Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Law

Insurance In The People's Republic Of China: Laws And Practice, Henry R. Zheng Jan 1987

Insurance In The People's Republic Of China: Laws And Practice, Henry R. Zheng

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The insurance industry in the People's Republic of China (PRC) has expanded rapidly during the past several years. Since the end of 1979 when domestic insurance was reestablished, the income generated from insurance business has been increasing at a rate of over forty-four percent annually.' By early 1987, over 500,000 enterprises and business entities utilized property insurance and about 34 million people purchased personal insurance; during the first half of 1986 the total insurance earnings from the People's Insurance Company of China alone reached a record high of over 2.33 billion yuan. In the meantime, the insurance business has become …


Peace And The World Court: A Comment On The Paramilitary Activities Case, Robert F. Turner Jan 1987

Peace And The World Court: A Comment On The Paramilitary Activities Case, Robert F. Turner

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

One of the most painful experiences of my government service occurred on January 18, 1985, when as Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs I was called on to sign letters informing Congress of the President's decision "not to participate further in the case brought by Nicaragua before the International Court of Justice." I felt deeply that the United States approach was mistaken--not so much on legal as on political grounds'--and in advocating my views I pushed strongly against the proper limits of legitimate dissent within the bureaucracy.

Having defended the Court against speculative criticism from lawyers …


United States Whale Policy: The Judiciary Casts Its Vote In Favor Of A Moderate Approach, Scott T. Larson Jan 1987

United States Whale Policy: The Judiciary Casts Its Vote In Favor Of A Moderate Approach, Scott T. Larson

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Supreme Court's decision in Japan Whaling Association temporarily settled the question of whether the United States would pursue whale conservation with a hard line or moderate approach. The Court's decision to affirm the moderate approach will affect United States conservation efforts as well as the IWC's efforts. Conservationists argue that a strict approach to whale protection is the only effective alternative. Current United States policy and law reject that view. Had a full Court adopted a strict conservationist position with Justice Marshall and the other three dissenters, United States whale policy would be markedly different. United States policy would …


Case Digest, Law Review Staff Jan 1987

Case Digest, Law Review Staff

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Neither Private Refugee Assistance Agency Nor its Members have Standing to Contest U.S. Interdiction of Foreign Vessels on High Seas Carrying Undocumented Aliens Haitian Refugee Center v. Gracey, No. 85-5258, slip op. (D.C. Cir. Jan. 9, 1987).

Separation of Citizen Children from Illegal Alien Parents Should be Considered when Determining Extreme Hardship Deportation Proceedings -Cerillo-Perez v. INS, 55 U.S.L.W.2457 (9th Cir. 1987).

California State Court's Exercise of Personal Jurisdiction over Japanese Manufacturer to Indemnify Taiwanese Company is Unreasonable and Unfair in Violation of Due Process. Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court of California, 107 S. Ct.1026 (1987).

Nondiscriminatory Ad …


Extradition And United States Prosecution Of The Achille Lauro Hostage-Takers: Navigating The Hazards, Jordan J. Paust Jan 1987

Extradition And United States Prosecution Of The Achille Lauro Hostage-Takers: Navigating The Hazards, Jordan J. Paust

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

On October 7, 1985, members of a Palestinian group hijacked the passenger ship Achille Lauro. Not only did the hijackers hold more than one hundred passengers and crew members hostage for several days, but they murdered one of the passengers, Leon Klinghoffer, a United States national. On October 9 the hijackers released the vessel and remaining hostages. On October 10 the hijackers and an alleged mastermind of the operation, Mr. Abbas, were on board an Egyptian aircraft flying over the high seas in the Mediterranean when United States military aircraft intercepted the Egyptian aircraft and forced it to land in …


Recent Decision, Barbara K. Caldwell Jan 1987

Recent Decision, Barbara K. Caldwell

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW--Commerce Clause--State Taxation of Aviation Fuel Used Exclusively in Foreign Commerce is Not Preempted by the Federal Aviation Act and is Not Invalid Under the Japan Line Doctrine of the Foreign Commerce Clause. "Wardair Canada, Inc. v. Florida Department of Revenue", 106 S. Ct. 2369 (1986).


