Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Law

Judicial Review Of Private Hospital Activities, Michigan Law Review Dec 1976

Judicial Review Of Private Hospital Activities, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note will examine the judicial review of hospitals under state law and the fourteenth amendment and will suggest that unless certain clear requirements for "publicness" are met, judicial restraint based on the failure of legislative institutions to mandate judicial interference is the better course.


Memorial Resolution: Alan N. Polasky, Michigan Law Review Dec 1976

Memorial Resolution: Alan N. Polasky, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to Alan N. Polasky


Helpless Giants: The National Parks And The Regulation Of Private Lands, Joseph L. Sax Dec 1976

Helpless Giants: The National Parks And The Regulation Of Private Lands, Joseph L. Sax

Michigan Law Review

While intrusive private activities have increased all around them, park managers have stood by nervously, sensing that they were caring for helpless giants. The Park Service is aware that Congress has given it very little explicit authority to regulate private lands, but underlying Park Service hesitancy to act is a more profound concern about the constitutional power of the federal government to control private land uses near and within the parks. These constitutional doubts, though largely misconceived, arise out of a complex set of issues that need to be clarified. This article first describes current administrative practice and existing legislation …


Vertical Distributional Restraints Under Schwinn And Sylvania: An Argument For The Continuing Use Of A Partial Per Se Approach, Martin B. Louis Dec 1976

Vertical Distributional Restraints Under Schwinn And Sylvania: An Argument For The Continuing Use Of A Partial Per Se Approach, Martin B. Louis

Michigan Law Review

This phenomenon has been manifested in the vertical distribution cases, which seem to cry out for a departure from the rule of reason approach for several reasons. First, as section I of this article will show, vertical cases frequently involve a package of restraints--a characteristic that compounds all of the difficulties of evaluation mentioned above. Second, vertical restraints reduce intrabrand competition in order, supposedly, to promote interbrand competition. Thus, even if we could identify and measure both the procompetitive and anticompetitive effects of a particular restraint, we cannot assume a one-to-one equivalency, and we lack a workable process by which …


Adjudication Of Federal Causes Of Action In State Court, Martin H. Redish, John E. Muench Dec 1976

Adjudication Of Federal Causes Of Action In State Court, Martin H. Redish, John E. Muench

Michigan Law Review

The first section of this article considers the power of state courts to hear federal cases. Since it is now well established that state courts have the constitutional power to adjudicate federal causes of action if Congress so desires, the significant questions concern the method by which the judiciary is to decipher congressional intent. Although the courts have no difficulty where Congress has explicitly addressed the issue of state court jurisdiction, problems do arise in situations where Congress has remained silent on the question. The first section critically examines the traditional criteria employed by the courts for determining congressional intent …


Regulation Of Electroconvulsive Therapy, Michigan Law Review Dec 1976

Regulation Of Electroconvulsive Therapy, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Regulation of ECT has generally focused on whether the patient or his representative effectively consented to the treatment. The highly intrusive nature of ECT and the unique circumstances of those patients who are likely to receive it create particularly difficult legal issues concerning the validity of the patient's consent. This Note will examine the various methods that are available to protect the rights of patients for whom ECT is proposed. After briefly explaining the nature of the therapy, the Note will discuss the efficacy of judicial remedies with respect to both competent and incompetent patients. It will argue that, because …


Standing Under Rule 10b-5 After Blue Chip Stamps, Michigan Law Review Dec 1976

Standing Under Rule 10b-5 After Blue Chip Stamps, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of this Note is to analyze the opinion in Blue Chip and to ascertain the content of the Birnbaum rule as it exists today. It will first discuss the opinion of the Court in Blue Chip itself and delineate the primary policy considerations upon which the majority focused. It will then apply these policy considerations to the major categories of case law that have arisen subsequent to Birnbaum and analyze the validity of this case law in light of Blue Chip.


