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Patent

2015

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Psychology Of Patent Protection, Stephanie Plamondon Bair Dec 2015

The Psychology Of Patent Protection, Stephanie Plamondon Bair

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers the first comprehensive assessment of the major justifications for our patent system using a behavioral psychology framework. Applying insights from the behavioral literature that I argue more accurately account for the realities of human action than previous analytical tools, I critically evaluate each of the major justifications for patents — incentive theory, disclosure theory, prospect theory, commercialization theory, patent racing theory, and non-utilitarian theories. I ask whether our current patent system is an effective regime for meeting the stated goals of these accounts. When the answer to this question is no, I again turn to the behavioral literature ...


Patent Working Requirements: Historical And Comparative Perspectives, Marketa Trimble Oct 2015

Patent Working Requirements: Historical And Comparative Perspectives, Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

On October 16, 2015, Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at a conference hosted by the UC Irvine School of Law. The theme of the conference was "Patent Sovereignty and International Law."


Invalidated Patents And Associated Patent Examiners, Shine Tu Oct 2015

Invalidated Patents And Associated Patent Examiners, Shine Tu

Law Faculty Scholarship

This study attempts to determine whether there are common

characteristics between examiners who issue invalidated patents. This

study uses two new patent databases that code for nearly 1.7 million

patents and approximately one thousand patents that were litigated to

a 'final" judgment between 2010 and 2011. This study finds that

approximately one-third of patents that are litigated to final judgment

are found invalid. Most invalidated patents are found in technology

centers 1600, 2600, and 2700, which correspond to biotechnology and

organic chemistry, communications, and computer science, respectively.

Most patents are invalidated on prior art-type novelty and obviousness

grounds. This ...


When Biopharma Meets Software: Bioinformatics At The Patent Office, Saurabh Vishnubhakat, Arti K. Rai Oct 2015

When Biopharma Meets Software: Bioinformatics At The Patent Office, Saurabh Vishnubhakat, Arti K. Rai

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have spilled much ink questioning patent quality. Complaints encompass concern about incoming applications, examination by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), and the USPTO’s ultimate output. The literature and some empirical data also suggest, however, that applications, examination, and output may differ considerably based on technology. Most notably, although definitions of patent quality are contested, quality in the biopharmaceutical industry is often considered substantially higher than that in information and communications technology (ICT) industries.

This Article presents the first empirical examination of what happens when the two fields are combined. Specifically, it analyzes the creation and ...


The Uspto Patent Pro Bono Program, Jennifer M. Mcdowell, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Oct 2015

The Uspto Patent Pro Bono Program, Jennifer M. Mcdowell, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, the United States Patent and Trademark Office has systematically been engaging the legal community with inventor assistance beyond the agency’s usual business of examining applications for patents and trademarks. The purpose of the USPTO’s effort has been to support innovators who are constrained by a lack of resources to pay for patent counsel necessary to protect the full scope of their inventions. This Article describes the brief history, flexible structure, and ongoing growth of that effort, embodied in the USPTO Patent Pro Bono Program. The Patent Pro Bono Program is a national network coordinated by ...


Patents As Data Aggregators In Personalized Medicine, Dan L. Burk Apr 2015

Patents As Data Aggregators In Personalized Medicine, Dan L. Burk

Faculty Scholarship

The role of patents in personalized medicine is problematic, as the potential market for tailored treatments may be too small for the patent incentive to be effective. However, in certain instances patent exclusivity may serve less as an incentive to invest in new inventions than it might to serve as an aggregator for certain types of ancillary information that will be critical to personalized diagnosis and treatments. In this essay I look at the effect of patents on the collection and application of such non-patentable data related to genetic variation. My vehicle for examining such effects is the testing service ...


The Case Against Federalizing Trade Secrecy, Christopher B. Seaman Apr 2015

The Case Against Federalizing Trade Secrecy, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

Trade secrecy is unique among the major intellectual property (IP) doctrines because it is governed primarily by state law. Recently, however, a number of influential actors — including legislators, academics, and organizations representing IP attorneys and owners — have proposed creating a private civil cause of action for trade secret misappropriation under federal law. Proponents assert that federalizing trade secrecy would provide numerous benefits, including substantive uniformity, the availability of a federal forum for misappropriation litigation, and the creation of a unified national regime governing IP rights.

