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Full-Text Articles in Law

Avoidance Of Constitutional Issues In The United States Supreme Court: Liberties Of The First Amendment, Burton C. Bernard Dec 1951

Avoidance Of Constitutional Issues In The United States Supreme Court: Liberties Of The First Amendment, Burton C. Bernard

Michigan Law Review

The frequently criticized reluctance of the Supreme Court to consider complaints of unconstitutional governmental action is manifested in the utilization by the Court of various rules of avoidance of constitutional issues. Uncompromising defense of this self-restraint would not be easy to reconcile with the Court's pronounced sensitivity, in modem times, to the liberties of the First Amendment. This article will examine the considerations underlying the traditional restraint, and will suggest that the Court should modify several of its rules of avoidance, at least when liberties of the First Amendment are threatened.


Constitutional Law--Import-Export Clause--Validity Of A State Gross Receipts Tax On Common Carriers Transporting Imports And Exports, Roger D. Anderson S.Ed. Nov 1951

Constitutional Law--Import-Export Clause--Validity Of A State Gross Receipts Tax On Common Carriers Transporting Imports And Exports, Roger D. Anderson S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The State of Maryland levied a nondiscriminatory gross receipts tax on revenues of common carriers operating within the state, apportioned on the basis of trackage within Maryland to trackage everywhere. Petitioners, who are common carriers operating within Maryland, objected to this tax to the extent that it constituted a tax on gross receipts derived from transporting imports and exports on the grounds that it violated the import-export clause. The court of appeals of Maryland declared the tax valid. On appeal, held, affirmed. Where the tax is on an activity connected with the import or export of goods, rather than …


Probate Proceedings-Administration Of Decedents' Estates- The Mullane Case And Due Process Of Law, Nolan W. Carson S.Ed. Nov 1951

Probate Proceedings-Administration Of Decedents' Estates- The Mullane Case And Due Process Of Law, Nolan W. Carson S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

In a recent decision by the United States Supreme Court, a new chapter has been added to the law on the requisites of notice under the due process clause of the Constitution. This case held that publication of notice prior to a judicial settlement of accounts by the corporate trustee of a common trust fund does not afford due process of law to those beneficiaries with present interests whose addresses are known to the trustee. The court refused to classify the action as in rem or in personam but held that whatever its technical definition, the published notice was not …


Constitutional Law-Commerce Clause-State Regulation Of Interstate Commerce, William O. Allen Jun 1951

Constitutional Law-Commerce Clause-State Regulation Of Interstate Commerce, William O. Allen

Michigan Law Review

The City of Madison enacted an ordinance prohibiting the sale within the municipality's jurisdiction of milk not pasteurized and bottled within five miles of the city's central square. Plaintiff, an Illinois corporation engaged in distributing milk and milk products in Illinois and Wisconsin, had its pasteurization plant in Illinois, approximately sixty-five miles from Madison. After it had been denied a permit to distribute milk in Madison, plaintiff brought an action for a declaratory judgment as to the validity of the ordinance. The ordinance was upheld by the Wisconsin Supreme Court as a reasonable exercise of the municipality's police power. On …


International Law-Aliens-Confiscation Of Alien Enemy Property-Alien Enemy Character Of Shinto Shrine In Hawaii, Jean Engstrom S. Ed. Jun 1951

International Law-Aliens-Confiscation Of Alien Enemy Property-Alien Enemy Character Of Shinto Shrine In Hawaii, Jean Engstrom S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff, a Hawaiian corporation, brought suit under section 9 of the Trading with the Enemy Act for the return of real and personal property vested in 1948 under authority of section S(b). Evidence was introduced to show that plaintiff's members were largely alien Japanese; that, prior to December 7, 1941, plaintiff operated what purported to be a Shinto shrine in Honolulu where three Japanese gods were worshiped; that the shrine looked like a Shinto shrine and was in some respects operated like one. It was further shown that plaintiff's members had no real understanding of the tenets of Shintoism as …


Constitutional Law-Civil Rights-Discharge Of Teachers For Subversive Activity, William H. Bates Jun 1951

Constitutional Law-Civil Rights-Discharge Of Teachers For Subversive Activity, William H. Bates

