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Full-Text Articles in Law

Employers And The Privatization Of Public Health, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2024

Employers And The Privatization Of Public Health, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This Article focuses on the role of employers in public health and argues that they constitute increasingly important actors in the U.S. public health arena. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of judicial decisions and newly enacted statutes enfeebled the public health powers of the federal and state governments. In a 2023 statement, Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch clearly articulated his antagonism towards government-initiated COVID-19 interventions, describing them as “the greatest intrusions on civil liberties in the peacetime history of this country.” All too many share his views.

Employers may be highly motivated to safeguard their workers’ …


Did The Supreme Court In Transunion V. Ramirez Transform The Article Iii Standing Injury In Fact Test?: The Circuit Split Over Ada Tester Standing And Broader Theoretical Considerations, Bradford Mank Jan 2023

Did The Supreme Court In Transunion V. Ramirez Transform The Article Iii Standing Injury In Fact Test?: The Circuit Split Over Ada Tester Standing And Broader Theoretical Considerations, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Some commentators have criticized the Supreme Court’s 2016 decision in Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins and especially the Court’s 2021 decision in TransUnion LLC v. Ramirez for limiting Congress’ authority to confer standing by statute. For example, in his article, Injury in Fact Transformed, Professor Cass Sunstein argues that TransUnion is a “radical ruling” that uses the injury in fact standing requirement to limit the authority of Congress to enact only statutes that address harms that have a close relationship to traditional or common law harms. By contrast, Professor Ernst Young argues that the Supreme Court’s injury in fact doctrine is …


Making Me Ill: Environmental Racism And Justice As Disability, Britney Wilson Jul 2022

Making Me Ill: Environmental Racism And Justice As Disability, Britney Wilson

Articles & Chapters

Civil rights legal scholars and practitioners have lamented the constraints of the largely intent-based legal framework required to challenge racial discrimination and injustice. As a result, they have sought alternative methods that seemingly require less overt proof of discrimination and are more equipped to address structural harm. One of these proposed solutions involves the use of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)—due to its affirmative mandate to address discrimination by reasonable modification or accommodation—and the framing of issues of racial injustice in terms of disability or the deprivation of medical rights. Environmental justice, an area in which issues of both …


Debating Disability Disclosure In Legal Education, Jasmine E. Harris Dec 2021

Debating Disability Disclosure In Legal Education, Jasmine E. Harris

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Editor, Ethical Challenges In Discharge Planning: Stories From Patients, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2021

Editor, Ethical Challenges In Discharge Planning: Stories From Patients, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

This symposium includes twelve personal narratives from patients and their caregivers who have navigated challenges in planning for discharge from the hospital and transition to care at home, a rehabilitation facility, long-term care facility, or hospice. Three commentaries on these narratives are also included, authored by experts and scholars in the fields of medicine, bioethics, and health policy with particular interest in vulnerable populations. The goal of this symposium is to call attention to the experiences of patients during transitions in care and to enrich discussions of ethical issues in discharge planning.


Covid-19 Employee Health Checks, Remote Work, And Disability Law, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2021

Covid-19 Employee Health Checks, Remote Work, And Disability Law, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, about 61 million individuals in the U.S. The law’s protections in the workplace are especially important during COVID-19, which has worsened pre-existing disparities experienced by people with disabilities. The ADA also applies to new strategies to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection in the workplace. This Chapter will focus on two strategies that impact individuals with and without disabilities – employee health screening, testing and vaccination policies, and new or expanded remote work programs.