Panel Discussion, Professor Jonathan Charney, Professor Thomas Franck, Professor Jordan Paust, Professor John Murphy, Geoffrey Levitt, Professor Kenneth Abbott, Professor Robert Friedlander, Professor Alberto Coll, Professor Jerome Reichman Jan 1987

Panel Discussion, Professor Jonathan Charney, Professor Thomas Franck, Professor Jordan Paust, Professor John Murphy, Geoffrey Levitt, Professor Kenneth Abbott, Professor Robert Friedlander, Professor Alberto Coll, Professor Jerome Reichman

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Kelsen, in his writings, took the position that in law, particularly international law, there are superior and inferior limits to the law; that is, when a norm is articulated and the society behaves in conformance with the norm, and it would do so even in the absence of the norm, the norm is not serving a legal function; it is not serving a normative function of encouraging behavior because the behavior would be in conformance with that norm in any event. There's also the inferior limit to the law; that is, a situation where a rule is articulated but the …


A Study Of Mexico's Capital Markets And Securities Regulation, Samuel Wolff Jan 1987

A Study Of Mexico's Capital Markets And Securities Regulation, Samuel Wolff

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article will analyze Mexico's capital markets and regulations, primarily from an empirical point of view. The discussion will begin with an overview of the Mexican financial and legal systems to provide a context for the analysis of the market and the law. The essay will then discuss the Mexican securities market, including history, participants and characteristics. Finally, Mexico's Ley del Mercado de Valores ("Securities Market Law") will be analyzed." The objective of the study is to increase understanding of the Mexican market by Mexicans and foreigners alike. The study should be useful to policymakers in Mexico and other developing …


Dialing For Foreign Telecommunications Market Access: Is The United States Getting A Busy Signal From Japan?, Robert E. Boone, Iii Jan 1987

Dialing For Foreign Telecommunications Market Access: Is The United States Getting A Busy Signal From Japan?, Robert E. Boone, Iii

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Japan is one country that appears to be following United States policies. On April 1, 1985, the Japanese Government converted Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation (NTT) from a government-run, publicly-held corporation into a private entity. Japan adopted the Electric Telecommunication Business Act in December 1984 to create an environment in which private entities can compete. The full extent to which the Japanese Government intends to open its market to non-Japanese firms remains unclear. This Note will discuss the development of Japanese telecommunications policy and the current United States tele-communications policy with respect to market access. The Note then will …


Intrusive Border Searches -- What Protection Remains For The International Traveler Entering The United States After United States V. Montoya De Hernandez And Its Progeny?, Steve Anderson Jan 1987

Intrusive Border Searches -- What Protection Remains For The International Traveler Entering The United States After United States V. Montoya De Hernandez And Its Progeny?, Steve Anderson

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Note will examine the standards for initiation of strip, body cavity, and X-ray searches developed by the different circuits as well as the latitude allowed customs agents in carrying out such searches. It will also delve into the effect which Montoya de Hernandez and its progeny have had on this area of the law. Finally, this Note will propose possible solutions to the present confusion in the law.


Case Digest, Law Review Staff Jan 1987

Case Digest, Law Review Staff

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

GOOD FAITH EXCEPTION TO THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE EXTENDS TO FOREIGN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS WHERE UNITED STATES NARCOTICS AUTHORITIES REASONABLY RELIED ON FOREIGN LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS' REPRESENTATIONS THAT SEARCH COMPLIED WITH THE FOREIGN COUNTRY'S LAW--United States v. Peter-son, 812 F.2d 486 (9th Cir. 1987).

ASSETS OF A WHOLLY-OWNED FOREIGN INSTRUMENTALITY ARE NOT SUBJECT TO ATTACHMENT TO SATISFY JUDGMENT AGAINST A FOREIGN STATE UNLESS PLAINTIFF OVERCOMES PRESUMPTION OF INDEPENDENT STATUS--Hercaire Int'l, Inc. v. Argentina, 821 F.2d 559(11th Cir. 1987).

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT HAS SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION OVER MEXICAN CONSULAR OFFICIALS FOR THEIR ALLEGED ATTEMPTS TO SUPPRESS CRITICAL DEMONSTRATIONS OUTSIDE MEXICAN CONSULATE IN …


International Monetary Fund Conditionality And Options For Aggrieved Fund Members, Brian Trubitt Jan 1987

International Monetary Fund Conditionality And Options For Aggrieved Fund Members, Brian Trubitt

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The International Monetary Fund (the IMF or the Fund) was created to assist in stabilizing rates of currency exchange. Each country is able to achieve stability only by balancing the amount of local currency flowing out against the amount of foreign currency flowing in. When exchange rates are stable, capital can flow more easily to places where it can be most efficiently utilized, thus raising the worldwide level of prosperity.