Michigan Law Review

An action was brought seeking a declaratory judgment as to the constitutionality of New York's Feinberg law. The statute provided that the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York should list organizations found to be subversive. Membership in such organizations was made prima facie disqualification for the position of public school teacher. At the time of suit the Board of Regents had made no listing of subversive groups nor had any teacher been discharged under the provisions of this enactment. The supreme court of New York, special term, held the law unconstitutional; the appellate division …


Constitutional Law-Fifth Amendment-Privilege Against Self-Incrimination By Admission, Or Knowledge, Of Communist Activities, Morris G. Shanker Jun 1951

Constitutional Law-Fifth Amendment-Privilege Against Self-Incrimination By Admission, Or Knowledge, Of Communist Activities, Morris G. Shanker

Michigan Law Review

ln response to a subpoena, petitioner appeared as a witness before a United States district court grand jury. Several questions concerning· her knowledge and association with the Communist Party were put to her. In each case, she refused to answer the questions, claiming the constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. For refusal to answer these same questions when brought before the district court, petitioner was adjudged to be in contempt of court. The court of appeals affirmed the holdings, and certiorari was granted by the Supreme Court. Held, judgment reversed. The Smith Act makes it unlawful to advocate knowingly the desirability …


Civil Procedure-Venue-Forum Non Conveniens-Application Of Doctrine By State Court In Case Arising Under Federal Employers' Liability Act, Nancy J. Ringland S.Ed. May 1951

Civil Procedure-Venue-Forum Non Conveniens-Application Of Doctrine By State Court In Case Arising Under Federal Employers' Liability Act, Nancy J. Ringland S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Two suits based on the Federal Employers' Liability Act were brought in the Circuit Court of the City of St. Louis, Missouri. In both cases, plaintiff was not a Missouri resident, the defendant carrier was a foreign corporation, and the cause of action arose outside the state of Missouri. A motion to dismiss on the ground of forum non conveniens was denied as beyond the jurisdiction of the court, and mandamus proceedings were begun in the Supreme Court of Missouri to compel the trial court to exercise its discretion in disposing of the motions. The writs were quashed by the …


Constitutional Law-Due Process Of Law-Thornhill Reexamined, Rex Eames S.Ed. May 1951

Constitutional Law-Due Process Of Law-Thornhill Reexamined, Rex Eames S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

In the spring of 1940, the Isle of Thornhill emerged from the watery depths and assumed a position in the Sea of American Constitutional Law. The discoverors of this Isle indicated their success was largely due to certain revelations made known three years· before by another highly distinguished explorer. The pronouncement in 1940 of the Isle's existence excited great furor and debate among the professional geographers as to its substance and future utility. In the early days of its discovery, Thornhill's area and coastline were not precisely or clearly charted, and only through several subsequent voyages have these important …


Constitutional Law-Freedom Of Speech, Alan C. Boyd S. Ed. Apr 1951

Constitutional Law-Freedom Of Speech, Alan C. Boyd S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Defendant addressed a crowd of people, white and Negro, on a public sidewalk for the purpose of urging them to attend a certain meeting. During the course of his speech he "'called Mayor Costello [of Syracuse] a champaign [sic] sipping bum and President Truman a bum. He referred to the American Legion as Nazi Gestapo agents-he also said the fifteenth Ward was run by corrupt politicians and that horse rooms were operating.'" He also appealed to the Negroes to rise up and fight for equal rights. The police were called but at first merely observed the gathering. Angry …


Constitutional Law-Freedom Of Speech, Alan C. Boyd S. Ed. Apr 1951

Constitutional Law-Freedom Of Speech, Alan C. Boyd S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Defendant addressed a crowd of people, white and Negro, on a public sidewalk for the purpose of urging them to attend a certain meeting. During the course of his speech he "'called Mayor Costello [of Syracuse] a champaign [sic] sipping bum and President Truman a bum. He referred to the American Legion as Nazi Gestapo agents-he also said the fifteenth Ward was run by corrupt politicians and that horse rooms were operating.'" He also appealed to the Negroes to rise up and fight for equal rights. The police were called but at first merely observed the gathering. Angry …