Measuring The Duration Of Judicial And Administrative Proceedings: A Comment, David P. Doane Nov 1976

Measuring The Duration Of Judicial And Administrative Proceedings: A Comment, David P. Doane

Michigan Law Review

Professors Clark and Merryman propose a useful indirect measure of the duration of litigation whose primary virtue is its ease of computation from published court data. As the authors note, such a measure of duration may be useful to persons involved in judicial administration and to attorneys formulating strategy in litigation, and the legal community should find informative their illustration of the concept with Italian court data. Concluding on a pragmatic note, Professors Clark and Merryman appear to suggest that attorneys, clients, judges, court administrators, and social scientists must ultimately assess the utility of their concept. In making this assessment, …


Implication Of Civil Remedies Under The Indian Civil Rights Act, Michigan Law Review Nov 1976

Implication Of Civil Remedies Under The Indian Civil Rights Act, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note will discuss neither -the wisdom of the express provisions of ICRA nor the desirability of express creation by Congress of a federal civil remedy. The purpose of this Note is, instead, to analyze the bases upon which remedies have been implied by federal courts and to question whether implication is consistent with standards of statutory interpretation appropriate for Indian law. It is contended that the implication of federal civil remedies against Indian governments is improper and that if such remedies are to be created, precedent and policy mandate that they be the product of Congress. The Note will …


Injury To Reputation And The Constitution: Confusion Amid Conflicting Approaches, George C. Christie Nov 1976

Injury To Reputation And The Constitution: Confusion Amid Conflicting Approaches, George C. Christie

Michigan Law Review

It is the thesis of this article that the long-run implications of Firestone and Paul v. Davis will force a radical reformulation of the circumstances under which an individual may obtain legal redress for injury to his reputation brought about by falsehoods. The Court will eventually be obliged to abandon its fragmented treatment of the subject: At present, some injured persons have no chance of recovery; others are faced with requirements of proof that make recovery very difficult; still others can recover under significantly more relaxed standards of proof. The nature of the Court's likely reformulation will be developed later …


Jus Non Scriptum And The Reliance Principle, Stanley L. Paulson Nov 1976

Jus Non Scriptum And The Reliance Principle, Stanley L. Paulson

Michigan Law Review

On the Continent, a general theory of customary law has been developed-what I term the Continental theory; it identifies formation and validity as the central issues in the analysis of custom and customary law. Yet the Continental theory, notwithstanding its longevity and continuing favorable reception among international lawyers, is ridden with problems. In particular, as I argue in the following section, the theory fails for want of a coherent position on the formation issue. In the course of my argument, I suggest a classification of the norms of customary law in terms of a generic category broader in scope than …


Measuring The Duration Of Judicial And Administrative Proceedings, David S. Clark, John Henry Merryman Nov 1976

Measuring The Duration Of Judicial And Administrative Proceedings, David S. Clark, John Henry Merryman

Michigan Law Review

A method of estimating the probable duration of litigation is useful for a variety of purposes. First, the probable duration of a case may, to some extent, determine strategy in litigation since prolonged litigation is often perceived as an appreciable cost to one party and as a benefit to the other. An estimate of the duration of a criminal case, for example, probably influences the respective postures of a defendant and a prosecutor in plea bargaining. Similarly, civil litigants may be able to use an estimate of the probable duration of litigation, together with other factors, in deciding whether to …


Program Environmental Impact Statements: Review And Remedies, Michigan Law Review Nov 1976

Program Environmental Impact Statements: Review And Remedies, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note discusses the application of NEPA to federal programs. It first analyzes when the courts have required a program impact statement and draws upon that analysis to explain the relative functions of site-specific and program statements. It then examines the appropriate scope of judicial inquiry and the proper standards for reviewing federal program compliance with NEPA. Finally, the Note scrutinizes the types of remedies that may be imposed if a program does not comply with NEPA and proposes a procedure for determining the proper scope of judicial remedies.


Consent In Criminal Law: Violence In Sports, Michigan Law Review Nov 1976

Consent In Criminal Law: Violence In Sports, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Because there have been few criminal prosecutions for violence in sports, there are several difficult issues that have received only cursory analysis. This Note will focus on one such issue-the existence and effect of the consent of the injured party. In section I, it will analyze the various general theories relating to the nature of actual consent and will suggest that the current theoretical framework's emphasis on ascertaining the victim's subjective state of mind is, in some contexts, ill-conceived and unhelpful. It will argue that societal interests involved in human interactions should become a major focus of any analysis, particularly …


Hostile-Audience Confrontations: Police Conduct And First Amendment Rights, Michigan Law Review Nov 1976

