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Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Law

Developments In The Laws Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook, Tom Kierner Jan 2022

Developments In The Laws Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook, Tom Kierner

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The past year proved to be a busy period for the regulation of electronic payments and financial services. In this year’s survey, we discuss rulemakings, enforcement actions, and other litigation that has significantly impacted the law governing payments and financial services. Part II addresses the ongoing fight between federal and state authorities over which should properly regulate Fin- Tech entities and describes some new steps the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) has taken to assert its authority in this area. Part III details an enforcement action that California regulators took against a FinTech company they determined had …


Interring The Unitary Executive, Christine Chabot Jan 2022

Interring The Unitary Executive, Christine Chabot

Faculty Publications & Other Works

The President's power to remove and control subordinate executive officers has sparked a constitutional debate that began in 1789 and rages on today. Leading originalists claim that the Constitution created a “unitary executive” President whose plenary removal power affords her “exclusive control” over subordinates' exercise of executive power. Text assigning the President a removal power and exclusive control appears nowhere in the Constitution, however, and unitary scholars have instead relied on select historical understandings and negative inferences drawn from a supposed lack of independent regulatory structures at the Founding. The comprehensive historical record introduced by this Article lays this debate …


Constructing The Yellow Brick Road: Preventing Discrimination In Financial Services Against The Lgbtq+ Community, Cyrus Mostaghim Jan 2021

Constructing The Yellow Brick Road: Preventing Discrimination In Financial Services Against The Lgbtq+ Community, Cyrus Mostaghim

Upper Level Writing Requirement Research Papers

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning (“LGBTQ+”) community lacks explicit statutory protections from discrimination in financial services. After the Supreme Court held in Bostock that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity was illegal, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued an informal interpretive rule for the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) and Regulation B that made discrimination in the access to credit based on sexual orientation or gender identity illegal. However, this paper argues that an informal interpretive rule is easily rescinded and does not provide sufficient protection. Thus, alternative action is needed to create …


Developments In The Laws Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Steve Middlebrook, Tom Kierner Jan 2021

Developments In The Laws Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Steve Middlebrook, Tom Kierner

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This survey year offered developments too numerous to cover, as often is the case. We debated which developments to include and decided to showcase different types of products and services, different providers, and different regulators. Part II views issues related to stimulus payments arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. Part III reports on litigation over whether retailers must offer gift cards printed in Braille. Part IV looks at recent actions of the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") related to payment processors and others. Part V describes amendments to the "remittance" regulation promulgated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"). Part VI focuses …


The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Jennifer S. Martin, Colin P. Marks, Wayne Barnes Jan 2021

The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Jennifer S. Martin, Colin P. Marks, Wayne Barnes

Faculty Articles

The survey that follows highlights the most important developments of 2020 dealing with domestic and international sales of goods, personal property leases, payments letters of credit, documents of title, investment securities, and secured transactions.


What’S In Your Wallet (And What Should The Law Do About It?), Natasha Sarin Jan 2020

What’S In Your Wallet (And What Should The Law Do About It?), Natasha Sarin

All Faculty Scholarship

In traditional markets, firms can charge prices that are significantly elevated relative to their costs only if there is a market failure. However, this is not true in a two-sided market (like Amazon, Uber, and Mastercard), where firms often subsidize one side of the market and generate revenue from the other. This means consideration of one side of the market in isolation is problematic. The Court embraced this view in Ohio v. American Express, requiring that anticompetitive harm on one side of a two-sided market be weighed against benefits on the other side.

Legal scholars denounce this decision, which, …


The Salience Theory Of Consumer Financial Regulation, Natasha Sarin Aug 2018

The Salience Theory Of Consumer Financial Regulation, Natasha Sarin

All Faculty Scholarship

Prior to the financial crisis, banks’ fee income was their fastest-growing source of revenue. This revenue was often generated through nefarious bank practices (e.g., ordering overdraft transactions for maximal fees). The crisis focused popular attention on the extent to which current regulatory tools failed consumers in these markets, and policymakers responded: A new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau was tasked with monitoring consumer finance products, and some of the earliest post-crisis financial reforms sought to lower consumer costs. This Article is the first to empirically evaluate the success of the consumer finance reform agenda by considering three recent price regulations: a …


