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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Price Of Fairness, Christopher Buccafusco, Daniel Hemel, Eric Talley Jan 2023

The Price Of Fairness, Christopher Buccafusco, Daniel Hemel, Eric Talley

Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic led to acute supply shortages across the country as well as concerns over price increases amid surging demand. In the process, it reawakened a debate about whether and how to regulate “price gouging”—a controversy that continues as inflation has accelerated even as the pandemic abates. Animating this debate is a longstanding conflict between laissez-faire economics, which champions price fluctuations as a means to allocate scarce goods, and perceived norms of consumer fairness, which are thought to cut strongly against sharp price hikes amid shortages.

This Article provides a new, empirically grounded perspective on the price gouging debate …


'That Name Is Dead To Me': Reforming Name Change Laws To Protect Transgender And Nonbinary Youth, Sarah Steadman Oct 2021

'That Name Is Dead To Me': Reforming Name Change Laws To Protect Transgender And Nonbinary Youth, Sarah Steadman

Faculty Scholarship

For transgender and some nonbinary youth, living under a chosen name is a first step toward becoming their authentic selves. For these youth, a name change is powerful; it allows them to choose a name that matches their gender identity. They consider their birth name to be a distressing “dead” name - one that they cannot relate to and need to bury.

Using one’s chosen name decreases suicidality among transgender youth who face many challenges, including family rejection and other severe mental health stressors. Transgender and nonbinary youth can only require others to use their chosen names after obtaining a …


Design Justice In Municipal Criminal Regulation, Amber Baylor Jan 2021

Design Justice In Municipal Criminal Regulation, Amber Baylor

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores design justice as a framework for deeper inclusion in municipal criminal court reform. Section I provides a brief summary of a typical litigant’s path through modern municipal courts. Then, section I explores the historic role of municipal courts, the insider/outsider dichotomy of municipal criminal regulation, and the limitations of past reform efforts. Section II shifts into an overview of participatory design and discusses the new emergence of design justice. Within the discussion of design justice, the article focuses on three precepts of design justice: excavating the history and impact of the courts, creating tools for participation, and …


Autonomy For Contract, Refined, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller Jan 2018

Autonomy For Contract, Refined, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

In The Choice Theory of Contracts, we advance a claim about the centrality of autonomy to contract. This Issue offers thoughtful and penetrating critiques. Here, we reply. Autonomy is the grounding principle of contract. In Choice Theory, we stressed the (1) proactive facilitation component of autonomy, in particular, the state’s obligation regarding contract types. Here, we highlight two additional, necessary implications of autonomy for contract: (2) regard for future selves and (3) relational justice. These three aspects of autonomy shape the range, limit, and floor, respectively, for the legitimate use of contract. They provide a principled and constrained path for …


Can A Little Representation Be A Dangerous Thing?, Colleen F. Shanahan, Anna E. Carpenter, Alyx Mark Jan 2016

Can A Little Representation Be A Dangerous Thing?, Colleen F. Shanahan, Anna E. Carpenter, Alyx Mark

Faculty Scholarship

Access to justice interventions that provide a little representation, including nonlawyer representation and various forms of limited legal services, may be valuable solutions for low- and middle-income Americans. However, a thoughtful approach to improving access to justice efforts should recognize that a little representation may have risks. In particular, one potential risk of a little representation is that while it provides assistance with a discrete legal need in a specific moment, the nature of the assistance is incompatible with challenging the law. As a result, individual litigants do not have the benefit of legal challenges in their own cases and …


Clinical Legal Education's Contribution To Building Constitutionalism And Democracy In South Africa: Past, Present, And Future, Peggy Maisel, Shaheda Mahomed, Meetali Jain Jan 2016

Clinical Legal Education's Contribution To Building Constitutionalism And Democracy In South Africa: Past, Present, And Future, Peggy Maisel, Shaheda Mahomed, Meetali Jain

Faculty Scholarship

Clinical Legal Education (“CLE”) courses were first introduced in South Africa nearly fifty years ago. Since then, their role has changed from addressing legal problems perpetrated by an oppressive system, to strengthening South Africa’s transition to democracy. The end of apartheid has been accompanied by a transition of focus from private law to public law. South Africa currently has seventeen public universities, each of which has a law faculty and a legal clinic. Many clinical programs’ missions are primarily dedicated to community service and providing access to justice.