Disability Discrimination In Higher Education: The Enabling Spirit Of American Disability Legislation In Conflict With Judicial Interpretation, Travis Murray Dec 2020

Disability Discrimination In Higher Education: The Enabling Spirit Of American Disability Legislation In Conflict With Judicial Interpretation, Travis Murray

Student Scholarship

Disabled individuals have historically been treated as second-class citizens in the United States. While improvements have certainly been made over time, disabled individuals still face significant barriers to enjoying full and equal participation in society. Higher education is one aspect of American society still lacking proportional representation of the disabled community. To try and understand why disabled Americans fail to thrive in higher education at rates approaching those of non-disabled individuals, this paper will examine the following: how the history of disability discrimination in America influenced passage of powerful anti-discrimination legislation; how American courts have generally interpreted that legislation to …


Towards An Urban Disability Agenda, Samuel R. Bagenstos Nov 2020

Towards An Urban Disability Agenda, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

The overwhelming majority of Americans with disabilities live in metropolitan areas. Yet those areas continue to contain significant barriers that keep disabled people from fully participating in city life. Although political and social debate has periodically turned its attention to urban issues or problems — or even the so-called “urban crisis” — during the past several decades, it has too rarely attended to the issues of disability access. When political debate has focused on disability issues, it has tended to address them in a nationally uniform way, without paying attention to the particular concerns of disabled people in cities. Even …


Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer Oct 2020

Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer

Seattle University Law Review Online

No abstract provided.


Resolving Tensions Between Disability Rights Law And Covid-19 Mask Policies, Elizabeth Pendo, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra Jul 2020

Resolving Tensions Between Disability Rights Law And Covid-19 Mask Policies, Elizabeth Pendo, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra

All Faculty Scholarship

As states reopen, an increasing number of state and local officials are requiring people to wear face masks while out of the home. Grocery stores, retail outlets, restaurants and other businesses are also announcing their own mask policies, which may differ from public policies. Public health measures to stop the spread of the coronavirus such as wearing masks have the potential to greatly benefit millions of Americans with disabilities, who are particularly vulnerable to the impact of COVID-19. But certain disabilities may make it difficult or inadvisable to wear a mask.

Mask-wearing has become a political flashpoint, putting people with …


Who Gets The Ventilator? Disability Discrimination In Covid-19 Medical-Rationing Protocols, Samuel Bagenstos May 2020

Who Gets The Ventilator? Disability Discrimination In Covid-19 Medical-Rationing Protocols, Samuel Bagenstos

Articles

The coronavirus pandemic has forced us to reckon with the possibility of having to ration life-saving medical treatments. In response, many health systems have employed protocols that explicitly de-prioritize people for these treatments based on pre-existing disabilities. This Essay argues that such protocols violate the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation Act, and the Affordable Care Act. Such explicit discrimination on its face violates these statutes. Nor can medical providers simply define disabled patients as being “unqualified” because of disabilities that do not affect the ability to ameliorate the condition for which treatment is sought. A proper interpretation of the …


Virtual Access: A New Framework For Disability And Human Flourishing In An Online World, John D. Inazu, Johanna Smith Jan 2020

Virtual Access: A New Framework For Disability And Human Flourishing In An Online World, John D. Inazu, Johanna Smith

Scholarship@WashULaw

While many commentators have noted the wealth and class disparities that emerge from the digital divide, disability adds another important lens through which to consider questions of access and equity. Online accessibility for disabled people has fallen prey to the same assumptions and impediments that led to the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) addressing disability access in the offline world. Addressing these shortcomings requires a significant conceptual shift in our understanding of “access,” even among disabled people. Offline, the sidewalk or doorway hindered access to those who needed assistance walking or moving. Today’s virtual sidewalks and doorways complicate access in …


The Role Of Law And Policy In Achieving Healthy People's Disability And Health Goals Around Access To Health Care, Activities Promoting Health And Wellness, Independent Living And Participation, And Collecting Data In The United States, Elizabeth Pendo, Lisa Iezzoni Jan 2020

The Role Of Law And Policy In Achieving Healthy People's Disability And Health Goals Around Access To Health Care, Activities Promoting Health And Wellness, Independent Living And Participation, And Collecting Data In The United States, Elizabeth Pendo, Lisa Iezzoni

