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Cooperative federalism

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Institution
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Full-Text Articles in Law

Climate Security Insights From The Covid-19 Response, Mark P. Nevitt Jan 2023

Climate Security Insights From The Covid-19 Response, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Articles

The climate change crisis and COVID-19 crisis are both complex collective action problems. Neither the coronavirus nor greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions respect political borders. Both impose an opportunity cost that penalizes inaction. They are also increasingly understood as nontraditional, novel security threats. Indeed, COVID-19’s human cost is staggering, with American lives lost vastly exceeding those lost in recent armed conflicts. And climate change is both a threat accelerant and a catalyst for conflict—a characterization reinforced in several climate-security reports. To counter COVID-19, the President embraced martial language, stating that he will employ a “wartime footing” to “defeat the virus.” Perhaps …


Regional Cooperative Federalism And The Us Electric Grid, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman Feb 2022

Regional Cooperative Federalism And The Us Electric Grid, Hannah Jacobs Wiseman

Journal Articles

The U.S. Constitution makes no direct mention of regional governing entities, yet they are an entrenched part of our federalist system. In the area of electric grid governance, the federal government enlists independent, private entities called regional transmission organizations (RTOs) to implement federal policy and achieve state energy goals. RTOs are the most prominent form of regional cooperative federalism, yet other policy spheres, such as opioid control, encompass a similar approach. This is a twist on the classic form of cooperative federalism, in which the federal government relies upon individual states to achieve federal mandates.

The regionally governed electric grid …


Frenemey Federalism, Scott P. Bloomberg Jan 2022

Frenemey Federalism, Scott P. Bloomberg

Faculty Publications

This article introduces the concept of Frenemy Federalism. The term “frenemy” is a portmanteau of “friend” and “enemy” that is defined as a person with whom one is friendly despite a fundamental dislike or rivalry. A frenemy relationship develops between the federal and state governments when the governments work together despite having conflicting objectives in an area of policy. In such situations, mutual incentives make cooperation between the governments conducive to achieving their respective goals, allowing what may otherwise be a contentious relationship to find stability. Amidst the growing body of federalism scholarship, I situate Frenemy Federalism as a point …


Firing Employment At Will And Discharging Termination Claims From Employment Discrimination: A Cooperative Federalism Approach To Improve Employment Law, William Corbett Oct 2021

Firing Employment At Will And Discharging Termination Claims From Employment Discrimination: A Cooperative Federalism Approach To Improve Employment Law, William Corbett

Journal Articles

The article focuses on employment at will and employment discrimination law-and explores how each encroaches upon and weakens the other. It mentions federal-state cooperative approach to "firing" employment at will and discharging termination claims from the federal employment discrimination laws. It also mentions cooperative federalism approach to improve employment law and basics of a wrongful discharge statute.


The Twin Environmental Law Problems Of Preemption And Political Scale, Erin Ryan Jan 2021

The Twin Environmental Law Problems Of Preemption And Political Scale, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This is a daunting moment for the United States environmental movement. Since 2017, it often seems that federal environmental law is being systematically dismantled—most aggressively by the executive branch, but with tacit support from much of the sitting legislature, and likely with increasing support from the judiciary as well. For environmentalists, the assault on the regulatory accomplishments made over decades of previous lawmaking is cause for grief, but it also compels preparation for the challenges yet to come. This chapter advises environmentalists to resist federal preemption of state regulation and to think creatively about how to accomplish the goals of …


Uncooperative Environmental Federalism 2.0, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2020

Uncooperative Environmental Federalism 2.0, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

Has the Trump Administration made good on its pledges to reinvigorate cooperative federalism and constrain environmental regulatory overreach by the federal government? Perhaps less than one would think. This paper, prepared for the Hastings Law Journal symposium, “Revolution of Evolution? Administrative Law in the Age of Trump,” provides a critical assessment of the Trump Administration’s approach to environmental federalism. Despite the Administration’s embrace of “cooperative federalism” rhetoric, environmental policy reforms have not consistently embodied a principled approach to environmental federalism in which the state and federal governments are each encouraged to focus resources on areas of comparative advantage.


