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Human trafficking

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Ks Pop Celebrating Three Years Of Tech-Driven Justice For All, Ayyoub Ajmi Jul 2024

Ks Pop Celebrating Three Years Of Tech-Driven Justice For All, Ayyoub Ajmi

Faculty Works

This article explores the development and impact of the Kansas Protection Order Portal (KS POP), highlighting the vital role of law librarians in the portal's design and implementation. The article showcases how KS POP has streamlined the legal process for domestic violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking victims in Kansas, marking a significant advancement in accessible legal support and serving as a model for future innovations in the justice system.


A Haven For Traffickers: How The United States Provides A Legal Safe Haven For Businesses That Rely On Forced Labor In The International Supply Chain, Ramona L. Lampley Jan 2024

A Haven For Traffickers: How The United States Provides A Legal Safe Haven For Businesses That Rely On Forced Labor In The International Supply Chain, Ramona L. Lampley

Faculty Articles

Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act ("TVPRA" or "Act") in 2000, which, through its amendments, gives victims of human trafficking, including forced labor or slave labor, a private right of action against those who knowingly benefit from the abusive labor practices perpetrated on them. Even though slave labor, particularly child labor, is a perceived evil in the foreign supply chains of many domestic companies, courts appear uncomfortable with the some of the civil-liability provisions of the TVPRA. This Article examines recent cases brought under the TVPRA, and how, in some cases, courts have eviscerated the private right of action …


The Quest To End Human Trafficking: An Educational And Practical Guide For Everyone Who Wants To Help Break The Bonds And Assist Survivors, Dennis W. Mccarty Apr 2023

The Quest To End Human Trafficking: An Educational And Practical Guide For Everyone Who Wants To Help Break The Bonds And Assist Survivors, Dennis W. Mccarty

Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, and Cybersecurity Faculty Scholarship

People often assume that only legislators and law enforcement personnel can take meaningful steps to fight human trafficking, one of the most lucrative transnational crimes in the world. This inquiry sought to assess the validity of that belief. The study was informed by the author’s experience as a college instructor of human trafficking and the inspiration he drew from the range and quality of his students’ projects.

The methodology included examining the strategies that governmental and non-governmental organizations are using to fight trafficking and assist survivors. It also considered the work of individual activists and service providers such as social …


Human Trafficking, Cults, & Coercion: The Use Of Drugs As A Tool, Robin Boyle Laisure Jan 2023

Human Trafficking, Cults, & Coercion: The Use Of Drugs As A Tool, Robin Boyle Laisure

Faculty Publications

Thanks to the successful prosecution of sex traffickers, the definition and proof of “coercion” now encompasses evidence showing the use of addictive drugs as a tool. This article describes two case examples, and in both, the perpetrators supplied abundant amounts of addictive substantives. Once those victims became addicted and feared the pain of withdrawal, the sex traffickers forced the victims to perform commercial sex acts to pay off the drug debt they incurred, feeding the addiction the traffickers caused. Coercion by way of intentional drug addiction and control is a theory that expands the operative word “coercion.” This short article …


Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang Nov 2022

Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang

Amicus Briefs

Since Congress first enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, it has expanded and strengthened it through successive reauthorizations. Congress has broadened the scope of the TVPRA in order to impose criminal and civil liability on individuals, corporations, and other legal persons who use, or knowingly benefit from ventures that use, forced labor, as well as those who aid and abet these practices. Through this legislation, Congress has bolstered efforts to hold traffickers accountable, opening the courthouse doors to victims of these egregious crimes.

