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International trade

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The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander Jan 2024

The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The desire for trade propelled the growth of data privacy law across the world. Countries with strong privacy laws sought to ensure that their citizens’ privacy would not be compromised when their data traveled to other countries. Even before this vaunted Brussels Effect pushed privacy law across the world through the enticement of trade with the European Union, Brussels had to erect privacy law within the Union itself. And as the Union itself expanded, privacy law was a critical condition for accession.

But this coupling of privacy and trade leaves a puzzle: how did the U.S. avoid a comprehensive privacy …


Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu Sep 2023

Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews China’s engagement with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the past twenty years. It begins by highlighting TRIPS-related developments in the first decade of China’s WTO membership. The chapter then discusses the country’s ‘innovative turn’ in the mid-2000s and the ramifications of its changing policy positions. This chapter continues to examine the US-China trade war, in particular the second TRIPS complaint that the United States filed against China in March 2018. It concludes with observations about the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on China, China’s impact on that agreement and how the …


Standards And The Law, Cary Coglianese Apr 2023

Standards And The Law, Cary Coglianese

All Faculty Scholarship

The world of standards and the world of laws are often seen as separate, but they are more closely intertwined than many professionals working with laws or standards realize. Although standards are typically considered to be voluntary and non-binding, they can intersect with and affect the law in numerous ways. They can serve as benchmarks for determine liability in tort or contract. They can facilitate domestic and international transactions. They can prompt negotiations over the licensing of patents. They can govern the development of forensic evidence admissible in criminal courts. And standards can even become binding law themselves when they …


Deploying The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement (Gpa) To Enhance Sustainability And Accelerate Climate Change Mitigation, Robert D. Anderson, Antonella Salgueiro, Steven L. Schooner, Marc Steiner Jan 2023

Deploying The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement (Gpa) To Enhance Sustainability And Accelerate Climate Change Mitigation, Robert D. Anderson, Antonella Salgueiro, Steven L. Schooner, Marc Steiner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Mitigating climate change and promoting sustainability are defining challenges of our time. Public procurement has a vital role to play in responding to the current crises. This article makes the case that the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), and specifically the Work Programme on Sustainable Procurement that has been initiated pursuant to the Agreement, can serve as important instruments to promote sustainable approaches to public procurement internationally, consistent with the goals of climate change mitigation.

The Work Programme, which was established at the time of the GPA’s modernization in 2012 and on which important work has …


Patents And Competition: Commercializing Innovation In The Global Ecosystem For 5g And The Internet Of Things, Thomas D. Grant, F. Scott Kieff Jan 2022

Patents And Competition: Commercializing Innovation In The Global Ecosystem For 5g And The Internet Of Things, Thomas D. Grant, F. Scott Kieff

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Times are changing as our global ecosystem for commercializing innovation helps bring new technologies to market, networks grow, interconnections and transactions become more complex around standards and otherwise, all to enable vast opportunities to improve the human condition, to further competition, and to improve broad access. The policies that governments use to structure their legal systems for intellectual property, especially patents, as well as for competition—or antitrust—continue to have myriad powerful impacts and raise intense debates over challenging questions. This Chapter explores a representative set of debates about policy approaches to patents, to elucidate particular ideas to bear in mind …


Wto Reform: A China Round, Henry S. Gao Mar 2021

Wto Reform: A China Round, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China's exports have been growing exponentially. In 2009, China became the world's top goods exporter. Four years later, China unseated the United States as the top trading nation in the world. In contrast to the burgeoning Chinese economy, the United States and Europe have been suffering from economic decline since the global financial crisis in 2008. China regards its rise as a long overdue restoration of its rightful position, as it has been the largest economy in the world for most of its history, except the brief aberration over the past …


The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz Jan 2021

The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

During the past several years, the US government has negotiated two regional trade agreements with far reaching labor provisions — the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). Signed in early 2016, the TPP labor chapter enhances second-generation worker rights in several significant ways: First, the TPP obligates each party to "adopt and maintain" statutes, regulations, and practices governing acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health, as determined by that party. Second, the obligation not to waive or derogate from fundamental labor rights or conditions of work is …


Facilitating Investment Through Iias: The Case Of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, Stefanie Schacherer Jan 2021

Facilitating Investment Through Iias: The Case Of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, Stefanie Schacherer

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

As many recently concluded IIAs, the RCEP agreement includes provisions on investment facilitation. Following ASEAN’s “built-in work program” approach, the agreement provides flexibility for RCEP parties to further implement investment facilitation measures. Such flexibility can arguably be an opportunity to set a collaborative framework for investment facilitation in the region.