Hostile-Audience Confrontations: Police Conduct And First Amendment Rights, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note first suggests an explicit standard for police conduct in the hostile-audience situation that defines procedures the police must follow at various stages to avoid violating the first amendment. The standard reflects the fact that first amendment free speech rights are not absolute and that such rights must be weighed against both compelling state interests and the competing constitutional claims of other persons. It seeks to reconcile the interest in public order with our constitutional commitment to open discussion and robust debate. Finally, to deter police abuse of first amendment rights in the hostile-audience context, reforms of tort law …


Criminal Redistribution Of Stolen Property: The Need For Law Reform, G. Robert Blakey, Michael Goldsmith Aug 1976

Criminal Redistribution Of Stolen Property: The Need For Law Reform, G. Robert Blakey, Michael Goldsmith

Michigan Law Review

Section I of this article describes various theft and fencing operations. As will be evident from that discussion, the most sophisticated fences are far removed from those receivers who are owners of seedy pawnshops or who indiscriminately select potential customers on the street, and thus they pose peculiar problems for law enforcement. Section II then identifies inadequacies in existing investigative techniques and in the substantive laws of receiving in light of modern theft and fencing operations. It proposes changes in the law and suggests appropriate law enforcement strategies to facilitate the detection and conviction of alleged fences. Needed changes in …


Admiralty Procedure And Jurisdiction After The 1966 Unification, David W. Robertson Aug 1976

Admiralty Procedure And Jurisdiction After The 1966 Unification, David W. Robertson

Michigan Law Review

From the nation's beginning, the federal district courts have been vested with jurisdiction in cases "of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction." Like its predecessor statute, section 1333 of the present Judicial Code asserts that the jurisdiction is "exclusive of the courts of the states," but the infamous "saving clause" goes on to negate that exclusivity in the bulk of maritime cases by giving the plaintiff the option of maintaining his action in any other court having jurisdiction over it. In "saving clause" cases--that is, cases that could have been brought in federal court under the admiralty jurisdiction, but which were maintained, …


Punitive Damages In Products Liability Litigation, David G. Owen Jun 1976

Punitive Damages In Products Liability Litigation, David G. Owen

Michigan Law Review

This article will first explore the doctrine of punitive damages and its compatibility with the theories of products liability. The functions of punitive damages and their applicability in the products liability context will then be examined, with particular consideration given to the three complicating factors raised by Judge Friendly in Roginsky. In the following section attention will focus on the various contexts in which manufacturer misconduct has arisen in the reported decisions and a number of unreported cases that have involved this issue. Finally, guidelines will be developed from these cases for determining the appropriateness of punitive damages awards …


Education And The Law: State Interests And Individual Rights, Michigan Law Review Jun 1976

Education And The Law: State Interests And Individual Rights, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

No government activity exerts a more pervasive influence on Americans for a longer period of their lives than the regulation of education. The state seeks through its educational system to achieve two goals: the development of the basic reading, writing and other academic skills that any productive member of society must possess; and the inculcation of values deemed essential for a cohesive, harmonious and law-abiding society. Basically, through uniformity and standardization of the education experience the state attempts to guarantee that children will not become liabilities to society and that a minimal acceptance of shared values and norms will be …


Federal Preemption Of State Law: The Example Of Overbooking In The Airline Industry, Michigan Law Review May 1976

Federal Preemption Of State Law: The Example Of Overbooking In The Airline Industry, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Such complexity is common in the airline context, both because the Federal Aviation Act1 (FAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) do not purport to regulate all aspects of the industry and because airline activities are so varied that they come within the reach of numerous state statutory and common-law rules. This Note will consider the power of the CAB to preempt state law and thereby to insulate airline activities from state-law liability. It will suggest a framework for analyzing the problems of preemption by focusing on airline concealment of overbooking practices. Section I explains airline overbooking and demonstrates that …


Dworkin's "Rights Thesis", Michigan Law Review May 1976

Dworkin's "Rights Thesis", Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that the rights thesis is untenable. It shows that Dworkin's distinction between arguments of principle and arguments of policy, upon which the rights thesis is based, cannot withstand close scrutiny. The Note questions whether it is sensible to speak of an objectively soundest theory of law, and argues that, even if such a theory is feasible, Dworkin has failed to prove that it will always dictate a unique result (or, put in different words, that the rights thesis is part of the putative soundest theory). If Dworkin's idea of a soundest theory is oppugned, or if the …