Unfortunately, the process of adjustment from imbalance to balance entails some sacrifices. A country with an imbalance must eliminate the excess of imports over exports. The IMF has the power …


Reviewing The Situation: What Is To Be Done With The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act?, Laura E. Longobardi Jan 1987

Reviewing The Situation: What Is To Be Done With The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act?, Laura E. Longobardi

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article examines some of the paradoxes that the FCPA creates. Part II sets forth the sequence of events that led to the Act's passage. Part III outlines the Act, describes some of the major criticisms of the FCPA and discusses its proposed amendments. Part IV discusses the review procedures that the DOJ has adopted and assesses the chances for a new review procedure or FCPA guidelines, or both. Part V examines the enforcement actions taken under the FCPA and includes a discussion of the investigative procedures of the DOJ. Finally, part VI of this Article considers the future of …


Validity Of Contracts Under The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Christoph R. Heiz Jan 1987

Validity Of Contracts Under The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Christoph R. Heiz

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Under article 4(a) of the CISG, domestic law governs if a sales contract's validity is at issue.' One must consult the conflict of laws provisions of private international law to determine which domestic law is applicable.

In contrast to the Convention, the Swiss Code of Obligations as well as relevant Swiss literature and jurisprudence clearly address the issue of contractual validity. Swiss contract law's error provisions are characterized as contract validity rules. If, for instance, a buyer claims that he erred on a certain fact that was a necessary basis for him to enter into an international sales contract under …


Book Review, John B. Marshall Jan 1987

Book Review, John B. Marshall

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Neither author devotes major attention to the vast array of practical problems that beset the developing world and impair all efforts for progress. This was not their purpose. Neither book attempts to catalog the problems or discuss proposed solutions, other than economic regionalism. Taking a broader view than these books and their treatment of economic regionalism, one finds that the problems of material circumstances and human condition appear to be more extensive and more powerful than regionalism can solve. The variety and seriousness of the problems faced by the developing countries explain the lack of success of regionalism and discourage …


Regional Human Rights Regimes: A Comparison And Appraisal, Burns H. Weston, Robin A. Lukes, Kelly M. Hnatt Jan 1987

Regional Human Rights Regimes: A Comparison And Appraisal, Burns H. Weston, Robin A. Lukes, Kelly M. Hnatt

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

For Americans at least, active concern for human rights on the international plane is demonstrated perhaps most conspicuously in the promotion and protection of human rights through the United Nations and its allied agencies--apart, that is, from the promotion and protection of human rights through United States foreign policy and the work of such nongovernmental organizations as Amnesty International. Supplementing this globally-oriented human rights activity, however, are international human rights regimes operating regionally in Western Europe, the Americas, Africa and the Middle East. Concededly, Asia is not yet represented, and only the first three of the represented regions have gone …


Extending The Self-Incrimination Clause To Persons In Fear Of Foreign Prosecution, Bret A. Fausett Jan 1987

Extending The Self-Incrimination Clause To Persons In Fear Of Foreign Prosecution, Bret A. Fausett

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Note will examine the rationale, policies, and history behind the self-incrimination clause and will demonstrate the privilege's importance as an individual right and as a check on police power. Only by exploring the purposes and policies behind the privilege--an approach condoned by the Supreme Court--is one able to formulate the best answer to whether the self-incrimination clause extends to persons in fear of foreign prosecution. An understanding of what the privilege is supposed to protect will lead to a better understanding of the scope of this important constitutional guarantee. This Note will then focus on recent cases in which …


Recent Decision, R. Christian Hutson Jan 1987

Recent Decision, R. Christian Hutson

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Two dismissed employees, through their collective bargaining agent, sought reinstatement through the arbitration process. Relying on a California statute which made knowing employment of an illegal alien unlawful, the employer determined that the employees resided in the United States illegally and dismissed them." The collective bargaining representative argued that the employer lacked "just cause" to make the dismissal. The arbitrator adopted the representative's position, ruling that continued employment of the two illegal aliens would not subject the employer to criminal liability and holding the California statute "dormant." Based on this finding, the arbitrator awarded reinstatement to each employee and backpay …


Remarks Of Professor John F. Murphy, John F. Murphy Jan 1987

Remarks Of Professor John F. Murphy, John F. Murphy

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

have been asked to address the topic of legal responses to state sponsored terrorism. As has been mentioned, I am chairing an American Society of International Law Committee on Responses to State Sponsored Terrorism. You may be interested to know that the mandate from the president of the American Society of International Law, Keith Highet, said that we should focus our attention on responses other than the use of armed force. I think that was wise, because the members of that particular committee would never agree in any way on the subject of military responses to terrorism. I will discuss …


