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Patent

2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 36

Full-Text Articles in Law

Inventing Norms, William Hubbard Dec 2011

Inventing Norms, William Hubbard

All Faculty Scholarship

Patent law strives to promote the progress of technology by encouraging invention. Traditionally, scholars contend that patent law achieves this goal by creating financial incentives to invent in the form of exclusive rights to new technology. This traditional view of invention, however, fails to recognize that inventors are motivated by more than money. Like most people, inventors are also motivated by social norms, that is, shared normative beliefs favoring certain actions while disfavoring others. This Article argues that many Americans embrace social norms that favor and encourage successful invention. Because of these "inventing norms" inventors enjoy enhanced personal satisfaction and ...


Acting Like An Administrative Agency: The Federal Circuit En Banc, Ryan G. Vacca Oct 2011

Acting Like An Administrative Agency: The Federal Circuit En Banc, Ryan G. Vacca

Akron Law Publications

When Congress created the Federal Circuit in 1982, it thought it was creating a court of appeals. Little did it know that it was also creating a quasi-administrative agency that would engage in substantive rulemaking and set policy in a manner substantially similar to administrative agencies. In this Article, I examine the Federal Circuit's practices when it orders a case to be heard en banc and illustrate how these practices cause the Federal Circuit to look very much like an administrative agency engaging in substantive rulemaking. The number and breadth of questions the Federal Circuit agrees to hear en ...


Protecting Domestic Industries At The Itc, Colleen Chien Jun 2011

Protecting Domestic Industries At The Itc, Colleen Chien

Faculty Publications

The International Trade Commission (ITC) provides injunctive relief from imports that infringe intellectual property to “domestic industries.” Differences in opinion about what this term means have divided those who do and those who don’t practice their patents. Should they both have access to the ITC? This article reviews the statute, its history, and its application to this question. It agrees with the Commission’s finding in Coaxial Cable that the design and history of the statute favor activity that furthers the development and commercialization of technology. It suggests two changes to more closely align ITC practice with the statute ...


Causing Infringement, Mark Bartholomew, Patrick F. Mcardle May 2011

Causing Infringement, Mark Bartholomew, Patrick F. Mcardle

Journal Articles

Recent appellate decisions reveal a chaotic contributory infringement doctrine that offers little direction to entrepreneurs trying to balance digital innovation with legal strictures. Aware of the problem, both the Supreme Court and legal scholars urge a modeling of contributory infringement on common law tort rules. But common law tort is an enormous subject. Without further instruction, the subject area is too vast and contradictory to offer a realistic template for reform. Even when the narrower body of tort law for secondary actors is consulted, there is still too much variation in the existing precedent to provide the necessary guidance. Instead ...


The Patent System And Climate Change, Joshua Sarnoff Mar 2011

The Patent System And Climate Change, Joshua Sarnoff

College of Law Faculty

The amount of greenhouse gas emissions and consequent climate changes and social responses will depend substantially upon the rapid development and widespread dissemination of a wide variety of new mitigation and adaptation technologies. The international approach adopted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun will focus the worldwide innovation system more closely on private funding and markets, and thus on the acquisition of patents at the front end of the coming innovation pipeline. The choice to rely on private markets and patents is highly debatable. But it is certain to create substantial tensions for the patent system ...


Whose Rules Rule? Federal Circuit Review Of Divergent Uspto And District Court Decisions, Lisa Dolak Feb 2011

Whose Rules Rule? Federal Circuit Review Of Divergent Uspto And District Court Decisions, Lisa Dolak

College of Law - Faculty Scholarship

The potential utility of reexamination in the context of patent litigation has caught the attention of litigants, commentators, and the courts. However, concurrent litigation and reexamination proceedings proceed independently. Thus, in any given situation involving such proceedings, there is the possibility that the Federal Circuit will encounter issues in appeals from determinations of the district court and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office relating to the scope or validity of the same patent claims, which issues have traveled to the court on separate tracks. And, because the courts and the USPTO approach claim construction and validity determinations differently, they ...


Patent Eligible Medical And Biotechnology Inventions After Bilski, Prometheus, And Myriad, Joshua Sarnoff Feb 2011

Patent Eligible Medical And Biotechnology Inventions After Bilski, Prometheus, And Myriad, Joshua Sarnoff

College of Law Faculty

In Bilski v. Kappos, the U.S. Supreme Court continued to require that patentable subject matter eligibility determinations under Section 101 be made by reference to three historic, categorical exclusions, for scientific principles, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas. This excluded subject matter must be treated as if already known even when newly discovered by the applicant. Unlike in other jurisdictions, the excluded subject matter thus cannot contribute creativity to the claimed inventions, either for eligibility or for patentability evaluations. The Federal Circuit has reluctantly applied eligibility doctrine after Bilski, holding in Prometheus v. Mayo that claims to treatment methods applying ...