All Faculty Scholarship

Ensuring that the almost 60 million Americans with disabilities live as healthy and independent lives as possible is an important goal for our nation. This evidence-based report highlights efforts to better use law and policy to support and protect people with disabilities. Specifically, it examines how existing federal laws and policies could be leveraged by states, communities, and other sectors to reduce barriers to primary and preventive care; reduce barriers to local health and wellness programs; increase access to leisure, social, or community activities (and indirectly, to religious activities) for individuals with disabilities; and generate better disability data needed to …


The Americans With Disabilities Act And Healthcare Employer-Mandated Vaccinations, Y. Tony Yang, Elizabeth Pendo, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss Jan 2020

The Americans With Disabilities Act And Healthcare Employer-Mandated Vaccinations, Y. Tony Yang, Elizabeth Pendo, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

All Faculty Scholarship

Battles around workplace vaccination policies often focus on the annual influenza vaccine, but many healthcare employers impose requirements for additional vaccines because of the increased likelihood that employees in this sector will interact with populations at increased risk of acquiring or experiencing harmful sequelae of vaccine-preventable diseases. The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and many states recommend healthcare employees receive numerous vaccines, including measles, mumps, and rubella (“MMR”); tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (“Tdap”). However, recent outbreaks of once-eliminated diseases that are now resurgent and the rising antivaccination movement raise questions about how far employers can go to mandate …


Substance Use Disorder, Discrimination, And The Cares Act: Using Disability Law To Strengthen New Protections, Kelly K. Dineen, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2020

Substance Use Disorder, Discrimination, And The Cares Act: Using Disability Law To Strengthen New Protections, Kelly K. Dineen, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic is having devastating consequences for people with substance use disorders (SUD). SUD is a chronic health condition—like people with other chronic health conditions, people with SUD experience periods of remission and periods of exacerbation and relapse. Unlike people with most other chronic conditions, people with SUD who experience a relapse may face criminal charges and incarceration. They are chronically disadvantaged by pervasive social stigma, discrimination, and structural inequities. People with SUD are also at higher risk for both contracting the SARS-CoV-19 virus and experiencing poorer outcomes. Meanwhile, there are early indications that pandemic conditions have led to …


Anticipating Accommodation, Jennifer B. Shinall Jan 2020

Anticipating Accommodation, Jennifer B. Shinall

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In theory, a reasonable accommodation mandate can remedy worker marginalization by requiring employers to make small adjustments in the workplace that have big payoffs for employees. But in reality, a reasonable accommodation mandate may be an empty promise. Reasonable accommodation is the hallmark feature of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA "), yet decades of empirical studies indicate that wage and employment outcomes of disabled individuals have not improved--and may have even worsened--since the Act's passage. Economists have been quick to blame the reasonable accommodation mandate for the ADA's failure, but they have lacked sufficient data to discern both what …


Creating A “Good” Olmstead Plan For People With Serious Mental Illness: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Legal Frameworks, Andrea Avila Aug 2019

Creating A “Good” Olmstead Plan For People With Serious Mental Illness: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Legal Frameworks, Andrea Avila

Department of Psychology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Olmstead v. L.C. ex rel Zimring (1999) was a landmark US Supreme Court decision holding that unjustified segregation of people with disabilities is impermissible discrimination; specifically, if the clinician and client believe community integration to be appropriate, the state must have reasonable accommodations in place for the client to be in the community. Enforcement of the Olmstead decision for people with serious mental illness has taken many shapes, from the DOJ’s settlement agreements requiring substantive development of community mental health services and aggressive community integration protocols, to the Third Circuit approach which requires only lower census numbers in the state …


The Americans With Disabilities Act: Legal And Practical Applications In Child Protection Proceedings, Joshua B. Kay Mar 2019

The Americans With Disabilities Act: Legal And Practical Applications In Child Protection Proceedings, Joshua B. Kay