Although CLE programs have undertaken some human rights and law reform work, …


Culpability And Modern Crime, Samuel W. Buell Jan 2015

Culpability And Modern Crime, Samuel W. Buell

Faculty Scholarship

Criminal law has developed to prohibit new forms of intrusion on the autonomy and mental processes of others. Examples include modern understandings of fraud, extortion, and bribery, which pivot on the concepts of deception, coercion, and improper influence. Sometimes core offenses develop to include similar concepts, such as when reforms in the law of sexual assault make consent almost exclusively material. Many of these projects are laudable. But progressive programs in substantive criminal law can raise difficult problems of culpability. Modern iterations of criminal offenses often draw lines using concepts involving relative mental states among persons whose conduct is embedded …


Introducing Plea Bargaining Into Post-Conflict Legal Systems, Cynthia Alkon, Ena Dion Mar 2014

Introducing Plea Bargaining Into Post-Conflict Legal Systems, Cynthia Alkon, Ena Dion

Faculty Scholarship

Criminal justice systems around the world face overwhelming caseloads and ever-increasing pressure to handle more. This pressure can be even more serious in post-conflict countries that face additional problems such as limited resources and fragile political environments. In overloaded criminal justice systems it may be difficult, if not impossible, to hold trials for every accused person in a timely way. As a result, countries are increasingly looking to alternative processes to handle criminal cases beyond traditional formal trials. Plea bargaining is frequently considered as a possible solution to problems of case backlogs, long periods of pretrial detention, and to help …


Law Reform Agenda As Ali Approaches Its Centennial, Lance Liebman Jan 2014

Law Reform Agenda As Ali Approaches Its Centennial, Lance Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

The American Law Institute and I are happy and proud that the Brooklyn Law School and its Law Review chose to hold an important conference about ALI work, to persuade such an outstanding group of scholars to write such varied and interesting papers, and now to publish their work. I am especially happy because, as I near the end of my service as ALI Director, these papers give me an opportunity to reflect on the projects, perfect and imperfect, that the ALI accomplished (or attempted and failed to accomplish) in our effort to improve the American legal system.


“One Size Can Fit All” – On The Mass Production Of Legal Transplants, Ralf Michaels Jan 2013

“One Size Can Fit All” – On The Mass Production Of Legal Transplants, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

Law reformers like the World Bank sometimes suggest that optimal legal rules and institutions can be recognized and then be recommended for law reform in every country in the world. Comparative lawyers have long been skeptical of such views. They point out that both laws and social problems are context-specific. What works in one context may fail in another. Instead of “one size fits all,” they suggest tailormade solutions.

I challenge this view. Drawing on a comparison with IKEA’s global marketing strategy, I suggest that “one size fits all” can sometimes be not only a successful law reform strategy, but …


Protecting The Right Of Citizens To Aggregate Small Claims Against Businesses, Paul D. Carrington Jan 2013

Protecting The Right Of Citizens To Aggregate Small Claims Against Businesses, Paul D. Carrington

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Dangers Of Reform: Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, And The Limits Of Law, Jennifer L. Levi, Giovanna Shay Jan 2012

The Dangers Of Reform: Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, And The Limits Of Law, Jennifer L. Levi, Giovanna Shay

Faculty Scholarship

Professors Jennifer Levi and Giovanna Shay review Dean Spade's new book "Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the Limits of Law." They argue that Professor Spade's theoretical approach, which he describes as "critical trans politics," is most useful when employed to analyze issues relating to criminal punishment and mass incarceration, and that it is less appropriate as a critique of the marriage equality movement. Despite some areas of disagreement with Professor Spade, the Authors conclude that the book makes an important contribution.


