trial, notwithstanding the defendant not knowing of the indictment until his arrest. The right to a speedy trial serves to vindicate the rights of individuals who have incurred impediments to their personal liberty because of governmental negligence. The Court stated the Speedy Trial Clause aims to prevent undue and oppressive pre-trial incarceration, limit the anxiety accompanying public accusation, and diminish delays that might cripple a defendant’s ability to prepare an adequate defense. Since Doggett suffered …


Consent Decrees Resulting From Institutional-Reform Litigation May Be Modified Upon Showing A Significant Change In Law Or Fact And A Modification Appropriately Tailored To That Change., Christy J. Lindsay Jan 1993

Consent Decrees Resulting From Institutional-Reform Litigation May Be Modified Upon Showing A Significant Change In Law Or Fact And A Modification Appropriately Tailored To That Change., Christy J. Lindsay

St. Mary's Law Journal

In Rufo v. Inmates of Suffolk County Jail, the Court held that courts may modify consent decrees resulting from institutional reform litigation upon showing a significant change in law or fact and a modification appropriately tailored to that change. The case of Swift v. United States set a strict standard for modification of consent decrees, requiring movants to demonstrate extreme, unexpected hardship and oppression. However, there is a modem trend toward adopting a more flexible standard. The Court deems the “flexible test” as particularly appropriate in the case of the institutional reform consent decree because of its speculative, long-term nature. …


Industrialization In The Borderlands And The Nafta Treaty., Phillip D. Hardberger Jan 1993

Industrialization In The Borderlands And The Nafta Treaty., Phillip D. Hardberger

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Mexico's Accession To The Gatt: A Catalyst At Odds With The Outcome., John M. Vernon Jan 1993

Mexico's Accession To The Gatt: A Catalyst At Odds With The Outcome., John M. Vernon

St. Mary's Law Journal

The history behind Mexico’s accession to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) sheds light on Mexico’s progression toward improved bilateral trade relations with the United States. Mexico embarked on its modernization and reform path with its accession to the GATT in 1987. The recent initialing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) by Canada, Mexico, and the United States is a symbolic event in the continued globalization of the world economy. The trilateral NAFTA is revolutionary because of Mexico’s participation. Part II of this article addresses Mexico’s progression toward accession to the GATT. Part III provides an …


Contracting In Mexico: A Legal And Practical Guide To Negotiating And Drafting., Rona R. Mears Jan 1993

Contracting In Mexico: A Legal And Practical Guide To Negotiating And Drafting., Rona R. Mears

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article is intended as a primer in contracting for the United States attorney counseling clients doing business in Mexico. Thus, this Article begins by surveying the legal foundations of contracting in Mexico. This includes basic contract principles in Mexico’s civil-law system, the distinction between civil and commercial contracts, and procedural formalities applicable to contracts in Mexico. Following the introduction is a discussion of successful contract negotiations in Mexico, including certain cultural factors and Mexican business customs which can affect negotiations. This section includes suggestions for preparing for negotiations and managing the negotiation process to obtain the best result. Next, …


Foreign Investment In Mexico From The Perspective Of The Foreign Investor., Hope H. Camp Jr., Jaime Alvarez Garibary, C. Lee Cusenbary Jr. Jan 1993

Foreign Investment In Mexico From The Perspective Of The Foreign Investor., Hope H. Camp Jr., Jaime Alvarez Garibary, C. Lee Cusenbary Jr.

St. Mary's Law Journal

A factor contributing to the continuation of the economic revolution in Mexico has been, and will continue to be, foreign investment. The liberalized foreign-investment regulations and the positive attitude of the Foreign Investment Commission (FIC) in approving foreign investment proposals promote a more favorable environment for foreign investors. The Mexican government recently completed negotiating the NAFTA, a proposed free-trade agreement with the United States and Canada. The government is now considering what additional actions may be required to compete successfully with those other nations trying to attract scarce investment funds. Opportunities for foreign investors in Mexico are brighter than they …


The Arbitration Of Private Commercial Disputes Between Residents Of Texas And Mexico., Wayne I. Fagan, Carlos Gabuardi Arreola Jan 1993

The Arbitration Of Private Commercial Disputes Between Residents Of Texas And Mexico., Wayne I. Fagan, Carlos Gabuardi Arreola

St. Mary's Law Journal

This paper evaluates whether the Texas International Arbitration Act (TIAA) will be a helpful addition to the laws governing arbitration of private commercial disputes between residents of Texas and Mexico. Owing to differences among cultures, languages, and legal systems, attorneys in the United States and in Mexico are turning to binding arbitration for the resolution of international disputes. Texas enacted an International Arbitration Act in 1989 to foster expanded international trade and facilitate resolution of international commercial disputes through conciliation and arbitration. Proponents of international arbitration argue it is the method of choice for resolution of private commercial disputes due …


The New Agrarian Law - Mexico's Way Out., Adrianna De Aguinaga Jan 1993

The New Agrarian Law - Mexico's Way Out., Adrianna De Aguinaga

St. Mary's Law Journal

The New Agrarian Law was passed based on a Mexican consensus demanding a better way of life for millions of farmers. Because of low agricultural productivity by the ejido—land common to all the neighbors—and the difficulties for the ejidatarios—members of the ejido—to obtain credit, an armed insurrection resulted. Mexico was forced to find a solution by trying to redistribute the agrarian lands equitably through agrarian reform. Unlike prior amendments which proved inefficient, the New Agrarian Law is applicable to companies and to ejidos. The New Agrarian Law will permit higher productivity in the Mexican agricultural sector and will increase the …


