Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

2011

Discrimination

Discipline
Institution
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 35

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Gina): Public Policy And Medical Practice In The Age Of Personalized Medicine, Eric A. Feldman Dec 2011

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Gina): Public Policy And Medical Practice In The Age Of Personalized Medicine, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Survey data suggest that many people fear genetic discrimination by health insurers or employers. In fact, such discrimination has not yet been a significant problem. This article examines the fear and reality of genetic discrimination in the United States, describes how Congress sought to prohibit such discrimination by passing the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), and explores the implications of GINA for general internists and their institutions. It concludes that medical providers and health care institutions must be familiar with the general intent and specific terms of GINA, and should continue to collect genetic information that can contribute ...


Talking About Race And Equality, Sharon E. Rush Dec 2011

Talking About Race And Equality, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

Lots of people of different races are increasingly uncomfortable talking about race. They prefer to function in a colorblind society where they insist that race is irrelevant. Not surprisingly, the concept of racial silencing is consistent with the concept of colorblindness. Logically, it seems impossible to talk about race if we are not even supposed to see it. The idea seems to be that if people who believe in racial equality magically stopped seeing and talking about race they could avoid the negativity surrounding racial issues and just hope that the inequality would fix itself. But we know that if ...


Ncaa Transgender Student-Athlete 'Policy': Analysis, Shawn Crincoli Nov 2011

Ncaa Transgender Student-Athlete 'Policy': Analysis, Shawn Crincoli

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


To Catch A Criminal, To Cleanse A Profession: Exposing Deceptive Practices By Attorneys To The Sunlight Of Public Debate And Creating An Express Investigation Deception Exception To The Aba Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Tory L. Lucas Oct 2011

To Catch A Criminal, To Cleanse A Profession: Exposing Deceptive Practices By Attorneys To The Sunlight Of Public Debate And Creating An Express Investigation Deception Exception To The Aba Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Tory L. Lucas

Faculty Publications and Presentations

“In undertaking the privilege to practice law, I do solemnly swear that I will lie, deceive, misrepresent, and engage in fraud in order to serve my client’s and my own personal interests.”

It is doubtful that any American attorney believes that he or she has sworn such an oath (or openly advocates the use of such an oath for newly sworn attorneys). But does every American attorney share the same understanding of whether attorneys may ethically engage in deception? The issue of attorney deception has not enjoyed a thorough, open discussion necessary for a consistently applied standard on that ...


New Governance And Rights-Claims, Vlad F. Perju Aug 2011

New Governance And Rights-Claims, Vlad F. Perju

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

I. Ideas as catalysts: Rights and the struggle for recognition of persons with disabilities

II. Strategic and communicative components of rights-claims

III. Two conceptions of responsiveness: An excursus into constitutional theory

Conclusion: The not-so-strange alchemy of new governance and “old government”


The Iaaf Hyperandrogenism Regulations And Discrimination, Shawn Crincoli Jun 2011

The Iaaf Hyperandrogenism Regulations And Discrimination, Shawn Crincoli

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez Jun 2011

Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Latinos currently represent the largest minority in the United States. In 2009, we witnessed the first Latina appointment to the United States Supreme Court. Despite these events, Latinos continue to endure racial discrimination and social marginalization in the United States. The inability of Latinos to gain political acceptance and legitimacy in the United States can be attributed to the social construct of Latinos as threats to national security and the cause of criminal activity.

Exploiting this pretense, American government, society and nationalists are able to legitimize the subordination and social marginalization of Latinos, specifically Mexicans and Central Americans, much to ...


Collateral Consequences, Genetic Surveillance, And The New Biopolitics Of Race, Dorothy E. Roberts Apr 2011

Collateral Consequences, Genetic Surveillance, And The New Biopolitics Of Race, Dorothy E. Roberts

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article is part of a Howard Law Journal Symposium on “Collateral Consequences: Who Really Pays the Price for Criminal Justice?,” as well as my larger book project, Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century (The New Press, 2011). It considers state and federal government expansion of genetic surveillance as a collateral consequence of a criminal record in the context of a new biopolitics of race in America. Part I reviews the expansion of DNA data banking by states and the federal government, extending the collateral impact of a criminal record—in the ...