Making Innovation More Competitive: The Case Of Fintech, Rory Van Loo Feb 2018

Making Innovation More Competitive: The Case Of Fintech, Rory Van Loo

Faculty Scholarship

Finance startups are offering automated advice, touchless payments, and other products that could bring great societal benefits, including lower prices and expanded access to credit. Yet unlike in other digital arenas in which American companies were global leaders, such as search engines and ride hailing, the U.S. has lagged in consumer finance. This Article posits that the current competition framework is holding back consumer financial innovation. It then identifies a contributor that has yet to be articulated: the organizational design of administrative agencies. Competition authority—including antitrust and the extension of business licenses—is spread across at least five regulators. Each is …


Choosing Corporations Over Consumers: The Financial Choice Act Of 2017 And The Cfpb, Christopher L. Peterson Nov 2017

Choosing Corporations Over Consumers: The Financial Choice Act Of 2017 And The Cfpb, Christopher L. Peterson

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The Financial Choice Act of 2017 is appropriately named in at least one sense: its proposed restrictions on the authority of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau reflect a choice by the House of Representatives to protect financial companies at the expense of consumers. This choice is borne out by the data. As this empirical review of CFPB enforcement cases demonstrates, nearly all of the relief provided to American consumers in CFPB enforcement cases arose where a bank, credit union, or other finance company deceived their customers about a material aspect of their product or service. Between 2012 and 2016, the …


Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr Jan 2017

Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr

Book Chapters

This chapter focuses on the use of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration clauses in a subset of consumer contracts – those involving consumer finance and investor products and services. Arbitration clauses are pervasive in financial contracts – for credit cards, bank accounts, auto loans, broker-dealer services, and many others. In the wake of the recent financial crisis, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank). Dodd-Frank authorises the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to prohibit or condition the use of arbitration clauses in consumer finance and investment contracts, …


Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Law Enforcement: An Empirical Review, Christopher L. Peterson May 2016

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Law Enforcement: An Empirical Review, Christopher L. Peterson

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In the aftermath of the U.S. financial crisis, Congress created a new federal agency — the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) — with the goal of fashioning a more just and efficient American consumer finance market. The CFPB now serves as the U.S. Government’s primary regulator and civil law enforcement agency governing consumer lending, payment systems, debt collection, and other consumer financial services. In its first four years of enforcing federal consumer protection laws, the CFPB has announced over a hundred different law enforcement cases forcing banks and other financial companies to relinquish over $11 billion in customer refunds, forgiven …


The Funny Thing About Forced Arbitration And The Cfpb, Joanne Doroshow Jan 2016

The Funny Thing About Forced Arbitration And The Cfpb, Joanne Doroshow

Other Publications

No abstract provided.


Hurrah For The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Consumer Arbitration As A Poster Child For Regulation, Jean R. Sternlight Jan 2016

Hurrah For The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Consumer Arbitration As A Poster Child For Regulation, Jean R. Sternlight

Scholarly Works

Drawing on economic, psychological and philosophical considerations, this Essay considers whether consumers should be "free" to "agree" to contractually trade their opportunity to litigate in a class action for the opportunity to bring an arbitration claim against a company. The Essay suggests that by looking at the CFPB's regulation through these three lenses, one sees that the regulation is desirable—even a poster child—for the potential value of regulation when market forces are not sufficient to protect individual or public interests.


Who’S Exercising What Power: Toward A Judicially-Manageable Nondelegation Doctrine, Martin Edwards Jan 2016

Who’S Exercising What Power: Toward A Judicially-Manageable Nondelegation Doctrine, Martin Edwards

Journal Articles

This Article argues that the traditional, "intelligible principle" nondelegation analysis is incomplete and that an examination of the delegate, rather than just the delegation, more effectively animates the doctrine. This is true not only as a practical matter; early Supreme Court cases, as well as later ones, have taken a keen interest in the recipient of the alleged delegation. In other words, a realistic and judicially enforceable nondelegation doctrine must include more than a mere tip of the juridical cap.


Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr Oct 2015

Mandatory Arbitration In Consumer Finance And Investor Contracts, Michael S. Barr

Articles

Mandatory pre-dispute arbitration clauses are pervasive in consumer financial and investor contracts—for credit cards, bank accounts, auto loans, broker-dealer services, and many others. These clauses often ill serve households. Consumers are typically presented with contracts on a “take it or leave it” basis, with no ability to negotiate over terms. Arbitration provisions are often not clearly disclosed, and in any event are not salient for consumers, who do not focus on the importance of the provision in the event that a dispute over the contract later arises, and who may misforecast the likelihood of being in such a dispute. The …


"We Buy Houses": Market Heroes Or Criminals?, Cori Harvey Jan 2014

"We Buy Houses": Market Heroes Or Criminals?, Cori Harvey

Journal Publications

The residential sale/leaseback/buyback transaction is a socially beneficial foreclosure rescue transaction that is being regulated increasingly by the criminal courts to the detriment of the homeowners, investors, and society at large. Because the transaction is being regulated more aggressively with the criminal law, peculiar outcomes arise, which include investors being sentenced, in some cases, to draconian sentences --a trend that will eviscerate the transactions rather than improving them.