This Article engages in the first systematic critique of the claim that federalizing trade secrecy ...


The Actavis Inference: Theory And Practice, Aaron S. Edlin, C. Scott Hemphill, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Carl Shapiro Apr 2015

The Actavis Inference: Theory And Practice, Aaron S. Edlin, C. Scott Hemphill, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Carl Shapiro

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In FTC v. Actavis, Inc., the Supreme Court considered "reverse payment" settlements of patent infringement litigation. In such a settlement, a patentee pays the alleged infringer to settle, and the alleged infringer agrees not to enter the market for a period of time. The Court held that a reverse payment settlement violates antitrust law if the patentee is paying to avoid competition. The core insight of Actavis is the Actavis Inference: a large and otherwise unexplained payment, combined with delayed entry, supports a reasonable inference of harm to consumers from lessened competition.

This paper is an effort to assist courts ...


The 'Creating Around' Paradox, Dan L. Burk Mar 2015

The 'Creating Around' Paradox, Dan L. Burk

Faculty Scholarship

In his article on Creating Around Copyright, Joseph Fishman argues that the constraints imposed by copyright law promote the creativity of subsequent follow-on authors. He suggests that by limiting creative choices, copyright exclusivity may actually enhances the output of follow-on authors by requiring them to “create around” existing works. Yet embedded in Professor Fishman’s theory is a paradox that threatens to disable the putative benefits of creating around. Specifically, the conditions that are necessary for creating around are the same conditions that we would expect to lead to licensing of previously existing works, rather than to the creation of ...


Law, History And Lessons In The Crispr Patent Conflict, Jacob S. Sherkow Mar 2015

Law, History And Lessons In The Crispr Patent Conflict, Jacob S. Sherkow

Articles & Chapters

Predicting the outcome of the ongoing patent disputes surrounding genome-editing technology is equal parts patent analysis and history.

Genome-editing technology based on clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) has generated great excitement in both academia and industry. But a potential patent dispute between two sets of inventors has left the biotech community pondering its fate. Understanding several facets of patent law and history may provide some lessons about the probable — and best — outcome for the dispute.


Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those Without Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those Without Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] If you can spend three more years in school, intellectual property offers a wide range of interesting and rewarding careers. Those without technical backgrounds, however, should not pursue an intellectual property career blindly. Unless your undergraduate degree is in a physical science or engineering -- or you have at least a masters (and probably some experience) in biotechnology, patent opportunities will be slim. As discussed in more detail below, people without technical training are more apt to deal with copyrights, trademarks and special contracts such as licenses or franchise agreements. Yet intellectual property law covering non-technical subjects is often as ...


Empirical Studies Of Claim Construction, Jonas Anderson Jan 2015

Empirical Studies Of Claim Construction, Jonas Anderson

Working Papers

Patent claims define the scope of the patent right and hence are central to the operation of the patent system. Patent prosecutors devote substantial effort to crafting patent claims so as to maximize the scope of their right without “reading on” prior art (and thereby defeating novelty). Businesses seeking to enter a technology marketplace must be careful to avoid encroaching patent claims. Thus, when patentees enforce their rights, the interpretation of claim boundaries guides both validity and infringement analysis. Following the Supreme Court’s decision in Markman v. Westview Instruments (517 U.S. 370 (1996)), holding that “the construction of ...


Rethinking Standing In Patent Challenges, Michael J. Burnstein Jan 2015

Rethinking Standing In Patent Challenges, Michael J. Burnstein

Articles

No abstract provided.


Administrating Patent Litigation, Jacob S. Sherkow Jan 2015

Administrating Patent Litigation, Jacob S. Sherkow

Articles & Chapters

Recent patent litigation reform efforts have focused on every branch of govemment-Congress, the President, and the federal courts-save the fourth: administrative agencies. Agencies, however, possess a variety of functions in patent litigation: they serve as "gatekeepers" to litigation in federal court; they provide scientific and technical expertise to patent disputes; they review patent litigation to fulfill their own mandates; and they serve, in several instances, as entirely alternative fora to federal litigation.