Inter Arma Enim Non Silent Leges, Philip C. Bobbitt Jan 2012

Inter Arma Enim Non Silent Leges, Philip C. Bobbitt

Faculty Scholarship

There is good reason to think that law and war have nothing to do with one another, and this has certainly been so for most of the lifetime of mankind. Cicero's famous observation-silent enim leges inter arma – from which I take my title, was not a novel insight when uttered in 52 B.C. and in any case was not said in the context of war, but of a prosecution for murder in the aftermath of the Roman riots of that era between the partisans of the populares and optimates. Clausewitz, however, said much the same thing when he decried …


The Pragmatic Court: Reinterpreting The Supreme People’S Court Of China, Taisu Zhang Jan 2012

The Pragmatic Court: Reinterpreting The Supreme People’S Court Of China, Taisu Zhang

Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines the institutional motivations that underlie several major developments in the Supreme People's Court of China's recent policy-making. Since 2007, the SPC has sent off a collection of policy signals that escapes sweeping ideological labeling: it has publically embraced a populist view of legal reform by encouraging the use of mediation in dispute resolution and popular participation in judicial policy-making, while continuing to advocate legal professionalization as a long-term policy objective. It has also eagerly attempted to enhance its own institutional competence by promoting judicial efficiency, simplifying key areas of civil law, and expanding its control over lower …


The Functionalism Of Legal Origins, Ralf Michaels Jan 2011

The Functionalism Of Legal Origins, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

This article, written on request for the centennial issue of Ius Commune Europaeum, connects the economic literature on legal origins (La Porta et al) and the World Bank's Doing Business reports with discussions in comparative law about the functional method. It finds that a number of parallels and similarities exist, and that much of the criticism that has been voiced against functionalism should apply, mutates mutants, also to these more recent projects. The attraction that these projects have derive not, it is argued, from their methodological sophistication, but instead from "the strange lure of economics" and from the ostentatious objectivity …


Comparative Law By Numbers? Legal Origins Thesis, Doing Business Reports, And The Silence Of Traditional Comparative Law, Ralf Michaels Jan 2009

Comparative Law By Numbers? Legal Origins Thesis, Doing Business Reports, And The Silence Of Traditional Comparative Law, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

The legal origins thesis -- the thesis that legal origin impacts economic growth and the common law is better for economic growth than the civil law -- has created hundreds of papers and citation numbers unheard of among comparative lawyers. The Doing Business reports -- cross-country comparisons including rankings on the attractiveness of different legal systems for doing business -- have the highest circulation numbers of all World Bank Publications; even critics admit that they have been successful at inciting legal reform in many countries in the world. Yet, traditional comparative lawyers have all but ignored these developments.

The first …


A Response To The Critics Of Corporate Criminal Liability, Sara Sun Beale Jan 2009

A Response To The Critics Of Corporate Criminal Liability, Sara Sun Beale

Faculty Scholarship

This essay responds to critics of corporate liability and to the claim that elimination or limitation of such liability should be a priority for law reform. It discusses four points. First, imposing criminal liability on corporations makes sense, because corporations are not mere “fictional” entities. Rather, corporations are very real – and enormously powerful – actors whose conduct often causes very significant harms both to individuals and to society as a whole. Second, in evaluating the priorities for law reform it is critical to recognize that most of the problems with corporate liability are endemic to U.S. criminal law, rather …


Family Law Cases As Law Reform Litigation: Unrecognized Parents And The Story Of Alison D. V. Virginia M., Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2008

Family Law Cases As Law Reform Litigation: Unrecognized Parents And The Story Of Alison D. V. Virginia M., Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

Although the gap between law and lived experience comes as no surprise to most people, the divergence is especially striking – and disturbing – in the area of family law. Legal training quickly reveals that love is not a foundational element of family law, yet it can still be jarring to find that love has little, if any, bearing on the contours of the legal family. Love, after all, does not account for who can and cannot marry. Nor does the past love of an unmarried couple trigger the protections of divorce should the couple separate.