The Legislative Status Of An Unconstitutional Statute, Earl T. Crawford Mar 1951

The Legislative Status Of An Unconstitutional Statute, Earl T. Crawford

Michigan Law Review

Once a statute has been found to violate some constitutional provision, a legislature is faced with a difficult problem of how to change the statute so as to effect the desired policy and still not violate constitutional principles. The general nature of this problem is suggested by such inquiries as these: Will the subsequent overruling of a previous judicial decision declaring a statute unconstitutional require any legislative action to put the statute into effect? Can a statute, which has been held violative of the constitution, be amended by corrective or curative legislation without complete re-enactment if the statute as amended …


Conflict Of Laws-Death By Wrongful Act-Recovery Under Foreign Statute, Douglas L. Mann S. Ed. Mar 1951

Conflict Of Laws-Death By Wrongful Act-Recovery Under Foreign Statute, Douglas L. Mann S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

A was killed in an automobile accident occurring in Illinois. Alleging that defendant wrongfully caused A's death, A's administrator sought recovery in Wisconsin, basing his claim on the Illinois death act. The trial court granted defendant's motion for summary judgment. Held, affirmed, two justices dissenting. The Wisconsin death act allows recovery of damages for wrongful death "provided, that such action shall be brought for a death caused in this state." It follows that maintenance of an action for a death caused in a sister state is against the public policy of Wisconsin. Hughes v. Fetter, 257 …


Constitutional Law-Power Of State To Discriminate Against Federal Government By Testamentary Transfer Statute, Gordon W. Hueschen Feb 1951

Constitutional Law-Power Of State To Discriminate Against Federal Government By Testamentary Transfer Statute, Gordon W. Hueschen

Michigan Law Review

Decedent, domiciled in California, made a testamentary gift to the United States. By an interpretation of the state probate code, the California Supreme Court held the gift invalid and directed distribution to decedent's heirs. The United States asserted unconstitutional interference with the federal government's power to receive gifts. On appeal to the United States Supreme Court, held, affirmed. The California Probate Code did not violate the supremacy clause of the Constitution, and no unconstitutional discrimination was effected against the federal government thereby, even though the statute allows testamentary gifts by state domiciliaries to the state and prohibits testamentary gifts …


Administrative Agencies And The Court, Frank E. Cooper Jan 1951

Administrative Agencies And The Court, Frank E. Cooper

Michigan Legal Studies Series

The limits which courts place on the powers of administrative tribunals have particular significance to practicing attorneys and law students. It is largely to the extent that such limits are imposed, that our government remains a government of laws and not a government of men.

The following pages have been written to describe the standards which the courts impose upon administrative agencies, thereby controlling and limiting their powers. More particularly, the writer has sought: (1) to bring together the leading cases in which the courts have laid down the principles that govern frequently litigated questions in contests between the agencies …


Administrative Law-Federal Trade Commission-Constitutional And Statutory Authority To Order Additional Compliance Reports, Charles Myneder S. Ed. Jan 1951

Administrative Law-Federal Trade Commission-Constitutional And Statutory Authority To Order Additional Compliance Reports, Charles Myneder S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Proceeding under section 5 of its organic act, the Federal Trade Commission issued an order requiring defendants to cease and desist from engaging in certain trade practices. The court of appeals, in its decree affirming the order, directed compliance reports to be filed with the commission within a specified time, reserving jurisdiction to enter further orders. Four years after the compliance reports were filed, the commission, on its own motion, ordered additional reports to show continued compliance. Defendants refused to report, challenging the authority of the commission to issue the order. The district court dismissed suit by the commission for …


Constitutional Law-Search And Seizure -Inspection Of Private Dwelling By Health Officer Without A Warrant, Robert P. Griffin S. Ed. Jan 1951

Constitutional Law-Search And Seizure -Inspection Of Private Dwelling By Health Officer Without A Warrant, Robert P. Griffin S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

A health officer sought to enter and inspect respondent's private home without a search warrant after a neighbor complained that the premises were not "clean and wholesome" as required by a District of Columbia ordinance. Respondent denied the officer permission to enter and refused to unlock the door, maintaining that his entry would violate her constitutional rights. As a result, respondent was convicted in municipal court of violating an ordinance making it a misdemeanor to interfere with or prevent an authorized sanitation inspection. On appeal, reversal of the conviction by the Municipal Court of Appeals was affirmed by the Court …