Understanding administrative agencies' functions in managing or directing, i.e., "administrating," patent litigation sheds both descriptive and normative insight on several aspects of patent reform. These include several ...


Administering Patent Litigation, Jacob S. Sherkow Jan 2015

Administering Patent Litigation, Jacob S. Sherkow

Articles & Chapters

Recent patent litigation reform efforts have focused on every branch of government — Congress, the President, and the federal courts — save the fourth: administrative agencies. Agencies, however, possess a variety of functions in patent litigation: they serve as “gatekeepers” to litigation in federal court; they provide scientific and technical expertise to patent disputes; they review patent litigation to fulfill their own mandates; and they serve, in several instances, as entirely alternative fora to federal litigation. Understanding administrative agencies’ functions in managing or directing, i.e., “administrating,” patent litigation sheds both descriptive and normative insight on several aspects of patent reform. These ...


Causation And Harm In A Multicomponent World, Bernard Chao Jan 2015

Causation And Harm In A Multicomponent World, Bernard Chao

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

On September 17, 2015, the Federal Circuit issued another decision in the epic Apple v. Samsung smartphone war. This was the fourth court decision in the ongoing saga to deal with injunctions. Apple IV explained the level of proof necessary to satisfy the "causal nexus" requirement. This requirement had emerged as a response to patent litigations involving products with thousands of features, the vast majority of which are unrelated to the asserted patent. To prove a causal nexus, patentees seeking an injunction have to do more than just show that the infringing product caused the patentee irreparable harm. The harm ...


Corporate "Human Rights" To Intellectual Property Protection?, J. Janewa Oseitutu Jan 2015

Corporate "Human Rights" To Intellectual Property Protection?, J. Janewa Oseitutu

Faculty Publications

The global intellectual property system protects the interests of intellectual property owners, sometimes to the detriment of competing interests like public health or access to knowledge. Some scholars have proposed a human rights framework for intellectual property as a way to inject balance into the current system. However, the assertion that human rights will bring balance is often coupled with the assumption that corporations are, by definition, excluded from human rights-based intellectual property claims. Yet, corporations have used, and are likely to continue to use, human rights law to ground their intellectual property claims. Since multinational corporations were a major ...


Creative Copyright: Tailoring Intellectual Property Policies And Business Strategies For Creative Content Industries In The Digital Age, Bhamati Viswanathan Jan 2015

Creative Copyright: Tailoring Intellectual Property Policies And Business Strategies For Creative Content Industries In The Digital Age, Bhamati Viswanathan

SJD Dissertations

My dissertation explores intellectual property rights in three fields: fashion, music and education. I examine the varying degrees of IP rights in those fields, and ask whether the differing levels of rights are appropriate to keep these industries creative, innovative and robust. I further examine the salient characteristics of those rights and ask whether such an understanding might help to determine optimal levels of IP protection in other creative industries.


Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin Jan 2015

Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin

All Faculty Scholarship

The 2011 America Invents Act sought to drastically improve the American patent system by creating new review processes for already issued patents. These processes were meant to reduce patent litigation costs and clear the field of "dubious patents," all the while increasing certainty in the existence and scope of patent rights. Though this was not the first attempt to achieve these goals, Congress failed to heed the lessons of past reforms or fully take into account the costs associated with these new post-issuance review mechanisms. The result was a set of dubious reforms. This Article marshals empirical data and case-study ...