The Ninth Circuit's decision below undermined the very statutory scheme Congress put in place to …


Reconceiving Coercion-Based Criminal Defenses, Stephen R. Galoob, Erin L. Sheley Apr 2022

Reconceiving Coercion-Based Criminal Defenses, Stephen R. Galoob, Erin L. Sheley

Faculty Scholarship

Coercing someone is sometimes wrong and sometimes a crime. People subject to coercion are sometimes eligible for criminal defenses, such as duress. How, exactly, does coercion operate in such contexts? Among legal scholars, the predominant understanding of coercion is the “wrongful pressure” model, which states that coercion exists when the coercer wrongfully threatens the target and, as a result of this threat, the target is pressured to act in accordance with the coercer’s threat. Some tokens of coercion do not fit neatly within existing legal categories or the wrongful pressure model of coercion. For example, coercive control is a psychological …


Promoting Awareness Of Sex Trafficking In Tourism And Hospitality, Joshua Aston, Jun Wen, Edmund Goh, Oswin Maurer Jan 2022

Promoting Awareness Of Sex Trafficking In Tourism And Hospitality, Joshua Aston, Jun Wen, Edmund Goh, Oswin Maurer

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: This cutting-edge short commentary is intended to raise awareness of sex trafficking in the tourism and hospitality industry. The purpose of this paper is to also advocate for further research to identify and hopefully prevent sex trafficking in related settings. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a descriptive overview of the current knowledge base on sex trafficking in tourism and hospitality. Based on gaps in the literature, future research agendas and directions are suggested. Findings: Academic research on sex trafficking in tourism and hospitality remains limited. More scholarly attention is needed to this matter. The tourism industry is directly and indirectly …


Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie A. Dahlstrom Nov 2021

Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie A. Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

More than two decades ago, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) established new, robust protections for immigrant victims of trafficking. In particular, Congress created the T visa, a special form of immigration status, to protect immigrant victims from deportation. Despite lofty ambitions, the annual cap of 5,000 T visas has never been reached, with fewer than 1,200 approved each year. In recent years, denial rates also have climbed. For example, in fiscal year 2020, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services denied 42.79% of the T visa applications that the agency adjudicated, compared with just 28.12% in fiscal year 2015. These developments …


Partnering For Change: Lawyer-Leadership In The Manhattan Da's Office, Davis Polk Leadership Initiative Jun 2021

Partnering For Change: Lawyer-Leadership In The Manhattan Da's Office, Davis Polk Leadership Initiative

Davis Polk Leadership Initiative

In April 2021, the Manhattan DA’s Office announced that it would stop prosecuting theoffenses of prostitution and loitering for the purpose of prostitution. The Office shifted itspolicy, the first of its kind in New York State and one of the first in the nation, in an effort tominimize contact with the criminal justice system and the adverse consequences of arrest andconviction for these offenses. The Office promptly moved to dismiss nearly 6,000 pendingcases.

The policy shift was years in the making — the result of careful exploration of alternatives incollaboration with affected communities in the face of strong competing values …


Ting Ting Cheng Appointed As Director Of Columbia Law School’S Era Project, Center For Gender And Sexuality Law Apr 2021

Ting Ting Cheng Appointed As Director Of Columbia Law School’S Era Project, Center For Gender And Sexuality Law

Center for Gender & Sexuality Law

New York, New York — Today, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Project at Columbia Law School announced that Ting Ting Cheng has been appointed as the Project’s first Director. Ms. Cheng has wide-ranging experience as an advocate for gender justice and brings an ambitious strategic vision to the ERA Project’s work.


A Bibliometric Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Natural Disasters, Shashikala Gurpur Dr, Manika Kamthan Dr, Vartika Tiwari Ms. Feb 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Natural Disasters, Shashikala Gurpur Dr, Manika Kamthan Dr, Vartika Tiwari Ms.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study is based on the bibliometric analysis of research publications that focus on highlighting the interlinkages between natural disasters and human trafficking as its aftermath. The main objectives of the study are to determine the frequency of such publications and also to establish that the problem of trafficking as a result of natural disasters has not received enough attention from the researchers. The data was collected from the Scopus database using VOSviewer software. Literature written from 2000 to October 2020 were perused. The study consisted of a total of 66 documents which are classified into articles, letters, editorials conference …


Promote Healing And Restore Lives: Clinicians’ Reflections On Their Experiences In Working With Survivors Of Trafficking, Brittany Burch Jul 2020

