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Knowledge Commons (2016), Michael J. Madison, Katherine J. Strandburg, Brett M. Frischmann Jan 2016

Knowledge Commons (2016), Michael J. Madison, Katherine J. Strandburg, Brett M. Frischmann

Book Chapters

This chapter describes methods for systematically studying knowledge commons as an institutional mode of governance of knowledge and information resources, including references to adjacent but distinct approaches to research that looks primarily to the role(s) of intellectual property systems in institutional contexts concerning innovation and creativity.

Knowledge commons refers to an institutional approach (commons) to governing the production, use, management, and/or preservation of a particular type of resource (knowledge or information, including resources linked to innovative and creative practice). Commons refers to a form of community management or governance. It applies to a resource, and it involves a ...


Understanding Access To Things: A Knowledge Commons Perspective, Michael J. Madison Jan 2016

Understanding Access To Things: A Knowledge Commons Perspective, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

This chapter explores the related ideas of access to knowledge resources and shared governance of those resources, often known as commons. Knowledge resources consist of many types and forms. Some are tangible, and some are intangible. Some are singular; some are reproduced in copies. Some are singular or unique; some are collected or pooled. Some are viewed, used, or consumed only by a single person; for some resources, collective or social consumption is the norm. Any given resource often has multiple attributes along these dimensions, depending on whether one examines the resource’s physical properties, its creative or inventive properties ...


Lawyers At Work: A Study Of The Reading, Writing, And Communication Practices Of Legal Professionals, Ann N. Sinsheimer, David J. Herring Jan 2016

Lawyers At Work: A Study Of The Reading, Writing, And Communication Practices Of Legal Professionals, Ann N. Sinsheimer, David J. Herring

Articles

This paper reports the results of a three-year ethnographic study of attorneys in the workplace. The authors applied ethnographic methods to identify how junior associates in law firm settings engaged in reading and writing tasks in their daily practice. The authors were able to identify the types of texts junior associates encountered in the workplace and to isolate the strategies these attorneys used to read and compose texts.

The findings suggest that lawyering is fundamentally about reading. The attorneys observed for this study read constantly, encountering a large variety of texts and engaging in many styles of reading, including close ...


Rick's Taxonomy, Mary Crossley Jan 2016

Rick's Taxonomy, Mary Crossley

Articles

This Essay uses the influential educational work Bloom’s Taxonomy as a jumping-off point for exploring how Rick Matasar’s scholarship relating to leadership in and the goals of legal education provides a guide for identifying, prioritizing and pursuing the core values and objectives of the legal education enterprise in a time of profound change. This Essay briefly describes Bloom’s Taxonomy and its status in the educational literature. Then it highlights two ways that Matasar’s leadership scholarship displays kinship to Bloom’s Taxonomy. His approach to describing a problem, analyzing its nature, and synthesizing and evaluating possible responses ...


Black Health Matters: Disparities, Community Health, And Interest Convergence, Mary Crossley Jan 2016

Black Health Matters: Disparities, Community Health, And Interest Convergence, Mary Crossley

Articles

Health disparities represent a significant strand in the fabric of racial injustice in the United States, one that has proven exceptionally durable. Many millions of dollars have been invested in addressing racial disparities over the past three decades. Researchers have identified disparities, unpacked their causes, and tracked their trajectories, with only limited progress in narrowing the health gap between whites and racial and ethnic minorities. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the movement toward value-based payment methods for health care may supply a new avenue for addressing disparities. This Article argues that the ACA’s requirement that ...


Resurrecting Islam Or Cementing Social Hierarchy?: Reexamining The Codification Of 'Islamic' Personal Status Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2016

Resurrecting Islam Or Cementing Social Hierarchy?: Reexamining The Codification Of 'Islamic' Personal Status Law, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

There is a regrettable tendency to equate social conservatism with religious adherence. Nowhere does this occur more than in the Muslim world, where conservatives are closely associated with adherence to shari’a. The more unyielding the conservative, the “stricter” the supposed adherence to shari’a, or, alternatively, the more “literal” the version of shari’a adhered to.

While almost any social conservative movement in the Muslim world or otherwise professes adherence to religious doctrine as being the core of its ideological commitment, and while there are important ways in which Muslim social conservatives insist on adherence to religious rules in ...