Patent Eligible Inventions After Bilski: History And Theory, Joshua Sarnoff Feb 2011

Patent Eligible Inventions After Bilski: History And Theory, Joshua Sarnoff

College of Law Faculty

The U.S. Supreme Court has continued to require that patentable subject matter eligibility determinations under Section 101 be made by reference to three historic, categorical exclusions, for scientific principles, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas, which must be treated as if already known even when newly discovered by the applicant. Various thoughtful scholars have alternatively urged that these exclusions from the patent system should be viewed restrictively or that eligibility decisions should be avoided. But these scholars underappreciate the benefits of categorical exclusions and particularly of treating them as if they were already known prior art, and in any event ...


Catalyzing Technology Development Through University Research, Jorge Contreras, Charles R. Mcmanis Feb 2011

Catalyzing Technology Development Through University Research, Jorge Contreras, Charles R. Mcmanis

Working Papers

Research universities have traditionally been catalysts for technological innovation, particularly in new and emerging industries. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that some of the most promising new technologies relating to climate change are being developed at research universities. In this chapter, we first summarize several modes of university technology development and licensing. Next we describe the evolution of university technology commercialization and the Bayh-Dole Act of 198'8 which is widely credited with establishing the intellectual property structure of current university licensing and technology transfer. We then discuss some important legal and intellectual property considerations relevant to the ...


Acting Like An Administrative Agency: The Federal Circuit En Banc, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2011

Acting Like An Administrative Agency: The Federal Circuit En Banc, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

When Congress created the Federal Circuit in 1982, it thought it was creating a court of appeals. Little did it know that it was also creating a quasi-administrative agency that would engage in substantive rulemaking and set policy in a manner substantially similar to administrative agencies. In this Article, I examine the Federal Circuit's practices when it orders a case to be heard en banc and illustrate how these practices cause the Federal Circuit to look very much like an administrative agency engaging in substantive rulemaking. The number and breadth of questions the Federal Circuit agrees to hear en ...


The Creativity Effect (With C. Sprigman), Christopher J. Buccafusco Jan 2011

The Creativity Effect (With C. Sprigman), Christopher J. Buccafusco

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Predicting Patent Litigation, Colleen Chien Jan 2011

Predicting Patent Litigation, Colleen Chien

Faculty Publications

Patent lawsuits are disruptive, unpredictable, and costly. The inability to anticipate patent litigation makes it practically uninsurable, exposes companies to late-stage suits, and drives companies to rapidly accumulate patents in order to ward off litigation. This article confronts this systemic problem, by examining the factors that lead a particular patent to be litigated – only around 1% of patents ever is. It relates the eventual litigation of a patent to earlier events in the patent’s life, including changes in ownership of the patent (assignments, transfers, and changes in owner size), continued investment in the patent (reexamination, maintenance fees), securitization of ...


Negativing Invention, Jacob S. Sherkow Jan 2011

Negativing Invention, Jacob S. Sherkow

Articles & Chapters

Since 1952, the patent statute has forbidden courts from discriminating against, or “negativing,” inventions according to how they were made, be it “long toil and experimentation” or a “flash of genius.” Now, in addressing whether an invention is “obvious,” courts must only examine whether the invention was obvious according to the arts pertinent to that invention — the “analogous” rather than “nonanalogous” arts. This article shows that this dichotomy has actually promoted method-of-invention discrimination in patent law because the subjectivity of the analogous art inquiry has increasingly “analogized” wide fields of prior art as technology has progressed. This, in turn, has ...


Competition Within Intellectual Property Regimes: The Instance Of Patent Rights, Rudolph J.R. Peritz Jan 2011

Competition Within Intellectual Property Regimes: The Instance Of Patent Rights, Rudolph J.R. Peritz

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Three Statutory Regimes At Impasse: Reverse Payments In Pay-For-Delay Settlement Agreements Between Brand-Name And Generic Drug Companies, Rudolph J.R. Peritz Jan 2011

Three Statutory Regimes At Impasse: Reverse Payments In Pay-For-Delay Settlement Agreements Between Brand-Name And Generic Drug Companies, Rudolph J.R. Peritz

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


International Cooperation And The Patent-Antitrust Intersection, Stephen Yelderman Jan 2011

International Cooperation And The Patent-Antitrust Intersection, Stephen Yelderman

Journal Articles

Commentators have long recognized the need to coordinate questions at the patent-antitrust intersection with other policy levers available under patent law. In the international context, however, control over patent policy has been fractured and entrusted to diverse decisionmakers. Many details of patent law are tightly coordinated by international agreement, while others related to antitrust are left to national discretion. This Article evaluates the consequences of this fracture, and notes ways in which the prevailing treaty regimes (the Paris Convention and the TRIPS Agreement) distort incentives for national policymaking. National discretion at the patent-antitrust intersection can be expected to result in ...