Why Ricardo's Theory Of Comparative Advantage Regarding Foreign Trade Doesn't Work In Today's Global Economy, Charles W. Murdock Jan 2020

Why Ricardo's Theory Of Comparative Advantage Regarding Foreign Trade Doesn't Work In Today's Global Economy, Charles W. Murdock

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The theoretical basis for international trade is Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage. Paul Samuelson, one of the leading lights in the economics profession in the 20th century, referred to it as one of the most beautiful ideas in economics. Yet, no one seems to have considered its validity in the context of the current global trade environment.

What free-trade advocates have not done is to look at the bases underlying Ricardo’s theory, namely, that capital is loyal to the country of origin and that the value of currencies is responsive to imbalances in trade. This article demonstrates that capital is …


Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Trump administration is mulling an executive order that would trigger U.S. withdrawal from the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), according to reports from Bloomberg and POLITICO. Withdrawal from the GPA would deprive U.S. suppliers of a key point of access to public procurement markets internationally, under a world-wide agreement which has set global standards and opened over a trillion dollars annually in business opportunities. See, e.g., Anderson et al., “Assessing the Value of Future Accessions to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA): Some New Data Sources, Provisional Estimates, and An Evaluative Framework for Individual WTO Members Considering …


Misaligned Lawmaking, Timothy Meyer Jan 2020

Misaligned Lawmaking, Timothy Meyer

Faculty Scholarship

This Article makes three contributions. First, it introduces the Misalignment Thesis in the context of U.S. trade policy. The Misalignment Thesis is a descriptive claim about how the structure of a legislative bargain influences the long-term stability and effectiveness of that bargain. Second, the Article introduces the normative corollary to the Misalignment Thesis: if political stability hinges on respecting the legislative bargain, interdependent policies should be subject to renegotiation on the same timeline and implementation on the same terms. In light of this prescription, I offer three concrete proposals for aligning trade liberalization and trade adjustment assistance in order to …


Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The COVID-19 crisis upended markets and assumptions in public procurement, and posed an almost existential threat to traditional procurement systems. Seismic changes in economic relationships – governments were no longer monopsonists, government officials failed as economic intermediaries between suppliers and the public, and supplies that were traditionally treated as private (such as medical equipment) suddenly became “public” goods under worldwide demand. Traditional trade rules were rendered irrelevant, as the goal was no longer simply to open individual procurements but rather to open borders to intense global demand. Although the disruption was revolutionary, ironically the solution is to return to first …


The Digital Challenge To International Trade Law, Wentong Zheng Jan 2020

The Digital Challenge To International Trade Law, Wentong Zheng

UF Law Faculty Publications

The rise of the Internet and so-called digital trade has significantly transformed international trade. International trade law, however, has lagged behind in regulating the phenomenon. Decades-long negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO) over digital trade have largely stalled, while efforts to deal with the issue at the bilateral and regional levels have resulted in inconsistent and fragmented rules. This article discusses the challenges posed by digital trade to international trade law and the best ways to meet those challenges. It contributes to the discourse on digital trade by advocating for a back-to-basics approach. It argues that instead of undertaking …


The Integrative Effects Of Global Legal Pluralism, Monica Hakimi Jan 2020

The Integrative Effects Of Global Legal Pluralism, Monica Hakimi

Faculty Scholarship

International lawyers widely understand that legal pluralism is a fact of global life and that it can, in certain settings, be desirable. But many still approach it with some trepidation. A prominent skeptical claim is that pluralist structures lack the integrative resources that unify people around a shared governance project. This claim has been prominent with respect to two kinds of conflicts that are routine in international law: (1) conflicts that play out within a single international legal arrangement, and (2) conflicts that cut across multiple legal arrangements. For both, the skeptical claim is directed at the pluralist structure itself. …


Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai Oct 2019

Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This paper responds to the widespread view that existing WTO rules are insufficient in dealing with China’s state capitalism, which has been further emboldened by its latest rounds of state-owned enterprise (“SOE”) reforms. Through a careful review of WTO agreements and jurisprudence, the paper argues that, we do not necessarily need new rules, because the unique challenges created by China’s state capitalism can be sufficiently dealt with by the WTO’s existing rules on subsidies coupled with the China-specific obligations. Thus, a more realistic approach would be to push China back to the path of market-oriented reforms through WTO litigation based …