Promote Healing And Restore Lives: Clinicians’ Reflections On Their Experiences In Working With Survivors Of Trafficking, Brittany Burch

McNair Scholars Research

Humans are shaped by their personal beliefs, values, and individual philosophies of life. Personal ideologies of humanitarian aid can root a deep desire to provide help and assistance to the vulnerable within our community. This desire often manifests itself specifically in clinicians seeking to provide healing, hope, and restoration in the lives of women and men. (Thullesen, 2019). Human trafficking is a prominent human rights and social justice issue that is embedded within our society. This study focused on clinicians’ experiences and perspectives in working with victims of human trafficking.

The data was collected through interviews of clinicians working directly …


Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe

International Relations Summer Fellows

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed that it is an issue that affects primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern-day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for the total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis by …


Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe

Politics and International Relations Presentations

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed upon that it is an issue that affect primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis …


The Elastic Meaning(S) Of Human Trafficking, Julie A. Dahlstrom Apr 2020

The Elastic Meaning(S) Of Human Trafficking, Julie A. Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

What is human trafficking? When is an expansive definition of trafficking justifiable? How does trafficking relate to other concepts—like domestic violence, sexual assault, labor exploitation, and prostitution—with which it often overlaps? These questions have become increasingly salient after the U.S. Congress defined the crime of human trafficking in the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (“TVPA”). Since then, all fifty states have passed legislation with varying definitions of the crime. Congress also has re-entered the field with subsequent legislation, expanding the crime to capture new conduct.

As a result of legislative advocacy and judicial interpretation, the legal …


State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson Mar 2019

State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson

All Faculty Scholarship

Many survivors of human trafficking exploited in the commercial sex industry or other labor sectors have been arrested for offenses stemming from their victimization. Resulting criminal records – both arrest and court documents – then follow survivors and create barriers that impact their independence, stability, and safety. In 2010, New York became the first state to allow trafficking survivors to clear certain charges from their criminal records. In the years since, almost every state has enacted some form of criminal record relief for trafficking survivors. However, these laws vary greatly. Many are too limited to offer meaningful relief. Others include …


Copla: A Transnational Criminal Court For Latin America & The Caribbean, Robert Currie, Jacob Leon Jan 2018

Copla: A Transnational Criminal Court For Latin America & The Caribbean, Robert Currie, Jacob Leon

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

States in the Latin American and Caribbean regions have long called for the creation of an independent, international court to prosecute members of transnational organized crime gangs. These organizations not only profit from the illicit traffic in drugs, people and cultural property, but are able to corrupt and undermine the domestic legal systems and judiciaries of the affected states. This paper examines the current proposal for the creation of the "Latin American and Caribbean Criminal Court Against Transnational Organized Crime" (COPLA). It reviews the rationale for creating such a court, examines the main pillars of the current proposal, and suggests …


Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael Gerrard Jan 2018

Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael Gerrard

Faculty Scholarship

At least 21 million people globally are victims of human trafficking, typically involving either sexual exploitation or forced labor. This form of modern-day slavery tends to increase after natural disasters or conflicts where large numbers of people are displaced from their homes and become highly vulnerable. In the decades to come, climate change will very likely lead to a large increase in the number of people who are displaced and thus vulnerable to trafficking. The Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 established objectives to limit global temperature increases, but the voluntary pledges made by nearly every country fall far short of …


Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh Oct 2017

Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh

All Faculty Scholarship

After a hamstring injury in October of 2004 forced her to surrender her athletic scholarship at St. John's University, Shamere McKenzie chose to spend her winter break working in order to save the money she needed to pay the remainder of her tuition. In January of 2005, Shamere met a man named Corey Davis, who expressed an interest in dating her. After getting to know him for several weeks, she eventually shared with him the challenges she was having earning the money she needed to continue her enrollment in college. Davis encouraged her to consider exotic dancing as a way …