Book Review, Igor I. Kavass Jan 1987

Book Review, Igor I. Kavass

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

The Documentation Office for East European Law at the University of Leyden in the Netherlands is one of the most prominent and active research institutions in the West dedicated to the study of the laws and legal systems of socialist countries. Established in 1953 for the purpose of gathering and interpreting information about legal developments in the socialist countries, the Documentation Office is reputed to have now one of the most comprehensive collections of rare and generally inaccessible documents in its area of specialization. This collection attracts researchers from around the world. The staff of the Documentation Office is widely …


International Counterterrorism Cooperation: The Summit Seven And Air Terrorism, Geoffrey Levitt Jan 1987

International Counterterrorism Cooperation: The Summit Seven And Air Terrorism, Geoffrey Levitt

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

This Article aims to contribute to an understanding of the reality and the potential of international cooperation to combat terrorism by examining one of the most important channels through which governments have attempted to achieve such cooperation: the Economic Summit Seven (the Seven or the Group). Focusing in particular on the Group's work in the area of terrorism against international civil aviation, this Article will discuss how and why the Group became involved in counterterrorism; review the Group's declarations on terrorism and their context; outline the international background to those declarations; describe the most important single action the Group has …


Economic Sanctions And International Terrorism, Kenneth W. Abbott Jan 1987

Economic Sanctions And International Terrorism, Kenneth W. Abbott

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

In this Article I hope to take at least a step toward clarifying these matters by presenting a framework for the analysis of antiterrorism sanctions and using that framework to discuss several of the sanctions that the United States currently employs.

Parts Two and Three of this Article set out the elements of the framework. Part Two begins by describing the varying forms or levels of state involvement in terrorism, shown graphically in Figure 1. All forms of state involvement are not alike, at least analytically, and Part Two will discuss the appropriateness of employing sanctions or other measures of …


Remarks Of Professor Robert A. Friedlander, Professor Robert A. Friedlander Jan 1987

Remarks Of Professor Robert A. Friedlander, Professor Robert A. Friedlander

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Terrorism, in its essence, consists of common crimes: murder, attempted murder, kidnapping, aggravated battery, aggravated assault, arson and whatever other act of violence is utilized for terrorist ends and as terrorist means. Admittedly the world's democracies have not only failed to develop an acceptable definition for the global arena, they have also been unable to fashion a proper meaning for their own domestic statutes. We should never forget the symbiotic relationship which exists between terrorism and democracy. As the French political analyst, Jean Francois Ravel, has cogently remarked: "The main target of international terrorism is the idea of freedom as …


Porfiry's Proposition: Legitimacy And Terrorism, Thomas M. Franck, Scott C. Senecal Jan 1987

Porfiry's Proposition: Legitimacy And Terrorism, Thomas M. Franck, Scott C. Senecal

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Suppose that, in 1938, the Prague government of President Edvard Benes, foreseeing the inevitable dismemberment of Czechoslovakia after the Munich Pact, had infiltrated a trained death squad of German Jewish exiles across the German border, in civilian clothing, to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Suppose they had succeeded and had then fled to Holland.

How should international law govern this hypothetical event? Should it require Holland either to try the assassins for murder or to return them to Germany for trial? Or should it exculpate, even commend, the assassins for a job well done? Or should the law remain silent? Would the …


Case Digest, Law Review Staff Jan 1987

Case Digest, Law Review Staff

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

Secretary of Transportation's Order Issued Pursuant to Anti-Apartheid Act, which immediately revoked South-African airways right to serve United States Airports, Upheld Notwithstanding possible violation of prior Executive Agreement--South African Airways v. Dole, 817 F.2d 119 (D.C.Cir. 1987).

IN TRANSNATIONAL LITIGATION, HAGUE EVIDENCE CONVENTION IS NOT MANDATORY, EXCLUSIVE, OR PROCEDURE OF FIRST RESORT, BUT UNITED STATES COURT MAY RESORT TO CONVENTION'S DISCOVERY PROCEDURES To SUPPLEMENT FEDERAL DISCOVERY RULES WHEN CIRCUMSTANCES WARRANT --Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale v. United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa, 107 S. Ct. 2542 (1987).

Two YEAR PROCESSING DELAY OF APPLICATION FOR ADJUSTMENT OF IMMIGRATION …