Symposium On "International Trade In The Trump Era", Padideh Ala'i Feb 2019

Symposium On "International Trade In The Trump Era", Padideh Ala'i

Presentations

Speaker, Symposium on International Trade in the Trump Era, Yale Law School (February 22, 2019) Symposium: International Trade in the Trump EraPanel I: The WTO and the Future of Dispute Settlement in International TradePresented Paper: The Vital Role of the WTO Appellate Body in the Promotion of Rule of Law and International Cooperation: A Case Study


Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Jan 2019

Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

Intermediaries such as stockbrokers and banks are ubiquitous in global securities markets, playing essential roles in markets, including trading, settling trades, and post-settlement holding of securities. This essay focuses in particular on the roles of intermediaries in securities holding systems. It proposes an IOSCO-led “soft-law-to-hard-law” approach to the development of Global Standards for reforms to these holding systems. States would be expected to adopt “hard law” reforms through statutory and regulatory adjustments to securities holding systems. The reforms would embrace not only important standards of a functional and regulatory nature, but also holistic standards relating to the private law, insolvency …


Lawyers Should Keep Their Eyes On Cuba Sanctions Cases, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Miles S. Porter Jan 2019

Lawyers Should Keep Their Eyes On Cuba Sanctions Cases, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Miles S. Porter

Popular Media

A dramatic change in the executive branch position on Cuban sanctions recently led to a wave of litigation in the federal courts and could have broad implications for entities that conduct business in or with Cuba. In April, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that Title III of the Helms-Burton Act would no longer be suspended, thereby allowing U.S. nationals to file lawsuits against any individual or entity that “traffics” in property expropriated by the Cuban government.


The Law And Politics Of Socially Inclusive Trade, Timothy Meyer Jan 2019

The Law And Politics Of Socially Inclusive Trade, Timothy Meyer

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

American ambivalence toward international institutions is nothing new. In his farewell address, George Washington famously warned against foreign entanglements. After World War I, the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles, leaving the United States outside the formal post-war order it helped establish and neutering the new League of Nations. Throughout the late twentieth century, the United States refused to ratify multilateral agreements ranging from the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, to a host of human rights agreements. Nor did the dawn of the twenty-first century change the …


Analyzing The Trump Administration's International Trade Strategy, Rachel Brewster Jan 2019

Analyzing The Trump Administration's International Trade Strategy, Rachel Brewster

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman Jan 2019

Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

There are two paradigms through which to view trade law and policy within the American constitutional system. One paradigm sees trade law and policy as quintessentially about domestic economic policy. Institutionally, under the domestic economics paradigm, trade law falls within the province of Congress, which has legion Article I authorities over commercial matters. The second paradigm sees trade law as fundamentally about America’s relationship with foreign countries. Institutionally, under the foreign affairs paradigm, trade law is the province of the President, who speaks for the United States in foreign affairs. While both paradigms have operated throughout American history, the domestic …


Reimagining Trade Agreements For Workers: Lessons From The Usmca, Alvaro Santos Jan 2019

Reimagining Trade Agreements For Workers: Lessons From The Usmca, Alvaro Santos

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A backlash against the post-Cold War order of liberal globalization has taken hold in the rich North Atlantic countries. Concerns about wages, working conditions, and economic opportunity are central to the critique of international trade agreements of the last three decades. While labor rights have progressively been included in trade agreements, they have done little to reshape workers’ well-being and workplace conditions. The new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) may signal a pivot to a new model requiring reforms of domestic labor law and other issues important to workers. However, there is much more to be done to rebalance the power …


Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman Jan 2019

Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Faculty Scholarship

There are two paradigms through which to view trade law and policy within the American constitutional system. One paradigm sees trade law and policy as quintessentially about domestic economic policy. Institutionally, under the domestic economics paradigm, trade law falls within the province of Congress, which has legion Article I powers over commercial matters. The second paradigm sees trade law as fundamentally about America’s relationship with foreign countries. Institutionally, under the foreign affairs paradigm, trade law is the province of the President, who speaks for the United States in foreign affairs. While both paradigms have operated throughout American history, the domestic …