Information Abundance And Knowledge Commons, Michael J. Madison Jan 2016

Information Abundance And Knowledge Commons, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

Standard accounts of IP law describe systems of legal exclusion intended to prompt the production and distribution of intellectual resources, or information and knowledge, by making those things artificially scarce. The argument presented here frames IP law instead as one of several possible institutional responses to the need to coordinate the use of intellectual resources given their natural abundance, and not necessarily useful or effective responses at that. The chapter aims to shift analytic and empirical frameworks from those grounded in law to those grounded in governance, and from IP law in isolation to IP law as part of resource ...


Post-Graduate Legal Training: The Case For Tax-Exempt Programs, Philip Hackney, Adam Chodorow Jan 2016

Post-Graduate Legal Training: The Case For Tax-Exempt Programs, Philip Hackney, Adam Chodorow

Articles

The challenging job market for recent law school graduates has highlighted a fact well known to those familiar with legal education: A significant gap exists between what students learn in law school and what they need to be practice-ready lawyers. Legal employers historically assumed the task of providing real-world training, but they have become much less willing to do so. At the same time, a large numbers of Americans – and not just those living at or below the poverty line – are simply unable to afford lawyers. In this Article, we argue that post-graduate legal training, similar to post-graduate medical training ...


Riley V. California And The Beginning Of The End For The Third-Party Search Doctrine, David A. Harris Jan 2016

Riley V. California And The Beginning Of The End For The Third-Party Search Doctrine, David A. Harris

Articles

In Riley v. California, the Supreme Court decided that when police officers seize a smart phone, they may not search through its contents -- the data found by looking into the call records, calendars, pictures and so forth in the phone -- without a warrant. In the course of the decision, the Court said that the rule applied not just to data that was physically stored on the device, but also to data stored "in the cloud" -- in remote sites -- but accessed through the device. This piece of the decision may, at last, allow a re-examination of the third-party search doctrine, which ...


When The Customer Is King: Employment Discrimination As Customer Service, Lu-In Wang Jan 2016

When The Customer Is King: Employment Discrimination As Customer Service, Lu-In Wang

Articles

Employers profit from giving customers opportunities to discriminate against service workers. Employment discrimination law should not, but in many ways does, allow them to get away with it. Employers are driven by self-interest to please customers, whose satisfaction is critical to business success and survival. Pleasing customers often involves cultivating and catering to their discriminatory expectations with respect to customer service — including facilitating customers’ direct discrimination against workers.

Current doctrine allows employers to escape responsibility for customers’ discrimination against workers because it takes an overly narrow view of the employment relationship. The doctrine focuses on the formal lines of authority ...


Reflections On Seminole Rock: The Past, Present, And Future Of Deference To Agency Regulatory Interpretations, Amy J. Wildermuth, Sanne H. Knudsen Jan 2016

Reflections On Seminole Rock: The Past, Present, And Future Of Deference To Agency Regulatory Interpretations, Amy J. Wildermuth, Sanne H. Knudsen

Articles

Seminole Rock (or Auer) deference has captured the attention of scholars, policymakers, and the judiciary. That is why Notice & Comment, the blog of the Yale Journal on Regulation and the American Bar Association’s Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice, hosted an online symposium from September 12 to September 23, 2016 on the subject. This symposium contains over 20 contributions addressing different aspects of Seminole Rock deference.


The Trouble With 'Bureaucracy', Deborah L. Brake Jan 2016

The Trouble With 'Bureaucracy', Deborah L. Brake

Articles

Despite heightened public concern about the prevalence of sexual assault in higher education and the stepped-up efforts of the federal government to address it, new stories from survivors of sexual coercion and rape, followed by institutional betrayal, continue to emerge with alarming frequency. More recently, stories of men found responsible and harshly punished for such conduct in sketchy campus procedures have trickled into the public dialogue, forming a counter-narrative in the increasingly polarized debate over what to do about sexual assault on college campuses. Into this frayed dialogue, Jeannie Suk and Jacob Gersen have contributed a provocative new article criticizing ...