Patent Settlements, Risk, And Competition, Mark R. Patterson Jan 2011

Patent Settlements, Risk, And Competition, Mark R. Patterson

Faculty Scholarship

PowerPoint presentation delivered at the session, Patent Settlements: The Issues Beyond the "Reverse Payment" Cases at the ABA 59th Annual Antitrust Spring Meeting, March 30, 2011.


Questioning The Frequency And Wisdom Of Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Patents, F. Scott Kieff, Richard A. Epstein Jan 2011

Questioning The Frequency And Wisdom Of Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Patents, F. Scott Kieff, Richard A. Epstein

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Many advocates for using compulsory licensing (“CL”) for pharmaceutical patents in developing countries like Thailand rest their case in part on the purported use of CL in the United States. In this paper we take issue with that proposition on several grounds. As a theoretical matter, we argue that the basic presumption in favor of voluntary licenses for IP should apply in the international arena, in addition to the domestic one. In the international context, voluntary licenses are of special importance because they strengthen the supply chain for distributing pharmaceuticals and ease the government enforcement of safety standards. Next, this ...


Clarifying The Doctrine Of Inequitable Conduct, Elizabeth I. Winston Jan 2011

Clarifying The Doctrine Of Inequitable Conduct, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Addressing squarely the issue of the multiple standards of materiality in inequitable conduct litigation, Therasense v. Becton Dickinson raises many difficult issues that could be clarified through the lens of the analogous concept of fraud on the Trademark Office. The standards for finding fraud on the Trademark Office lack the ambiguity found in the doctrine of inequitable conduct, despite the parallel penalties of unenforceability and requirements of proof of materiality and intent. Informed by the many decisions of Judge Michel, this essay concludes that the standards for finding fraud before the Trademark Office, as set forth in In re Bose ...


Equity, Antitrust, And The Reemergence Of The Patent Unenforceability Remedy, Jorge Contreras Jan 2011

Equity, Antitrust, And The Reemergence Of The Patent Unenforceability Remedy, Jorge Contreras

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The conventional legal analysis of technical standard setting derives primarily from antitrust law. But antitrust remedies, taken alone, may not be broad enough to address recent abuses of the standardization process. The principal example of this shortcoming is the well-known case of Rambus, Inc., which, over the course of several years, was alleged to have concealed relevant patent applications from a standards organization in which it participated and then successfully sued the entire DRAM industry for royalties after the standard was “locked-in.” Remarkably, Rambus prevailed in its litigation campaign despite aggressive enforcement efforts by the Federal Trade Commission. Rambus’s ...


Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison

Articles

This Article addresses conservation, preservation, and stewardship of knowledge, and laws and institutions in the cultural environment that support those things. Legal and policy questions concerning creativity and innovation usually focus on producing new knowledge and offering access to it. Equivalent attention rarely is paid to questions of old knowledge. To what extent should the law, and particularly intellectual property law, focus on the durability of information and knowledge? To what extent does the law do so already, and to what effect? This article begins to explore those questions. Along the way, the article takes up distinctions among different types ...


Current And Potential Methods To Undermine A Competitor’S U.S. Patent Application, W. Keith Robinson, M. Haq Jan 2011

Current And Potential Methods To Undermine A Competitor’S U.S. Patent Application, W. Keith Robinson, M. Haq

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

The current PTO procedures provide a few choices for a third party to influence the prosecution of a competitors patent application prior to issuance. In the case of protests and public use hearings, the third party may submit documents and explain their relevancy, but must know of the application’s existence prior to publication in order to meet the timeliness requirement. In the case of third-party submissions, the third party has a short two-month window post-publication, but cannot explain the relevancy of the documents submitted. In each case, the time frame within which a third party can act is extremely ...


Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison

Articles

The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between these forms of intellectual property law and the roles of knowledge in society. Over time, explicit attention to that relationship has largely disappeared from ...


Reverse Settlements As Patent Invalidity Signals, Gregory Dolin Jan 2011

Reverse Settlements As Patent Invalidity Signals, Gregory Dolin

All Faculty Scholarship

Over the last decade a new type of settlements, commonly referred to as “reversed payment settlements” or simply “reverse settlements,” emerged in litigation over patents covering pharmaceutical products. What differentiates these new settlements from their traditional counterparts is that whereas traditionally, the alleged trespasser on someone else's rights pays the rights-holder to settle the litigation, in these new settlements it is the rights holder that pays the alleged trespasser. These settlements are a direct consequence of the various incentives provided by the Hatch-Waxman Act - an Act designed to increase competition between brand name and generic manufactures of pharmaceutical products ...