Religion Anti-Discrimination And The Decline Of Labor Law, Nathan B. Oman Feb 2011

Religion Anti-Discrimination And The Decline Of Labor Law, Nathan B. Oman

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Doma, Romer, And Rationality, Andrew Koppelman Jan 2011

Doma, Romer, And Rationality, Andrew Koppelman

Faculty Working Papers

It has been objected by many that the Defense of Marriage Act lacks a rational basis because it reflects a bare desire to harm a politically unpopular group. The increasing success of the argument, which has persuaded three federal judges, reveals the hidden normative premises of rational basis analysis, at least whenever that analysis is used to invalidate a statute. Since 1996, when DOMA was passed by overwhelming margins in both houses of Congress, the country's attitudes toward gay people have evolved rapidly, to the point where this kind of mindless lashing out at gays looks a lot less ...


Mancession Or Momcession? Good Providers, A Bad Economy, And Gender Discrimination, Allison Anna Tait Jan 2011

Mancession Or Momcession? Good Providers, A Bad Economy, And Gender Discrimination, Allison Anna Tait

Law Faculty Publications

Against this backdrop of precarious and disappearing work, two new elements became important: who was out of work, and how those still employed were navigating bad jobs. These questions laid the foundation for a flood of stories concerning unemployment and bad employment. Unsurprisingly, gender played a leading role in the debates. This article will discuss these two concerns--employment and workplace discrimination-as they intersect with gender and gender stereotypes.


An Equal Rights Amendment To Make Women Human, Ann Bartow Jan 2011

An Equal Rights Amendment To Make Women Human, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] “I can state with some authority that two times fourteen is twenty-eight, flouting the stereotype that women are inept at mathematics and simultaneously framing my argument in favor of an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Though the Fourteenth Amendment' provides women with partial legal armament (a dull sword, a small shield), equal protection requires something twice as powerful in the form of a Twenty-Eighth Amendment that would expressly vest women with equal rights under the law. The Fourteenth Amendment has completed only half of the job.”


From Wards Cove To Ricci: Struggling Against The Built-In Headwinds Of A Skeptical Court, Melissa Hart Jan 2011

From Wards Cove To Ricci: Struggling Against The Built-In Headwinds Of A Skeptical Court, Melissa Hart

Articles

When the Supreme Court in 1971 first recognized disparate impact as a legal theory under Title VII, the Court explained that the "absence of discriminatory intent does not redeem employment procedures or testing mechanisms that operate as ‘built-in headwinds’ for minority groups and are unrelated to measuring job capability." Forty years later, it is the built-in headwinds of a Supreme Court skeptical of - perhaps even hostile to - the goals of disparate impact theory that pose the greatest challenge to continued movement toward workplace equality. The essay examines the troubled trajectory that disparate impact law has taken in the Court's ...


Shortcuts In Employment Discrimination Law, Kerri Lynn Stone Jan 2011

Shortcuts In Employment Discrimination Law, Kerri Lynn Stone

Faculty Publications

Are employment discrimination plaintiffs viewed by society and by judges with an increased skepticism? This article urges that the same actor inference, the stray comment doctrine, and strict temporal nexus requirements, as courts have applied them, make up a larger and dangerous trend in the area of employment discrimination jurisprudence- that of courts reverting to special, judge-made "shortcuts" to curtail or even bypass analysis necessary to justify the disposal or proper adjudication of a case. This shorthand across different doctrines reveals a willingness of the judiciary to proxy monolithic assumptions for the individualized reasoned analyses mandated by the relevant antidiscrimination ...


Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez Jan 2011

Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Latinos currently represent the largest minority in the United States. In 2009, we witnessed the first Latina appointment to the United States Supreme Court. Despite these events, Latinos continue to endure racial discrimination and social marginalization in the United States. The inability of Latinos to gain political acceptance and legitimacy in the United States can be attributed to the social construct of Latinos as threats to national security and the cause of criminal activity.

Exploiting this pretense, American government, society and nationalists are able to legitimize the subordination and social marginalization of Latinos, specifically Mexicans and Central Americans, much to ...