When children are involved, …


Curricula And Complacency: A Response To Professor Levinson, Ernest A. Young Jan 2008

Curricula And Complacency: A Response To Professor Levinson, Ernest A. Young

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Next Generation: The Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2007

The Next Generation: The Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

In July, 2006, the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws approved Re-ULLCA - the Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act. The product of a three-year drafting process, heavily influenced by 13 advisors appointed by the ABA, the new Act brings major innovations to the law of limited liability companies. This article, written by the two co-reporters for the drafting committee: (i) explains why the Conference decided to draft a new LLC statute, reviews the process through which the Conference produced and approved the new Act, and describes the Act's basic architecture; (ii) highlights the Act's major innovations; and …


Domestic Partnerships, Implied Contracts, And Law Reform, Elizabeth S. Scott Jan 2006

Domestic Partnerships, Implied Contracts, And Law Reform, Elizabeth S. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

The domestic partnership chapter of the Principles is the shortest chapter, but, as the contributions to this volume suggest, among the most interesting to many people. The legal regulation of informal intimate unions generally and particularly the Principles' approach of creating a status that carries the legal rights and obligations of marriage between cohabiting parties have generated considerable debate. In some quarters, the domestic partnership provisions are admired as an effective mechanism to protect dependent partners in marriage-like unions who otherwise may be unable to establish claims to property and support when their relationships end. Others praise the Principles for …


Robert Leflar, Judicial Process, And Choice Of Law, William L. Reynolds, William M. Richman Jan 1999

Robert Leflar, Judicial Process, And Choice Of Law, William L. Reynolds, William M. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Intrusive Law Reform, Katharine B. Silbaugh Jan 1996

Intrusive Law Reform, Katharine B. Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

Does law obstruct or facilitate the development of a democratic society? This is the subject of Mary Ann Glendon's recent book, A Nation Under Lawyers. It is also the subject of Anita Bernstein's Better Living Through Crime and Tort. Glendon takes the position that law obstructs, that "[p]remature and excessive resort to the courts... has been a disaster for the political health of the country."' Bernstein disagrees, saying that in many cases, law can facilitate democracy by encouraging citizens to educate themselves, engage in debate, and form communities.


Understanding The Malpractice Wars, Thomas B. Metzloff Jan 1993

Understanding The Malpractice Wars, Thomas B. Metzloff

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


State-Local Relations And Constitutional Law, Richard Briffault Jan 1987

State-Local Relations And Constitutional Law, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

A persistent theme in the literature on state-local relations has been the plenary power of state governments and the legal powerlessness of local governments. The "black letter" rules of state-local relations are that the state governments enjoy complete hegemony over their political subdivisions, that local governments are mere "creatures" of the states, with only those powers that the states delegate to them, and there is no such thing as an "inherent right" of local self-government.


The Theory Of Criminal Negligence: A Comparative Analysis, George P. Fletcher Jan 1971

The Theory Of Criminal Negligence: A Comparative Analysis, George P. Fletcher

Faculty Scholarship

Negligence is a problematic ground for criminal liability. Every major Western legal system punishes negligent as well as intentional violations of protected interests; but theorists both here and abroad feel uneasy about the practice Negligent motoring and negligent manufacturing significantly threaten the public interest; yet Western judges seem more comfortable punishing counterfeiters and prostitutes than imposing sanctions against those who inadvertently take unreasonable risks. Negligence appears indeed to be an inferior, almost aberrant ground for criminal liability. Every interest protected by the criminal law is protected against intentional violations; but only a few-life, bodily integrity, and sometimes property-are secured against …


Main Trends In The Soviet Reform Of Criminal Law, Kazimierz Grzybowski Jan 1960

Main Trends In The Soviet Reform Of Criminal Law, Kazimierz Grzybowski

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.