In calling for a retreat from that position, this Article makes both descriptive and prescriptive claims. The first descriptive claim is that the transaction is a beneficial one and that it has …


Behaviorism In Finance And Securities Law, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2014

Behaviorism In Finance And Securities Law, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

In this Essay, I take stock (as something of an outsider) of the behavioral economics movement, focusing in particular on its interaction with traditional cost-benefit analysis and its implications for agency structure. The usual strategy for such a project—a strategy that has been used by others with behavioral economics—is to marshal the existing evidence and critically assess its significance. My approach in this Essay is somewhat different. Although I describe behavioral economics and summarize the strongest criticisms of its use, the heart of the Essay is inductive, and focuses on a particular context: financial and securities regulation, as recently revamped …


Contract And Choice, Peter B. Rutledge, Christopher R. Drahozal Mar 2013

Contract And Choice, Peter B. Rutledge, Christopher R. Drahozal

Scholarly Works

This Article contributes to an ongoing debate, afoot in academic, legal, and policy circles, over the future of consumer arbitration. Utilizing a newly available database of credit card agreements, the Article offers an in-depth examination of dispute resolution practices within the credit card industry. In some respects, the data cast doubt on the conventional wisdom about the pervasiveness of arbitration clauses in consumer contracts and the presence of unfair terms. For example, the vast majority of credit card issuers do not utilize arbitration clauses, and by the end of 201 0, the majority of credit card debt was not subject …


Virtual Uncertainty: Developments In The Law Of Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook Jan 2013

Virtual Uncertainty: Developments In The Law Of Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article surveys developments in the laws relating to virtual currencies and their regulation by the Department of Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, and enforcement actions taken by the Departments of Treasury, Homeland Security and Justice against funds held in deposit accounts owned by Dwolla, Mt. Gox, and Mutum Sigillum, LLC, and DOJ's action against Liberty Reserve. It also analyses changes to the CFPB's cross-border remittance transfer regulations, and its first use of its preemption authority to preempt portions of the Maine and Tennessee gift card laws pertaining to expiry, and the first action by the FDIC against a bank …


The Financial Services Industry's Misguided Quest To Undermine The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. Jan 2012

The Financial Services Industry's Misguided Quest To Undermine The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Congress decided to establish the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) after concluding that federal bank regulators had utterly failed to protect consumers during the credit boom leading up to the financial crisis. Because of the prudential regulators’ systemic failures, Congress vested CFPB with sole responsibility and clear accountability for protecting consumers of financial services. Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act delegates broad rulemaking and enforcement powers to CFPB. To insulate CFPB from political influence, Title X grants CFPB substantial autonomy as well as an assured source of funding from the Federal Reserve System.

The …


Consumer Financial Protection: It's A Smaller World After All.Pdf, Hilary Allen Mar 2011

Consumer Financial Protection: It's A Smaller World After All.Pdf, Hilary Allen

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Few of the reforms of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”) havebeen as controversial as the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. On the one hand,proponents envisioned the Bureau as “a single, highly motivated federal regulator, [that would apply] the sameregulation … to all similar products, regardless of the identity of the lender.” On the other hand, critics havecalled the Bureau “fatally flawed” and suggested that it has the potential to “stifle innovation and leave somemarket participants worse off.”


The Dodd-Frank Act's Expansion Of State Authority To Protect Consumers Of Financial Services, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. Jan 2011

The Dodd-Frank Act's Expansion Of State Authority To Protect Consumers Of Financial Services, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and delegated to CFPB the combined rulemaking and enforcement authorities of seven federal agencies that previously were responsible for protecting consumers of financial services. Congress decided to establish a single federal authority dedicated to consumer financial protection after federal banking agencies failed to protect American homeowners from unsound and predatory lending practices during the housing boom that occurred between 2001 and 2006. Federal regulators allowed lenders to make more than 10 million high-risk mortgages during those years. When the housing bubble burst in …