The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner Jan 2011

The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Overcoming Under-Compensation And Under-Deterrence In Intentional Tort Cases: Are Statutory Multiple Damages The Best Remedy?, Stephen J. Shapiro Jan 2011

Overcoming Under-Compensation And Under-Deterrence In Intentional Tort Cases: Are Statutory Multiple Damages The Best Remedy?, Stephen J. Shapiro

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article advocates that states' statutes make greater and more systematic use of multiple damages by extending them to a much broader range of intentional, wrongful conduct. Part II of this Article will explain why extra-compensatory relief is called for when tortious conduct is intentional or malicious. Part III will compare punitive damages, attorney fees, and treble or other multiple damages as possible sources of additional relief. Part IV will focus on multiple damages. The Article will examine the range of existing state statutes and discuss why and how those statutes might be extended to a broader range of wrongful ...


Racial Redistricting In A Post-Racial World, Gilda R. Daniels Jan 2011

Racial Redistricting In A Post-Racial World, Gilda R. Daniels

All Faculty Scholarship

The 2011 redistricting will provide some interesting challenges for minority voting rights. How can we preserve minority electoral opportunities and gains in the wake of Bartlett v. Strickland and Georgia v. Ashcroft? What is the impact on future voting rights litigation and are coalition district claims viable as an opportunity to continue the electoral gains made since the passage of the Voting Rights Act? Are majority-minority districts safe from legislative backsliding? The Supreme Court's construed admonitions against race-conscious redistricting in recent cases may become cautionary tales. This Article discusses the central role the Voting Rights Act should play in ...


Do Law Schools Mistreat Women Faculty? Or, Who’S Afraid Of Virginia Woolf?, Dan Subotnik Jan 2011

Do Law Schools Mistreat Women Faculty? Or, Who’S Afraid Of Virginia Woolf?, Dan Subotnik

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


You Can Only Race If You Can’T Win? The Curious Cases Of Oscar Pistorius & Caster Semenya, Shawn M. Crincoli Jan 2011

You Can Only Race If You Can’T Win? The Curious Cases Of Oscar Pistorius & Caster Semenya, Shawn M. Crincoli

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero Jan 2011

Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero

Journal Articles

Although not an equal protection case, Martinez v. Regents of the University of California challenges us to grapple with the Supreme Court’s post-Brown commitment to equal opportunity within the context of immigrant higher education. Sadly, Brown’s progeny from Bakke to Parents Involved reveals the cost of embracing a color-blind constitutionalism unmoored from a fundamental commitment to vigilantly combat subordination and dismantle unearned privilege. More optimistically, the Supreme Court’s gay rights jurisprudence developed in Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas provides insights into how a conservative court can accurately distinguish irrational discrimination from democratic deliberation, a lesson ...


On The Contemporary Meaning Of Korematsu: 'Liberty Lies In The Hearts Of Men And Women', David A. Harris Jan 2011

On The Contemporary Meaning Of Korematsu: 'Liberty Lies In The Hearts Of Men And Women', David A. Harris

Articles

In just a few years, seven decades will have passed since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Korematsu v. U.S., one of the most reviled of all of the Court’s cases. Despised or not, however, similarities between the World War II era and our own have people looking at Korematsu in a new light. When the Court decided Korematsu in 1944, we were at war with the Japanese empire, and with this came considerable suspicion of anyone who shared the ethnicity of our foreign enemies. Since 2001, we have faced another external threat – from the al ...


Clarifying Stereotyping, Kerri Lynn Stone Jan 2011

Clarifying Stereotyping, Kerri Lynn Stone

Faculty Publications

This Article addresses the largely undefined, misunderstood-yet-often-resorted-to concept of “stereotyping” as a basis for, or sufficient evidence of, liability for employment discrimination. Since, the concept’s genesis in Supreme Court jurisprudence in 1989, Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, plaintiffs have proffered remarks alleged to be tinged with, or indicating the presence of, impermissible stereotypes as evidence of discrimination based on protected-class status – be that sex, race, color, religion, or national origin – in contravention of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Article examines the language in Hopkins and its precise mandates and guidance for lower courts. It then ...


Biological Metaphors For Whiteness: Beyond Merit And Malice, Brant T. Lee Jan 2011

Biological Metaphors For Whiteness: Beyond Merit And Malice, Brant T. Lee

Akron Law Publications

The problem of persistent racial inequality is grounded in a failure of imagination. The general mainstream conception is that unfair racial inequality occurs only when there is intentional racism. Absent conscious racial malice, no racism is seen to exist. The only generally available alternative explanation for racial inequality is the meritocratic system. Viewing the distribution of resources as a product of a generally fair meritocratic system provides a defense against any charge of racism, and justifies the status quo.