The Legacy Of The Stubborn And Rebellious Son, Irene Merker Rosenberg, Yale L. Rosenberg May 1976

The Legacy Of The Stubborn And Rebellious Son, Irene Merker Rosenberg, Yale L. Rosenberg

Michigan Law Review

In twentieth century America, as in Biblical ,times, parents unable to subdue their disobedient children are authorized to invoke the coercive power of the state. As recently as 1971, for example, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts rejected constitutional challenges to the state's "stubborn child" law, which at the time of its original enactment in 1646 was patterned after the above-quoted verse from Deuteronomy. The court upheld an adjudication that an adolescent girl who refused to submit to a medical examination, used vulgar language, slammed doors, and stayed outside the home "probably talking with the boys," was a "stubborn child" …


Foreign Bribes And The Securities Acts' Disclosure Requirements, Michigan Law Review May 1976

Foreign Bribes And The Securities Acts' Disclosure Requirements, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

The Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 require most major corporations to disclose to investors all material information concerning company operations. Although they were not intended to regulate the conduct of business, these disclosure obligations can have a deterrent effect upon improper corporate activities. The recent revelation that a significant number of corporations have been making bribes and similar payments abroad has created interest in the feasibility of employing the disclosure requirements to curtail this practice. This Note will show that, despite recent pressures for change, the Securities and Exchange Commission has continued to view …


Frank Murphy: The Detroit Years, George Edwards May 1976

Frank Murphy: The Detroit Years, George Edwards

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Frank Murphy: The Detroit Years by Sidney Fine


Bill Bishop: A Personal Note, Eric Stein Apr 1976

Bill Bishop: A Personal Note, Eric Stein

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to William W. Bishop, Jr.


A Framework For The Allocation Of Prevention Resources With A Specific Application To Insider Trading, Michigan Law Review Apr 1976

A Framework For The Allocation Of Prevention Resources With A Specific Application To Insider Trading, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note enumerates and analyzes the three principal forces that induce individuals to abide by societal laws. These forces, or elements of effective prevention, are then combined to form a framework of general deterrence that both identifies the areas in which society can introduce resources into the prevention plan and explains in a general manner what the effect of particular expenditures will be. In the final section of the Note, the framework is applied to a specific prohibited activity-insider trading in securities-to exemplify its utility in determining more effective applications of prevention resources.


Professor Bishop: A Student's Tribute, George Lehner Apr 1976

Professor Bishop: A Student's Tribute, George Lehner

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to William W. Bishop, Jr.


Professor Bishop's Contributions To International Law, Brunson Macchesney Apr 1976

Professor Bishop's Contributions To International Law, Brunson Macchesney

Michigan Law Review

A Tribute to William W. Bishop, Jr.


The Right To Religious Freedom And World Public Order: The Emerging Norm Of Nondiscrimination, Myres S. Mcdougal, Harold D. Lasswell, Lung-Chu Chen Apr 1976

The Right To Religious Freedom And World Public Order: The Emerging Norm Of Nondiscrimination, Myres S. Mcdougal, Harold D. Lasswell, Lung-Chu Chen

Michigan Law Review

Discrimination based upon religious beliefs and expressions forms the basis for some of the most serious deprivations of civil and political rights. The religious beliefs and expressions that are commonly the ground for discrimination include all of the traditional faiths and justifications from which norms of responsible conduct--that is, judgments about right and wrong--are derived. These beliefs may be theological in the sense that they refer to a personalized transempirical source of an unchallengeable message or metaphysical in the sense that they are grounded upon nonpersonalized transempirical conceptions; sometimes they are more empirical, based upon varying conceptions of science or …


The Role Of The Local Comprehensive Plan In Land Use Regulation, Daniel R. Mandelker Apr 1976

The Role Of The Local Comprehensive Plan In Land Use Regulation, Daniel R. Mandelker

Michigan Law Review

This article will deal with the enlarged role of the comprehensive plan in the local land use control process. Part I examines traditional judicial views of the role of the comprehensive plan as a guide to zoning administration. Part II suggests that innovations in land use control and comprehensive planning techniques evidence a need for mandatory planning. Subsequent sections examine changes in the judicial attitude toward the role of the comprehensive plan in land use control administration, and survey some enacted and proposed state legislation that modifies the early planning acts by requiring comprehensive planning. This legislation is analyzed to …