Trade Openness And Antitrust Law, Anu Bradford, Adam S. Chilton Jan 2019

Trade Openness And Antitrust Law, Anu Bradford, Adam S. Chilton

Faculty Scholarship

Openness to international trade and adoption of antitrust laws can both curb anti-competitive behavior. But scholars have long debated the relationship between the two. Some argue that greater trade openness makes antitrust unnecessary, while others contend that antitrust laws are still needed to realize the benefits of trade liberalization. Data limitations have made this debate largely theoretical to date. We study the relationship between trade and antitrust empirically using new data on antitrust laws and enforcement activities. We find that trade openness and stringency of antitrust laws are positively correlated from 1950 to 2010 overall, but the positive correlation disappears …


When The Chinese Intellectual Property System Hits 35, Peter K. Yu Feb 2018

When The Chinese Intellectual Property System Hits 35, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores what it means for the Chinese intellectual property system to hit 35. It begins by briefly recapturing the system’s three phases of development. It discusses the system’s evolution from its birth all the way to the present. The article then explores three different meanings of a middle-aged Chinese intellectual property system – one for intellectual property reform, one for China, and one for the TRIPS Agreement and the global intellectual property community.


The 'Jus' Of Use: Trademarks In Transition, Bita Amani, Carys Craig Jan 2018

The 'Jus' Of Use: Trademarks In Transition, Bita Amani, Carys Craig

Articles & Book Chapters

Changes to Canada's Trade-marks Act will soon permit, for the first time, the registration and enforcement of unused trademarks. Far from a mere legal technicality or practical exigency, this shift fundamentally alters the nature of trademarks and the trademark system. Traditionally, it is the use of trade indicia in the marketplace that determines title and acquisition of trademark rights; use that defines the scope and duration of rights; and use that gives rise to claims of infringement. By virtue of the "Jus of use", the trademark system has remained, over time, reasonably true to its rationale, encouraging and rewarding honest …


Building Multilateral Anticorruption Enforcement: Analogies Between International Trade & Anti-Bribery Law, Rachel Brewster, Christine Dryden Jan 2018

Building Multilateral Anticorruption Enforcement: Analogies Between International Trade & Anti-Bribery Law, Rachel Brewster, Christine Dryden

Faculty Scholarship

In the last twenty years, the United States government has put substantial resources behind the fight against .foreign bribery by using the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) to prosecute unilaterally foreign and domestic companies who engage in corruption abroad. The United States is not entirely alone in this effort, but other countries have been far less vigorous in investing resources in investigations and prosecuting cases. Because of the unilateral and extraterritorial nature of FCPA prosecutions, these cases are sometimes controversial as foreign governments resist American influence in their commercial relations.

In response to this international tension, as well as a …


Untangling The Market And The State, Wentong Zheng Jan 2017

Untangling The Market And The State, Wentong Zheng

UF Law Faculty Publications

The government plays increasingly active and diversified roles in the modern economy. How to draw the boundary between the market and the state has emerged as a contentious issue in various areas of law, including constitutional law, antitrust, and international trade. This Article surveys and critiques the law’s current approaches to the market-versus-state divide, embodied in four tests based on ownership, control, function, and role, respectively. This Article proposes an alternative market-versus-state test based on the nature of the power being exercised in the challenged action. This power-based test not only better distinguishes between the market and the state, but …


Transparency Evolution: More Than The Right To Know, Ljiljana Biuković, Pitman B. Potter Jan 2017

Transparency Evolution: More Than The Right To Know, Ljiljana Biuković, Pitman B. Potter

All Faculty Publications

Providing an analysis of global regulation and the impact of international organizations on domestic laws, this collection grew out of a central objective to explore methods of domestic engagement with international trade and human rights norms, and the inherent difficulties in establishing balanced links between these two international law regimes. The common thread of the papers in this collection is a focus on the application of socio-legal normative paradigms in building knowledge and policy support for coordinating local performance with international trade and human rights standards in ways that are mutually sustaining.


Trade Law’S Responses To The Rise Of China, Wentong Zheng Oct 2016

Trade Law’S Responses To The Rise Of China, Wentong Zheng

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article offers a systematic examination of trade law’s responses to the emergence of China as a major player in world trade. As an intricate set of rules written largely prior to the advent of the China era, trade law had to readjust to the powerful newcomer in ways that eventually changed trade law itself. This Article investigates these changes in four major areas of trade law: antidumping, countervailing duties, safeguards, and managed trade. In almost all of those areas, trade law witnessed a protectionist shift against Chinese products at the expense of sound, consistent principles. But, at the same …