But in economics, business, computer science, and even biology, observers of complexity are coming to understand how dominant systems can prevail ...


The "Illegal" Tax, Francine J. Lipman Jan 2011

The "Illegal" Tax, Francine J. Lipman

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Is Integration A Discriminatory Purpose?, Michelle Adams Jan 2011

Is Integration A Discriminatory Purpose?, Michelle Adams

Articles

Is integration a form of discrimination? Remarkably, recent Supreme Court doctrine suggests that the answer to this question may well be yes. In Ricci v. DeStefano, the Court characterizes - for the very first time - government action taken to avoid disparate-impact liability and to integrate the workplace as "race-based," and then invalidates that action under a heightened level of judicial review. Consequently, Ricci suggests that the Court is open to the "equivalence doctrine," which posits that laws intended to racially integrate are morally and constitutionally equivalent to laws intended to racially separate. Under the equivalence doctrine, integration is simply another form ...


Income Tax Discrimination: Still Stuck In The Labyrinth Of Impossibility, Michael J. Graetz, Alvin C. Warren Jan 2011

Income Tax Discrimination: Still Stuck In The Labyrinth Of Impossibility, Michael J. Graetz, Alvin C. Warren

Faculty Scholarship

In previous articles, we have argued that European Court of Justice’s reliance on nondiscrimination as the basis for its decisions did not (and could not) satisfy commonly accepted tax policy norms, such as fairness, adminstrability, production of desired levels of revenues, avoidance of double taxation, fiscal policy goals, inter-nation fiscal equity, and so on. In addition, we argued that the Court cannot achieve consistent and coherent results by requiring nondiscrimination in both origin and destination countries for transactions involving the tax systems of more than one member state. We demonstrated that – in the absence of harmonized income tax bases ...


The Importance Of Immutability In Employment Discrimination Law, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2011

The Importance Of Immutability In Employment Discrimination Law, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This article argues that recent developments in employment discrimination law require a renewed focus on the concept of immutable characteristics. In 29 two new laws took effect: the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA). This Article’s original contribution is an evaluation of the employment discrimination statutes as a corpus of law in light of these two additions.

The Article thoroughly explores the meaning of the term “immutable characteristic” in constitutional and employment discrimination jurisprudence. It postulates that immutability constitutes a unifying principle for all of the traits now covered by the ...


Employment, Sexual Orientation And Religious Beliefs: Do Religious Educational Institutions Have A Protected Right To Discriminate In The Selection And Discharge Of Employees?, Ralph D. Mawdsley Jan 2011

Employment, Sexual Orientation And Religious Beliefs: Do Religious Educational Institutions Have A Protected Right To Discriminate In The Selection And Discharge Of Employees?, Ralph D. Mawdsley

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The life blood of religious educational institutions is their doctrinal statements and codes of conduct that set standards for employee and student life. The purpose of this paper is to examine the freedom of religious educational institutions to make employment decisions related to three homosexuality related areas: sexual orientation, same-sex sexual activity outside marriage, and same-sex marriage. At the core of the discussion is the basic question whether religious educational institutions have a protected right to enforce doctrinal statements or codes of conduct addressing one or more of these areas.

This paper will examine legal issues related to the ability ...


The Supreme Court’S Surprising And Strategic Response To The Civil Rights Act Of 1991, Michael Selmi Jan 2011

The Supreme Court’S Surprising And Strategic Response To The Civil Rights Act Of 1991, Michael Selmi

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This essay, which was prepared for a symposium issue in recognition of the twentieth anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1991, explores the Supreme Court’s response to the Congressional repudiation of its cases reflected in the 1991 Act. Relying on a positive political theory framework, I demonstrate that the Court appears to have responded in a strategically sophisticated manner designed to insulate their decisions from Congressional reversal. The 1991 Act reversed or modified eight Supreme Court decisions, and reflected concern regarding the conservative turn the Court had taken in discrimination cases. After the passage of the Act, plaintiffs ...