Environmental Law. Disrupted., Erin Ryan Jan 2019

Environmental Law. Disrupted., Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

The U.S. regulatory environment is changing rapidly, at the same time that visible and profound impacts of climate change are already being felt throughout the world, and enormous, potentially existential threats loom in the not-so-distant future. What does it mean to think about and practice environmental law in this setting? In this latest in a biannual series of postings and essays, the authors, members of the Environmental Law Collaborative (ELC), have taken on the question of whether environmental law as we currently know it is up to the job of addressing these threats; and, if not, what the path forward …


A Cooperative Federalism Approach To Shareholder Arbitration, Zachary D. Clopton, Verity Winship Jul 2018

A Cooperative Federalism Approach To Shareholder Arbitration, Zachary D. Clopton, Verity Winship

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Arbitration dominates private law across an ever-expanding range of fields. Its latest target, however, may not be a new field as much as a new form: mandatory arbitration provisions built into corporate charters and bylaws. Recent developments in corporate law coupled with signals from the Securities and Exchange Commission suggest that regulators may be newly receptive to shareholder arbitration. What they do next may have dramatic consequences for whether and how corporate and securities laws are enforced.

The debate about the merits of arbitration is well worn, but its application to shareholder claims opens the door to a different set …


Memo To Environmentalists: Brace For The Three Ps, Erin Ryan Jan 2018

Memo To Environmentalists: Brace For The Three Ps, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This very short essay, written as a memo to environmental advocates during a destabilizing moment in environmental law, advises them to (1) resist federal preemption of state regulation, (2) scrutinize the strategic deployment of property rights to block future regulation, and (3) think creatively about how to accomplish the goals of national-level policy without the benefit of federal authority. In short, it advises that advocates ensure that the campaign to dismantle federal environmental law does not spill over into displacing state and local efforts to fill the void. They also must push back against the strategic deployment of property rights …


Negotiating Environmental Federalism: Dynamic Federalism As A Strategy For Good Governance, Erin Ryan Jan 2017

Negotiating Environmental Federalism: Dynamic Federalism As A Strategy For Good Governance, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This symposium piece distills a few important points from my previous research about the need for negotiated governance and the options for accomplishing it—including Negotiating Federalism (https://ssrn.com/abstract=1583132), which identified the pervasive use of intergovernmental bargaining as a tool for dealing with jurisdictional uncertainty; FEDERALISM AND THE TUG OF WAR WITHIN (https://ssrn.com/abstract=1991612), which folded the concept of negotiated governance into a general theory of Balanced Federalism, exploring how contrasting federalism values are managed by various means of consultation, competition, and collaboration; and Environmental Federalism’s Tug of War Within, (https://ssrn.com/abstract=2532687), the closing chapter to an environmental federalism book, in which I applied …


Multilevel Environmental Governance In The United States, Erin Ryan Jan 2016

Multilevel Environmental Governance In The United States, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This short essay, solicited by the ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST journal, distills the lessons of American experimentation with environmental federalism and multilevel governance for use by other nations (drawing from Environmental Federalism’s Tug of War Within, in THE LAW AND POLICY OF ENVIRONMENTAL FEDERALISM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (Kalyani Robbins, ed., 2015). Multilevel environmental governance disputes reflect increasing pressure on all levels of government to meet the challenges of regulation in an increasingly interconnected world. In the United States (US), debate over the responsibilities of different levels of government are framed within our system of constitutional federalism, which divides sovereign power between the …


Beyond Legality: The Legitimacy Of Executive Action In Immigration Law, Ming H. Chen Jan 2016

Beyond Legality: The Legitimacy Of Executive Action In Immigration Law, Ming H. Chen

Publications

Recent uses of executive action in immigration law have triggered accusations that the President is acting imperially, like a king, or as a lawbreaker. President Obama’s Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and Deferred Action for Parental Accountability (DAPA) programs, which provide protection from deportation and a work permit during a temporary period of lawful presence, serve as the lightning rod for these accusations. But even as legislative and litigation challenges to DACA proceed, many states appear to accept and comply with it, including nearly all of the states that have joined the Texas v United States lawsuit that challenges …