The Costs Of Patent Reform: Early Data And Abuses In The Uneven Playing Field Of Post-Issuance Review, Gregory Dolin Jan 2015

The Costs Of Patent Reform: Early Data And Abuses In The Uneven Playing Field Of Post-Issuance Review, Gregory Dolin

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Reading Intellectual Property Law Reform Through The Lens Of Constitutional Equality, Jessica Silbey Jan 2015

Reading Intellectual Property Law Reform Through The Lens Of Constitutional Equality, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

In reviewing three books, Robert Spoo's Without Copyright, Bill Herman's The Fight for Digital Rights, and Aram Sinnreich's The Piracy Crusade, for Tulsa Law Review's annual book review volume, this paper explores new themes and structures in Supreme Court cases about intellectual property. Studying the new histories and processes described in the books under review helps reveal constitutional equality frameworks in Supreme Court cases about intellectual property usually understood as cases about congressional deference and property rights. This article explains how many of these Supreme Court cases about IP reflect a range of equality modalities - e ...


Justifying India's Patent Position To The United States International Trade Commission And Office Of The United States Trade Representative, Srividhya Ragavan, Sean Flynn, Brook Baker Jan 2015

Justifying India's Patent Position To The United States International Trade Commission And Office Of The United States Trade Representative, Srividhya Ragavan, Sean Flynn, Brook Baker

Faculty Scholarship

The paper below largely is an extract of the testimonial filed by the authors to the Secretary of the ITC in response to the Notice on the Federal Register dated August 29, 2013 titled Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. Where required, the paper also draws from the written submissions that the authors made to the United States Trade Representative’s (hereinafter, USTR) office on the related question of whether India deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights or deny fair and equitable market access to U.S. persons who rely ...


Economic Theory, Divided Infringement And Enforcing Interactive Patents, W. Keith Robinson Jan 2015

Economic Theory, Divided Infringement And Enforcing Interactive Patents, W. Keith Robinson

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

High tech companies – especially in the emerging areas of the Internet of Things, wearable devices, and personalized medicine – have found it difficult to enforce their patents on interactive technologies. This is especially true when multiple parties combine to perform all of the steps of a claimed method. This problem is referred to as joint or divided infringement, and some commentators advocate that “interactive” patents susceptible to divided infringement should not be enforced.

In contrast, this article argues that economic theory supports the enforcement of interactive patents. Previous papers have analyzed divided infringement problems from a doctrinal and policy perspective. This ...


Patent Law Challenges For The Internet Of Things, W. Keith Robinson Jan 2015

Patent Law Challenges For The Internet Of Things, W. Keith Robinson

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

In the near future, emerging technologies will allow billions of everyday devices to be connected via the Internet. This increasingly popular phenomenon is referred to as the Internet of Things (“IoT”). The IoT is broadly defined as technology that allows everyday devices to (1) become “smart” and (2) communicate with other smart devices. Estimates indicate that the market for smart devices, such as wearables, will grow to $70 billion dollars in the next ten years. Like many other emerging technologies, the entrepreneurs and companies developing these applications will seek patent protection for their inventions. In turn, the current U.S ...


Recent Developments In Intellectual Property Law — A 2014 Retrospective, W. Keith Robinson Jan 2015

Recent Developments In Intellectual Property Law — A 2014 Retrospective, W. Keith Robinson

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

The year 2014 was an eventful one for intellectual property law. Every branch of government affected intellectual property law in one way or another. The Supreme Court ruled on several important intellectual property law cases; federal and state legislatures contemplated and enacted various new statutes that changed the intellectual property law landscape; and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office continued to implement new procedures governing the issuance and reconsideration of intellectual property rights. These events captured the consciousness of the American public and garnered significant media attention, more so than any year in recent memory. As these events proved ...


Recent Developments In Intellectual Property Law — A 2014 Retrospective, David O. Taylor, W. Keith Robinson Jan 2015

Recent Developments In Intellectual Property Law — A 2014 Retrospective, David O. Taylor, W. Keith Robinson

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

The year 2014 was an eventful one for intellectual property law. Every branch of government affected intellectual property law in one way or another. The Supreme Court ruled on several important intellectual property law cases; federal and state legislatures contemplated and enacted various new statutes that changed the intellectual property law landscape; and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office continued to implement new procedures governing the issuance and reconsideration of intellectual property rights. These events captured the consciousness of the American public and garnered significant media attention, more so than any year in recent memory. As these events proved ...