Lessons From The Gender Equality Movement: Using Title Ix To Foster Inclusive Masculinities In Men's Sport, Deborah L. Brake Jan 2016

Lessons From The Gender Equality Movement: Using Title Ix To Foster Inclusive Masculinities In Men's Sport, Deborah L. Brake

Articles

This article was written for a symposium issue in Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice on the topic of LGBT inclusion in sports. The symposium, which was held at the University of Minnesota Law School in November of 2015, was precipitated by the controversy that erupted when NFL player Chris Kluwe sued and settled with the Minnesota Vikings for allegedly firing him over his outspoken support for marriage equality. The article situates the Chris Kluwe controversy in the broader context of masculinity in men’s sports. At a time when support for LGBT rights has resulted in striking gains for inclusion in other institutions (think marriage and the military), sport remains deeply resistant to LGBT inclusion. Understanding sport’s resistance to change requires attention to masculinity in sport and the practices that construct and reinforce hegemonic masculinity among male athletes. The presence of gay male athletes in elite men’s sports remains culturally startling and anxiety-producing because of sport’s deep connections to normative heterosexual masculinity. While shifts in social norms and support for women’s sports have broadened the range of femininity that is culturally valued for girls and women (within limits), the range of acceptable masculinity in men’s sports remains distinctively narrow. This article focuses on three practices that police the boundaries of normative masculinity in men’s sports: 1) anti-gay harassment; 2) sexual assault and exploitation of women; and 3) the hazing of male teammates, which often involves anti-gay and sexually explicit language and actions without regard to the actual or perceived sexual orientation of the recipients. While these three practices are often considered to be distinct and unrelated, this article argues that that they are interrelated and reinforcing. After discussing how these practices suppress the development of more inclusive masculinities in sport, the article concludes by considering the potential for sex discrimination law — Title IX of the Education Amendments of ...


Reviving Paycheck Fairness: Why And How The Factor-Other-Than-Sex Defense Matters, Deborah L. Brake Jan 2016

Reviving Paycheck Fairness: Why And How The Factor-Other-Than-Sex Defense Matters, Deborah L. Brake

Articles

Ever since the Supreme Court’s short-lived decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire Company, the equal pay movement has coalesced around the Paycheck Fairness Act as the legal reform strategy for addressing the gender wage gap. The centerpiece of the Act would tighten the Factor Other Than Sex defense (FOTS) to require the employer’s sex-neutral factor to be bona fide, job-related for the position in question, and consistent with business necessity. Even without the Paycheck Fairness Act, some recent lower court decisions have interpreted the existing Equal Pay Act to set limits on the nondiscriminatory factors that can satisfy ...


Health And Taxes: Hospitals, Community Health And The Irs, Mary Crossley Jan 2016

Health And Taxes: Hospitals, Community Health And The Irs, Mary Crossley

Articles

The Affordable Care Act created new conditions of federal tax exemption for nonprofit hospitals, including a requirement that hospitals conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every three years to identify significant health needs in their communities and then to develop and implement a strategy responding to those needs. As a result, hospitals must now do more than provide charity care to their patients in exchange for the benefits of tax exemption, and the CHNA requirement has the potential both to prompt a radical change in hospitals’ relationship to their communities and to enlist hospitals as meaningful contributors to community ...


Authority And Authors And Codes, Michael J. Madison Jan 2016

Authority And Authors And Codes, Michael J. Madison

Articles

Contests over the meaning and application of the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (“CFAA”) expose long-standing, complex questions about the sources and impacts of the concept of authority in law and culture. Accessing a computer network “without authorization” and by “exceeding authorized access” is forbidden by the CFAA. Courts are divided in their interpretation of this language in the statute. This Article first proposes to address the issue with an insight from social science research. Neither criminal nor civil liability under the CFAA should attach unless the alleged violator has transgressed some border or boundary that is rendered visible ...


Resilience And Raisins: Partial Takings And Coastal Climate Change Adaptation, Joshua Galperin, Zahir Hadi Tajani Jan 2016

Resilience And Raisins: Partial Takings And Coastal Climate Change Adaptation, Joshua Galperin, Zahir Hadi Tajani

Articles

The increased need for government-driven coastal resilience projects will lead to a growing number of claims for “partial takings” of coastal property. Much attention has been paid to what actions constitute a partial taking, but there is less clarity about how to calculate just compensation for such takings, and when compensation should be offset by the value of benefits conferred to the property owner. While the U.S. Supreme Court has an analytically consistent line of cases on compensation for partial takings, it has repeatedly failed (most recently in Horne v. U.S. Department of Agriculture) to articulate a clear ...