Trust In Immigration Enforcement: State Noncooperation And Sanctuary Cities After Secure Communities, Ming H. Chen Jan 2016

Trust In Immigration Enforcement: State Noncooperation And Sanctuary Cities After Secure Communities, Ming H. Chen

Publications

The conventional wisdom, backed by legitimacy research, is that most people obey most of the laws, most of the time. This turns out to not be the case in a study of state-local participation in immigration law enforcement. Two enforcement programs involving the use of immigration detainers, a vehicle by which the federal government (through ICE) requests that local law enforcement agencies (LEAs) detain immigrants beyond their scheduled release upon suspicion that they are removable, demonstrate the breakdown of conventional wisdom. In the five years following initiation of the Secure Communities program, a significant and growing number of states and …


Environmental Federalism’S Tug Of War Within, Erin Ryan Jan 2015

Environmental Federalism’S Tug Of War Within, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

The intensity of federalism disputes reflects inexorable pressure on all levels of government to meet the increasingly complicated challenges of governance in an ever more interconnected world. Yet even as federalism dilemmas continue to erupt all from all corners, environmental law remains at the forefront of controversy. This chapter argues that environmental law is uniquely prone to federalism discord because it inevitably confronts the core question with which federalism grapples — who gets to decide? — in contexts where state and federal claims to power are simultaneously at their strongest. Environmental problems tend to match the need to regulate the …


Debunking Revisionist Understandings Of Environmental Cooperative Federalism: Collective Action Responses To Air Pollution, Jessica Wentz Jan 2015

Debunking Revisionist Understandings Of Environmental Cooperative Federalism: Collective Action Responses To Air Pollution, Jessica Wentz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The federal Clean Air Act initiated Congress's venture into cooperative environmental federalism in 1970. Forty-five years later, misconceptions about the nature of that venture (and similar examples of cooperative federalism under other federal environmental statutes) persist. In particular, some recent judicial decisions characterize environmental cooperative federalism as an equal partnership between the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the states. They also take umbrage at efforts by EPA to override state policies and initiatives that fail to conform to the minimum responsibilities that the statutes impose on the states, characterizing them as unlawful affronts to state sovereignty.

This chapter argues that …


Testimony Before The Committee On Energy And Commerce, Subcommittee On Environment And Economics, U.S. House Of Representatives, Hearing On Constitutional Considerations: States Vs. Federal Environmental Policy Implementation July 11, 2014, Rena I. Steinzor Jul 2014

Testimony Before The Committee On Energy And Commerce, Subcommittee On Environment And Economics, U.S. House Of Representatives, Hearing On Constitutional Considerations: States Vs. Federal Environmental Policy Implementation July 11, 2014, Rena I. Steinzor

Congressional Testimony

No abstract provided.


The Spending Power And Environmental Law After Sebelius, Erin Ryan Jan 2014

The Spending Power And Environmental Law After Sebelius, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This article analyzes the Supreme Court’s new spending power doctrine and its impact on state-federal bargaining in programs of cooperative federalism, using the laboratory of environmental law. (It expands on the legal analysis in an Issue Brief originally published by the American Constitution Society on Oct. 1, 2013.) After the Supreme Court ruled in the highly charged Affordable Care Act case of 2012, National Federation of Independent Business vs. Sebelius, the political arena erupted in debate over the implications for the health reform initiative and, more generally, the reach of federal law. Analysts fixated on the decision’s dueling Commerce Clause …


Endogenous Decentralization In Federal Environmental Policies, Howard F. Chang, Hilary Sigman, Leah G. Traub Jan 2014

Endogenous Decentralization In Federal Environmental Policies, Howard F. Chang, Hilary Sigman, Leah G. Traub