Customs Enforcement And The Nafta., Robert T. Givens, Rayburn Berry Jan 1993

Customs Enforcement And The Nafta., Robert T. Givens, Rayburn Berry

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Amendments To The General Law Of Business Associations., Raul S. Moreyra Jan 1993

Amendments To The General Law Of Business Associations., Raul S. Moreyra

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Summary Of The Convention Between The Government Of The United States Of America And The Government Of The United Mexican States For The Avoidance Of Double Taxation And The Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Respect To Taxes On Income., Raul S. Moreyra Jan 1993

Summary Of The Convention Between The Government Of The United States Of America And The Government Of The United Mexican States For The Avoidance Of Double Taxation And The Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Respect To Taxes On Income., Raul S. Moreyra

St. Mary's Law Journal

To prevent double taxation and income tax evasion, the Mexico and United States governments signed a convention in September 1992. The convention establishes when businesses may be subject to either United States or Mexico tax liabilities. Key to the application of the convention is the concept of permanent establishment. Permanent establishment is the designation given to a business situated in Mexico that transacts operations for a United States enterprise. This designation determines which nation, the United States or Mexico, will collect taxes from the business. If the business is a permanent establishment, the Mexican government will collect taxes. The types …


The North American Free Trade Agreemet And United States Employment., Roger W. Wallace, Max Scoular Jan 1993

The North American Free Trade Agreemet And United States Employment., Roger W. Wallace, Max Scoular

St. Mary's Law Journal

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will create new opportunities for United States firms and workers while simultaneously protecting United States workers over a 15-year timeframe. The benefits of NAFTA include eliminating conditions that currently encourage or require United States firms to invest south of the border, establishing free trade in services, and eliminating non-tariff barriers which impede United States merchandise exports to Mexico. Furthermore, NAFTA would provide an improved and expanded regional trade and investment base resulting in a boost to the global competitiveness of US products. NAFTA would also increase trade liberalization with Mexico and maintain Mexico …


Justice Thurgood Marshall In Memoriam., Gabrielle Kirk Mcdonald Jan 1993

Justice Thurgood Marshall In Memoriam., Gabrielle Kirk Mcdonald

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Judging In The Quiet Of The Storm., Shirley S. Abrahamson Jan 1993

Judging In The Quiet Of The Storm., Shirley S. Abrahamson

St. Mary's Law Journal

Justice Benjamin Cardozo evaluates the elements he believes motivate judges in deciding cases in The Nature of the Judicial Process. Judge Cardozo focuses primarily on common-law courts deciding common-law cases. Although state-court dockets cover a wider variety of topics today and the legal landscape has changed, The Nature of the Judicial Process remains influential. The basis of Judge Cardozo’s approach is to first extract principles from past cases and apply them to new fact situations. Cardozo refers to this process as the method of philosophy. As precedent cannot readily solve all new disputes, this process may require judges select from …


Revisiting Standards Of Review In Civil Appeals - Foreword Foreword., Nathan L. Hecht Jan 1993

Revisiting Standards Of Review In Civil Appeals - Foreword Foreword., Nathan L. Hecht

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Judges On Judging: A Bibliography., Shirley S. Abrahamson, Susan M. Fieber, Gabrielle Lessard Jan 1993

Judges On Judging: A Bibliography., Shirley S. Abrahamson, Susan M. Fieber, Gabrielle Lessard

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract Forthcoming.


Agricultural Trade Wars: A Threat To The Gatt And Global Free Trade., Thomas J. Schoenbaum Jan 1993

Agricultural Trade Wars: A Threat To The Gatt And Global Free Trade., Thomas J. Schoenbaum

St. Mary's Law Journal

Agriculture, today, is the center of a set of multi-dimensional international controversies and crises. International agricultural strife threatens the future of the global free-trade system. This strife soured relations between the United States and its principal allies and trading partners: Canada, the European Community (EC), and Japan. The agricultural trade controversy is at the heart of the bitter stalemate of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. The deadlock over farm trade called into question the very future of the GATT as an international organization. Controversies over agriculture also endanger approval of the recently …


The Texas Employer's Liability In Tort For Injuries To An Employee Occurring In The Course Of The Employment., David W. Robertson Jan 1993

The Texas Employer's Liability In Tort For Injuries To An Employee Occurring In The Course Of The Employment., David W. Robertson

St. Mary's Law Journal

The focus of this Article is tort suits by employees, or their families, based on personal injury or death occurring in the course and scope of the worker’s employment. If an injury does not occur in the course and scope of employment, the defendant’s status as employer becomes irrelevant; the lawsuit is a common-law tort action, and the defendant has all of the common-law defenses. In 1989 the Texas Legislature repealed the former workers’ compensation law and replaced it with the new Texas Workers’ Compensation Act. The new Act took effect on January 1, 1991. The essentially voluntary nature of …