Standing To Sue In The Myriad Genetics Case, Megan M. La Belle Jan 2011

Standing To Sue In The Myriad Genetics Case, Megan M. La Belle

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

In recent years, the topic of gene patents has generated significant debate among medical researchers, biotechnology companies, academics, policymakers, and patent lawyers. The controversy implicates a wide range of legal and policy questions, including whether human genes should be patentable, and whether such patents stimulate or stifle innovation. In Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, a high-profile case recently before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, a divided panel of the court addressed these questions. Before reaching the merits of the case, however, the court had to decide whether the plaintiffs had standing to sue ...


A Patent Misperception, Elizabeth I. Winston Jan 2011

A Patent Misperception, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Antitrust and intellectual property laws promote innovation and competition. As long as the costs of promotion do not exceed the benefit to society, then the laws act in harmony. Discord arises when patent holders use public and private ordering to restrain competition, restrict downstream trade, prevent the development of competing products and limit output by competitors. Using the Patent Act and the misperception of antitrust immunity to create a parallel and under-regulated legal system allows a small number of patent holders to coordinate their behavior to maximize profits and minimize competition. The Patent Act provides no shield to prosecution for ...


Differentiating The Federal Circuit, Elizabeth I. Winston Jan 2011

Differentiating The Federal Circuit, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

In 1982, Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Often referred to as an experiment, the Federal Circuit has flourished. Born again from the ashes of its predecessors, the aptly nicknamed Phoenix Court continues to grow in significance, stature, and strength. As it grows, however, the court remains rooted in its history and in its unique nature. This Article explores the Federal Circuit’s structure and its impact on the development of Federal Circuit jurisprudence. The Federal Circuit is distinguishable by more than its national jurisdiction – the very essence of the court sets it apart ...


Rules For Growth: Promoting Innovation And Growth Through Legal Reform, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Robert E. Litan, Yochai Benkler, Henry N. Butler, John Henry Clippinger, Robert Cook-Deegan, Robert D. Cooter, Aaron S. Edlin, Ronald J. Gilson, Oliver R. Goodenough, Gillian K. Hadfield, Mark A. Lemley, Frank Partnoy, George L. Priest, Larry E. Ribstein, Charles F. Sabel, Peter H. Schuck, Hal S. Scott, Robert E. Scott, Alex Stein, Victoria Stodden, John E. Tyler Iii, Alan D. Viard, Benjamin Wittes Jan 2011

Rules For Growth: Promoting Innovation And Growth Through Legal Reform, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Robert E. Litan, Yochai Benkler, Henry N. Butler, John Henry Clippinger, Robert Cook-Deegan, Robert D. Cooter, Aaron S. Edlin, Ronald J. Gilson, Oliver R. Goodenough, Gillian K. Hadfield, Mark A. Lemley, Frank Partnoy, George L. Priest, Larry E. Ribstein, Charles F. Sabel, Peter H. Schuck, Hal S. Scott, Robert E. Scott, Alex Stein, Victoria Stodden, John E. Tyler Iii, Alan D. Viard, Benjamin Wittes

Journal Articles

The United States economy is struggling to recover from its worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. After several huge doses of conventional macroeconomic stimulus - deficit-spending and monetary stimulus - policymakers are understandably eager to find innovative no-cost ways of sustaining growth both in the short and long runs. In response to this challenge, the Kauffman Foundation convened a number of America’s leading legal scholars and social scientists during the summer of 2010 to present and discuss their ideas for changing legal rules and policies to promote innovation and accelerate U.S. economic growth. This meeting led to the publication ...


Extraterritorial Intellectual Property Enforcement In The European Union, Marketa Trimble Jan 2011

Extraterritorial Intellectual Property Enforcement In The European Union, Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

This paper was prepared for the 2011 ABILA International Law Weekend – West volume of the Southwestern Journal of International Law. It addresses extraterritorial enforcement of intellectual property rights in the European Union. The maximum length of the paper was set by the Journal.

The problems associated with extraterritorial enforcement of intellectual property rights in the European Union (the “EU”) may be divided into three categories: enforcement of unitary EU-wide rights, enforcement of multiple national rights, and enforcement of rights based on one national law with extraterritorial effects on activities in other countries. Although these are three distinct categories of problems ...


Improving Antibiotic Markets For Long Term Sustainability, Kevin Outterson Jan 2011

Improving Antibiotic Markets For Long Term Sustainability, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

The world faces a worsening public health crisis: A growing number of bacteria are resistant to available antibiotics. Yet there are few new antibiotics in the development pipeline to take the place of these increasingly ineffective drugs. We review a number of proposals intended to bolster drug development, including such financial incentives for pharmaceutical manufacturers as extending the effective patent life for new antibiotics. However, such strategies directly conflict with the clear need to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and could actually increase prescription use. As an alternative, we recommend a two-prong, “integrated” strategy based on prizes administered through the insurance ...