All Faculty Scholarship

Under most federal environmental laws and some health and safety laws, states may apply for “primacy,” that is, authority to implement and enforce federal law, through a process known as “authorization.” Some observers fear that states use authorization to adopt more lax policies in a regulatory “race to the bottom.” This paper presents a simple model of the interaction between the federal and state governments in such a scheme of partial decentralization. Our model suggests that the authorization option may not only increase social welfare but also allow more stringent environmental regulations than would otherwise be feasible. Our model also …


Federalism And The Tug Of War Within: Introduction, Erin Ryan Jan 2012

Federalism And The Tug Of War Within: Introduction, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

"Federalism and the Tug of War Within" explores how constitutional interpreters struggle to reconcile the competing values that undergird American federalism, with real consequences for governance that requires local and national collaboration. Drawing examples from the response to Hurricane Katrina, climate governance, health reform, nuclear waste, and other problems that implicate both state and federal authority, it shows how federalism theory can inhibit effective multijurisdictional governance by failing to navigate the tensions within federalism itself. The book argues that American federalism is best understood through the “tug of war” between the good-governance principles that dual sovereignty fosters — including checks …


Obamacare And Federalism’S Tug Of War Within, Erin Ryan Jan 2012

Obamacare And Federalism’S Tug Of War Within, Erin Ryan

Scholarly Publications

This month, the Supreme Court will decide what some believe will be among the most important cases in the history of the institution. In the 'Obamacare' cases, the Court considers whether the Affordable Care Act ('ACA') exceeds the boundaries of federal authority under the various provisions of the Constitution that establish the relationship between local and national governance. Its response will determine the fate of Congress’s efforts to grapple with the nation’s health care crisis, and perhaps other legislative responses to wicked regulatory problems like climate governance or education policy. Whichever way the gavel falls, the decisions will likely impact …


Welfare And Rights Before The Movement: Rights As A Language Of The State, Karen M. Tani Jan 2012

Welfare And Rights Before The Movement: Rights As A Language Of The State, Karen M. Tani

All Faculty Scholarship

In conversations about government assistance, rights language often emerges as a danger: when benefits become “rights,” policymakers lose flexibility, taxpayers suffer, and the poor lose their incentive to work. Absent from the discussion is an understanding of how, when, and why Americans began to talk about public benefits in rights terms. This Article addresses that lacuna by examining the rise of a vibrant language of rights within the federal social welfare bureaucracy during the 1930s and 1940s. This language is barely visible in judicial and legislative records, the traditional source base for legal-historical inquiry, but amply evidenced by previously unmined …


Federalism As A Safeguard Of The Separation Of Powers, Jessica Bulman-Pozen Jan 2012

Federalism As A Safeguard Of The Separation Of Powers, Jessica Bulman-Pozen

Faculty Scholarship

States frequently administer federal law, yet scholars have largely overlooked how the practice of cooperative federalism affects the balance of power across the branches of the federal government. This Article explains how states check the federal executive in an era of expansive executive power and how they do so as champions of Congress, both relying on congressionally conferred authority and casting themselves as Congress's faithful agents. By inviting the states to carry out federal law, Congress, whether purposefully or incidentally, counteracts the tendency of statutory ambiguity and broad delegations of authority to enhance federal executive power. When states disagree with …


The Persistence Of Dualism In Human Rights Treaty Implementation, Johanna Kalb Jan 2011

The Persistence Of Dualism In Human Rights Treaty Implementation, Johanna Kalb

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Story Of Kleppe V. New Mexico: The Sagebrush Rebellion As Un-Cooperative Federalism, Robert L. Fischman, Jeremiah Williamson Jan 2011

The Story Of Kleppe V. New Mexico: The Sagebrush Rebellion As Un-Cooperative Federalism, Robert L. Fischman, Jeremiah Williamson

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The story of Kleppe v. New Mexico dramatizes how assertion of federal power advancing national conservation objectives collided with traditional, local economic interests on public lands in the 1970s. This article connects that history with current approaches to natural resources federalism. New Mexico challenged the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, which diminished both state jurisdiction and rancher influence over public rangelands. In response, the Supreme Court resoundingly approved federal authority to reprioritize uses of the public resources, including wildlife, and spurred a lasting backlash in the West. Further legislation passed in the wake of Kleppe transformed this unrest into …