Articles

Parents with disabilities, particularly those with intellectual disability and/or mental illness, are disproportionately represented in the child protection system.1 Once involved in the system, they are far more likely than parents without disabilities to have their children removed and their parental rights terminated. The reasons for this are many. Parents with disabilities are relatively likely to experience other challenges that are themselves risk factors for child protection involvement. In addition, child protection agencies, attorneys, courts, and related professionals often lack knowledge and harbor biases about parents with disabilities, increasing the likelihood of more intrusive involvement in the family. Yet research …


The Future Of Disability Rights Protections For Transgender People, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer Levi Jan 2019

The Future Of Disability Rights Protections For Transgender People, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer Levi

Faculty Scholarship

The Americans with Disabilities Act and its predecessor, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (“Section 504”), protect people from discrimination based on disability, but not if the disability is one of three archaic medical conditions associated with transgender people: “transvestism,” “transsexualism,” and “gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments.” This Article describes the origins of transgender exclusion and discusses why a growing number of federal courts find this exclusion does not apply to gender dysphoria, a new and distinct medical diagnosis. Further, the Authors define the future of disability rights protections for transgender people.


Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2019

Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo

Articles

Although workplace wellness plans have been around for decades, they have flourished under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) into a $6 billion-dollar industry. Under PPACA, a “wellness plan” is a program of health promotion or disease prevention offered by an employer that is designed to promote health or prevent disease and which meets the other applicable requirements of that subsection. Employers look to these programs to promote healthy lifestyles, improve the overall health of employees and beneficiaries, and reduce rising healthcare costs.

PPACA’s amendments to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) permit employers to offer …


There's Voices In The Night Trying To Be Heard: The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities On Domestic Mental Disability Law, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein Jan 2019

There's Voices In The Night Trying To Be Heard: The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities On Domestic Mental Disability Law, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein

Articles & Chapters

This paper carefully examines, through a therapeutic jurisprudence framework, the likely impact of the ratification of this UN Convention on society’s sanist attitudes towards persons with mental disabilities. We argue that it is impossible to consider the impact of anti-discrimination law on persons with mental disabilities without a full understanding of how sanism -- an irrational prejudice of the same quality and character of other irrational prejudices that cause (and are reflected in) prevailing social attitudes of racism, sexism, homophobia, and ethnic bigotry -- permeates all aspects of the legal system and the entire fabric of American society.

Notwithstanding nearly …


Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo, Brandon Hall Jan 2019

Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo, Brandon Hall

All Faculty Scholarship

Although workplace wellness plans have been around for decades, they have flourished under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) into a $6 billion-dollar industry. Under PPACA, a “wellness plan” is a program of health promotion or disease prevention offered by an employer that is designed to promote health or prevent disease and which meets the other applicable requirements of that subsection. Employers look to these programs to promote healthy lifestyles, improve the overall health of employees and beneficiaries, and reduce rising healthcare costs. PPACA’s amendments to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) permit employers to offer …


What Genetic Testing Teaches About Long-Term Predictive Health Analytics Regulation, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2019

What Genetic Testing Teaches About Long-Term Predictive Health Analytics Regulation, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

The ever-growing phenomenon of predictive health analytics is generating significant excitement, hope for improved health outcomes, and potential for new revenues. Researchers are developing algorithms to predict suicide, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cognitive decline, future opioid abuse, and other ailments. The researchers include not only medical experts, but also commercial enterprises such as Facebook and LexisNexis, who may profit from the work considerably. This Article focuses on long-term disease predictions (predictions regarding future illnesses), which have received surprisingly little attention in the legal and ethical literature. It compares the robust academic and policy debates and legal interventions that followed the …


Knowledge Of Practicing Physicians About Their Legal Obligations When Caring For Patients With Disability, Nicole Agaronnik, Elizabeth Pendo, Julie Ressalam, Eric G. Campbell, Lisa Iezzoni Jan 2019

Knowledge Of Practicing Physicians About Their Legal Obligations When Caring For Patients With Disability, Nicole Agaronnik, Elizabeth Pendo, Julie Ressalam, Eric G. Campbell, Lisa Iezzoni

All Faculty Scholarship

doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05060 HEALTH AFFAIRS 38, NO. 4 (2019): 545–553