Afterword: Kindling The Programmatic Production Of Critical And Outsider Legal Scholarship, 1996-2016, Sarudzayi M. Matambanadzo, Francisco Valdes, Sheila I, Velez Martinez Jan 2016

Afterword: Kindling The Programmatic Production Of Critical And Outsider Legal Scholarship, 1996-2016, Sarudzayi M. Matambanadzo, Francisco Valdes, Sheila I, Velez Martinez

Articles

This afterword to a conference-based symposium represents not only an inter-generational reflection on LatCrit theory @ XX, but also an aspirational reminder of our foundational propositions and values as we look and venture ahead. Beginning with an introduction to the foundational theoretical principles of LatCrit knowledge production - as embodied principally by LatCrit values and the related functions, guidelines, and postulates - we discuss in detail and depth how these theoretical principles underpin the various projects in the LatCrit "portfolio" and provide a historical sketch of the development of these projects as programmatic knowledge production. In particular, we aim through this account to ...


Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Not The Solution To The High Cost Of Long-Term Care For The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik Jan 2016

Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Not The Solution To The High Cost Of Long-Term Care For The Elderly, Lawrence A. Frolik

Articles

Long-term care can be extremely expensive. As older Americans plan for financing care for their golden years, one option is to purchase a Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) policy. However, despite the potentially steep costs of long-term care, few elderly individuals actually purchase LTCI. This decision is rational for most elderly people. First, LTCI insures a risk that may never occur, as the majority of elderly Americans only need a year or less of long-term care. Second, Medicaid provides a publicly subsidized alternative to LTCI. An elderly person can rely on his or her savings to pay for care and then ...


U.S. Discovery And Foreign Blocking Statutes, Vivian Grosswald Curran Jan 2016

U.S. Discovery And Foreign Blocking Statutes, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

What is the reality between U.S. discovery and the foreign blocking statutes that impede it in France and other civil law states? How should we understand their interface at a time when companies are multinational in composition as well as in their areas of commerce? U.S. courts grapple with the challenge of understanding why they should adhere to strictures that seem to compromise constitutional or quasi-constitutional rights of American plaintiffs, while French and German lawyers and judges struggle with the challenges U.S. discovery poses to values of privacy and fair trial procedure in their legal systems. This ...


Harmonizing Multinational Parent Company Liability For Foreign Subsidiary Human Rights Violations, Vivian Grosswald Curran Jan 2016

Harmonizing Multinational Parent Company Liability For Foreign Subsidiary Human Rights Violations, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

A notable development of recent years has been the simultaneous legal invisibility and ubiquity of the giant multinational corporation where its subsidiaries operate elsewhere under legal structures that preserve the parent company from liability for the subsidiary’s conduct. This article focuses on multinationals whose parent company is at home in a developed country and subsidiaries operate in a developing state, and specifically where the foreign subsidiary is alleged to have violated norms of universal human rights. It examines current legal theory, and offers a comparative perspective on legislative and judicial traditions and innovations in several home states of large ...


Whren's Flawed Assumptions Regarding Race, History, And Unconscious Bias, William M. Carter Jr. Jan 2016

Whren's Flawed Assumptions Regarding Race, History, And Unconscious Bias, William M. Carter Jr.

Articles

This article is adapted from remarks presented at CWRU Law School's symposium marking the 20th anniversary of Whren v. United States. The article critiques Whren’s constitutional methodology and evident willful blindness to issues of social psychology, unconscious bias, and the lengthy American history of racialized conceptions of crime and criminalized conceptions of race. The article concludes by suggesting a possible path forward: reconceptualizing racially motivated pretextual police encounters as a badge or incident of slavery under the Thirteenth Amendment issue rather than as abstract Fourth or Fourteenth Amendment issues.


Class As Caste: The Thirteenth Amendment’S Applicability To Class-Based Subordination, William M. Carter Jr. Jan 2016

Class As Caste: The Thirteenth Amendment’S Applicability To Class-Based Subordination, William M. Carter Jr.

Articles

As part of a symposium marking the sesquicentennial of the Thirteenth Amendment, this Article briefly explores whether the Thirteenth Amendment applies to class-based subordination. While recognizing that the increasingly rigid class-based stratification of our society, rampant discrimination against the poor, increasing income inequality, and the concentration of enormous wealth in the hands of so few are all pressing social challenges that the legal system must address, this Article concludes that generalized class-based discrimination likely would not fall within the scope of the “badges and incidents of slavery” that the Amendment prohibits.

This Article argues, however, that the Thirteenth Amendment's ...