Cooperation, Commandeering, Or Crowding Out? : Federal Intervention And State Choices In Health Care Policy, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2011

Cooperation, Commandeering, Or Crowding Out? : Federal Intervention And State Choices In Health Care Policy, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) substantially alters the respective roles of the federal and state governments in health care policy. Beyond the individual mandate, the ACA presents many questions of federalism, both constitutional and policy-related. This paper, prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy, addresses some of these federalism issues. After outlining some of the policy considerations for determining the proper federal and state balance in health care policy, it identifies constitutional limitations on the federal government’s ability to direct or even influence state policy choices, before discussing how federal …


Cooperative Federalism Post-Schaffer: The Burden Of Proof And Preemption In Special Education, Lara Gelbwasser Freed Jan 2009

Cooperative Federalism Post-Schaffer: The Burden Of Proof And Preemption In Special Education, Lara Gelbwasser Freed

Cornell Law Faculty Publications



Reforming Our Wasteful Hazardous Waste Policy, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2008

Reforming Our Wasteful Hazardous Waste Policy, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

Federal hazardous waste regulation and cleanup programs suffer from poor prioritization, insufficient flexibility, high costs, and questionable benefits. Many of these problems are a result of excessive regulatory centralization. With the enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Emergency Response, Cleanup and Liability Act (CERCLA, aka "Superfund") Congress centralized environmental policy questions that are, in many respects, inherently local in nature. This produced a "mismatch" between those jurisdictions with regulatory primacy and the nature of the environmental problems at issue.

Contamination of soil and groundwater are site-specific, rarely crossing state lines. Due to the local nature …


Clear Notice For Conditions On Spending, Unclear Implications For States In Federal Healthcare Programs, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2008

Clear Notice For Conditions On Spending, Unclear Implications For States In Federal Healthcare Programs, Nicole Huberfeld

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores an important case from the 2005-06 Supreme Court term, Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy. Murphy is a benchmark for Spending Clause jurisprudence, as the new Roberts Court adopted what was the dissenting view for years, but its significance has gone largely unnoticed. Additionally, Murphy may have critical implications for the federalism revolution and for the country's largest healthcare programs. These broad observations are focused in this article by the example of the Clawback Provision, a new Medicaid requirement that has been challenged by New Jersey, Texas, Maine, Missouri, and Kentucky. The Supreme Court …


Cooperative Localism: Federal-Local Collaboration In An Era Of State Sovereignty Part Ii: Federalism, Nestor M. Davidson Jan 2007

Cooperative Localism: Federal-Local Collaboration In An Era Of State Sovereignty Part Ii: Federalism, Nestor M. Davidson

Faculty Scholarship

Direct relations between the federal government and local governments - what this article calls "cooperative localism" - play a significant and underappreciated role in areas of contemporary policy as disparate as homeland security, law enforcement, disaster response, economic development, social services, immigration, and environmental protection. Despite the ubiquity of this practice, a jurisprudential clash is looming that threatens this important facet of intergovernmental relations. Historically, courts have allowed local governments to invoke federal authority as a source of local autonomy, despite the prevailing view of local governments as powerless instrumentalities of the state. The Supreme Court is increasingly suggesting, however, …


When Is Two A Crowd: The Impact Of Federal Action On State Environmental Regulation, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2006

When Is Two A Crowd: The Impact Of Federal Action On State Environmental Regulation, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

This article seeks to identify the ways in which federal actions can influence state regulatory choices in the context of environmental policy. The federal government may directly influence state policy choices by preempting state policies or by inducing state cooperation through the use of various incentives and penalties for state action. The federal government may indirectly, and perhaps unintentionally, influence state policy choices as well. Federal policies may encourage greater state regulation by reducing the costs of initiating regulatory action or by placing issues on state policy agendas. Federal regulation may also discourage or even "crowd-out" state-level regulatory action by …