Stuck In Neutral: The Americans With Disabilities Act And The State Of Paratransit Service In New York City, Britney Wilson Apr 2018

Stuck In Neutral: The Americans With Disabilities Act And The State Of Paratransit Service In New York City, Britney Wilson

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


An Assessment Of Disability Access At The University Of Kentucky, Megan S. Coffinbargar Jan 2018

An Assessment Of Disability Access At The University Of Kentucky, Megan S. Coffinbargar

Oswald Research and Creativity Competition

This study assesses the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) compliance at the University of Kentucky. Twenty buildings frequently used by undergraduates at the University of Kentucky were evaluated using the ADA Checklist for Existing Facilities focusing on Title III, Public Accommodations, and Priority Two, Access to Goods and Services. Data was collected over two weeks (July 20, 2017-August 3, 2017) and then evaluated using descriptive analysis. Data was analyzed looking across checklist items, buildings, checklist categories, and construction dates. Looking across checklist items, compliance ranged from 12-20 buildings out of 20 possible with 18.485 buildings as the average. …


On Desolation Row: The Blurring Of The Borders Between Civil And Criminal Mental Disability Law, And What It Means To All Of Us, Michael L. Perlin, Deborah Dorfman, Naomi Weinstein Jan 2018

On Desolation Row: The Blurring Of The Borders Between Civil And Criminal Mental Disability Law, And What It Means To All Of Us, Michael L. Perlin, Deborah Dorfman, Naomi Weinstein

Articles & Chapters

One of the great tensions of mental disability law is the unresolved, trompe d’oeil question of whether it is a subset of the civil law, of the criminal law, or something entirely different. The resolution of this question is not an exercise in formalism or pigeonholing, but is critical to an understanding of the future direction of mental disability law, the deeper meaning of US Supreme Court cases and important state legislative initiatives, and the whole array of hidden issues and agendas that lurk under the surface of mental disability law-decision making. As mental disability law has matured, a dual …


Accessibility Of Medical Diagnostic Equipment - Implications For People With Disability, Lisa Iezzoni, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2018

Accessibility Of Medical Diagnostic Equipment - Implications For People With Disability, Lisa Iezzoni, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

Under Attorney General Jeff Sessions, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has inactivated or rescinded numerous rules and guidelines issued by prior administrations, sometimes attracting considerable public attention in the process. Little noticed, however, was a decision by the DOJ on December 26, 2017, to formally withdraw four Advance Notices of Proposed Rulemaking related to Titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), including rulemaking that addressed making medical diagnostic equipment accessible to people with disability. For now, this step halts efforts on a national level to ensure accessibility of such equipment, which includes exam tables, weight …


Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos Dec 2017

Disability, Universalism, Social Rights, And Citizenship, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

The 2016 election has had significant consequences for American social welfare policy. Some of these consequences are direct. By giving unified control of the federal government to the Republican Party for the first time in a decade, the election has potentially empowered conservatives to ram through a bill to repeal the Affordable Care Act—the landmark “Obamacare” law that marked the most significant expansion of the social welfare state since the 1960s. Other consequences are more indirect. Both the election result itself, and Republicans’ actions since, have spurred a renewed debate within the left-liberal coalition regarding the politics of social welfare …


Educational Equality For Children With Disabilities: The 2016 Term Cases, Samuel R. Bagenstos Nov 2017

Educational Equality For Children With Disabilities: The 2016 Term Cases, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Book Chapters

One of the most longstanding debates in educational policy pits the goal of equality against the goal of adequacy: Should we aim to guarantee that all children receive an equal education? Or simply that they all receive an adequate education? The debate is vexing in part because there are many ways to specify “equality” and “adequacy.” Are we talking about equality of inputs (which inputs?), equality of opportunity (to achieve what?), or equality of results (which results?)? Douglas Rae and his colleagues famously argued that there are no fewer than 108 structurally distinct conceptions of equality. And how do we …