Using Global Migration Law To Prevent Human Trafficking, Janie Chuang Jan 2017

Using Global Migration Law To Prevent Human Trafficking, Janie Chuang

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Our understanding of human trafficking has changed significantly since 2000, when the international community adopted the first modern antitrafficking treaty-the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol).' Policy attention has expanded beyond a near-exclusive focus on sex trafficking to bring long-overdue attention to nonsexual labor trafficking. That attention has helped surface how the lack of international laws and institutions pertaining to labor migration can enable-if not encourage -the exploitation of migrant workers. Many migrant workers throughout the world labor under conditions that do not qualify as trafficking yet suffer significant rights …


Staying Safe: Observing Warning Signs Of A Dangerous Liaison, Andrea Laisure, Robin Boyle Laisure Jan 2017

Staying Safe: Observing Warning Signs Of A Dangerous Liaison, Andrea Laisure, Robin Boyle Laisure

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Cults and their connection with human trafficking are ever more timely as a topic of discussion. The insidious crime of human trafficking is spiraling at a fast pace. Human Trafficking is the second-largest criminal industry in the world (with the drug trade being the first). An estimated 100,000 to 300,000 American children are considered high risk for trafficking every year. With the selling and reselling of human labor, trafficking is highly profitable. ICSA’s momentous conference on Cults and Sex Trafficking, held in Los Angeles, California (April 2016) served as a catalyst for researchers and practitioners. At the conference, presenters …


Advocacy At The Leading Edge Of Social Change: The Importance Of Front Line Innovators, Frank W. Munger Jan 2016

Advocacy At The Leading Edge Of Social Change: The Importance Of Front Line Innovators, Frank W. Munger

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


The Next Fifteen Years, Melynda Barnhart Jan 2016

The Next Fifteen Years, Melynda Barnhart

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Creative Capitalism And Human Trafficking: A Business Approach To Eliminate Forced Labor And Human Trafficking From Global Supply Chains, Dana Raigrodski Jan 2016

Creative Capitalism And Human Trafficking: A Business Approach To Eliminate Forced Labor And Human Trafficking From Global Supply Chains, Dana Raigrodski

Articles

A great amount of revenue generated by businesses in the global economy can be linked to the trafficking and enslavement of human beings. Yet, the current discourse on human trafficking fails to recognize the magnitude of benefit consumers, businesses, and economies gain from the work of forced and trafficked labor. Moreover, the limited efforts that seek to address this situation have focused on ways to encourage businesses to voluntarily adopt more socially responsible practices. These measures have had only limited success, and are generally believed to be in tension with the for-profit purposes of businesses.

Hence, the task of convincing …


Employing Trafficking Laws To Capture Elusive Leaders Of Destructive Cults, Robin Boyle Laisure Jan 2016

Employing Trafficking Laws To Capture Elusive Leaders Of Destructive Cults, Robin Boyle Laisure

Faculty Publications

In the 1970s and ‘80s in the United States, American newspapers raised public awareness about cults. Capturing headlines were articles about women, and later men, who followed Charles Manson to the extreme length of committing “Helter Skelter,” a cold-blooded killing spree. Cult activity continued to exist, out of sight and unobserved, until culminating in tragedy when it would, again, become the topic of a news story. Even when cults did not achieve “front-page” status in the news, they continued to recruit adults and raise children born into the group.

Destructive cults are the focus of this paper. Cults continue to …


Human Trafficking: Statute Comparisons And Attitudes In Nebraska, Katie Sheets Oct 2015

Human Trafficking: Statute Comparisons And Attitudes In Nebraska, Katie Sheets

Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking: 7th (2015)

Human trafficking has become an issue for global concern. Here in the United States, the Federal government and all fifty states are taking steps to combat the pervasive problem. This study looks at the anti-human trafficking statutes of all fifty states and compares them with each other to see how each state stacks up against the other. Nebraska was the focus of the study as the unicameral has recently been enacting changes to the state’s laws against human trafficking. Nebraska was expected to at least be with the majority of states with their human trafficking provisions. The study then looked …


Brief Of Amici Curiae Ascentria Care Alliance, Coalition Against Trafficking In Women, Children’S Advocacy Center Of Suffolk County, Demand Abolition, Eva Center, And My Life My Choice In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellee On The Constitutionality Of An Act Relative To The Commercial Exploitation Of People, Commonwealth Of Massachusetts V. Tyshaun Mcghee, Et Al., Julie A. Dahlstrom, Felicia Ellsworth, Tasha Bahal, Michelle Sandals Mar 2015

Brief Of Amici Curiae Ascentria Care Alliance, Coalition Against Trafficking In Women, Children’S Advocacy Center Of Suffolk County, Demand Abolition, Eva Center, And My Life My Choice In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellee On The Constitutionality Of An Act Relative To The Commercial Exploitation Of People, Commonwealth Of Massachusetts V. Tyshaun Mcghee, Et Al., Julie A. Dahlstrom, Felicia Ellsworth, Tasha Bahal, Michelle Sandals

Faculty Scholarship

The victims' story here is a heartbreaking one, and sadly, all too familiar. Too often, victims are targeted, advertised online, and transported for purposes of prostitution while subjected to poor conditions, coercion, and often physical violence. Recognizing that human trafficking is a pervasive and troubling epidemic, Congress and state legislatures around the country have taken actions to criminalize trafficking, punish its offenders, and provide necessary services for trafficking victims. In 2011, Massachusetts enacted An Act Relative to the Commercial Exploitation of People ("Massachusetts Anti-Trafficking Statute") to address the problem of trafficking in the Commonwealth. Among other key provisions, the Massachusetts …


Giving As Governance: Philanthrocapitalism And Modern-Day Slavery Abolitionism, Janie Chuang Jan 2015

Giving As Governance: Philanthrocapitalism And Modern-Day Slavery Abolitionism, Janie Chuang

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This Essay examines the potential influence of a new breed of actor in the global antitrafficking arena: the venture philanthropist, or "philanthrocapitalist." Philanthrocapitalists have already helped rebrand "trafficking" as "modern-day slavery," and have expressed their ambitions to lead global efforts to eradicate the problem. With their deep financial resources and access to powerful networks, philanthrocapitalists hold tremendous power to shape the future trajectory of the antitrafficking movement. this Essay warns, however, against the possibility that philanthrocapitalists could also reconfigure the landscape of global antitrafficking policymaking, marginalizing or even displacing other actors' efforts to address the problem.


Economic Migration Gone Wrong: Trafficking In Persons Through The Lens Of Gender, Labor, And Globalization, Dana Raigrodski Jan 2015

Economic Migration Gone Wrong: Trafficking In Persons Through The Lens Of Gender, Labor, And Globalization, Dana Raigrodski

Articles

This Article argues for an economic analysis of human trafficking which primarily looks at globalization, trade liberalization, and labor migration as the core areas that need to be explored to advance the prevention of human trafficking.

Part I briefly examines the prevailing criminal law enforcement framework regarding human trafficking—both at the international level and in the United States—which stems out of viewing human trafficking as primarily a threat to global security and an underground industry of transnational criminal enterprises. It argues that while criminalization no doubt helped bring much needed attention (and resources) to human trafficking, the narrow criminal law …


Trafficking In Law: Cause Lawyer, Bureaucratic State And Rights Of Human Trafficking Victims In Thailand, Frank W. Munger Jan 2015

Trafficking In Law: Cause Lawyer, Bureaucratic State And Rights Of Human Trafficking Victims In Thailand, Frank W. Munger

Articles & Chapters

In this case study of a young, Thai “cause lawyer”, advocacy for human rights is considered in context. The most important elements of that context are the path of development of Thai political and legal institutions, globalisation of law, and the networks of relationships that penetrate the state. The case study shows that human rights advocacy by NGO lawyers can adapt creatively to unpromising conditions under which courts provide little access or oversight. At the same time, the case study raises profound questions about the ultimate independence of cause lawyers when the state must be made a partner in order …