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2010

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Déjà Vu All Over Again? Reflections On Auerbach's 'Modern Corporate Tax', Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2010

Déjà Vu All Over Again? Reflections On Auerbach's 'Modern Corporate Tax', Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper comments on Alan Auerbach's "A Modern Corporate Tax" (Hamilton Project/CAP, December 2010) and argues that it is not a significant improvement over previous proposals to replace the corporate tax with a cash flow tax.


Transfer Pricing, Business Restructurings And Intangibles - Case Studies: Ups V. Commissioner; Dsg Retail Ltd. V. Hmrc, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Dec 2010

Transfer Pricing, Business Restructurings And Intangibles - Case Studies: Ups V. Commissioner; Dsg Retail Ltd. V. Hmrc, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

United Parcel Service of America, the largest motor carrier in the US, and DSG Retail the largest retailer of electrical goods in the UK, restructured operations and established captive insurance companies in offshore tax havens. In both instances, these restructurings removed sizeable amounts of income from the domestic tax base.

The IRS and HMRC opened transfer pricing audits. The UPS case involved tax year 1984 and was settled in 2003; DSG Retail involved 1997 through 2005 and was settled in 2009. Both settlements came on the heels of government-favorable court decisions, and prior to the addition of Chapter IX to …


A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means Dec 2010

A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means

Faculty Publications

According to standard law and economics, minority shareholders in closely held corporations must bargain against opportunism by controlling shareholders before investing. Put simply, you made your bed, now you must lie in it. Yet most courts offer a remedy for shareholder oppression, often premised on the notion that controlling shareholders owe fiduciary duties to the minority or must honor the minority's reasonable expectations. Thus, law and economics, the dominant mode of corporate law scholarship, appears irreconcilably opposed to minority shareholder protection, a defining feature of the existing law of close corporations.

This Article contends that a more nuanced theory of …


Tax Strategies And Key Tax Issues In Selling A Business, Part 2, Robert G. Mcelroy Nov 2010

Tax Strategies And Key Tax Issues In Selling A Business, Part 2, Robert G. Mcelroy

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Estate Planning For The Closely Held Business, Dennis I. Belcher, William I. Sanderson Nov 2010

Estate Planning For The Closely Held Business, Dennis I. Belcher, William I. Sanderson

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Tax Strategies And Key Tax Issues In Selling A Business, Part 1, L. Michael Gracik Jr. Nov 2010

Tax Strategies And Key Tax Issues In Selling A Business, Part 1, L. Michael Gracik Jr.

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Using - And Not Losing - Tax Losses, Part 1: Protecting Tax Losses From A Section 382 Ownership Change (Slides), Mark C. Van Deusen Nov 2010

Using - And Not Losing - Tax Losses, Part 1: Protecting Tax Losses From A Section 382 Ownership Change (Slides), Mark C. Van Deusen

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Using - And Not Losing - Tax Losses, Part 2 (Slides), Steven M. Friedman Nov 2010

Using - And Not Losing - Tax Losses, Part 2 (Slides), Steven M. Friedman

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks - Emerging Tax Issues For Distressed Real Estate Assets And Partnerships (Slides), Michael G. Frankel, David A. Miller Nov 2010

Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks - Emerging Tax Issues For Distressed Real Estate Assets And Partnerships (Slides), Michael G. Frankel, David A. Miller

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks - Emerging Tax Issues For Distressed Real Estate Assets And Partnerships, Michael G. Frankel, David A. Miller Nov 2010

Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks - Emerging Tax Issues For Distressed Real Estate Assets And Partnerships, Michael G. Frankel, David A. Miller

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Agenda: 2010 World Energy Justice Conference: Emerging Solutions For The Energy Poor: Technological, Entrepreneurial And Institutional Challenges, University Of Colorado Boulder. Center For Energy & Environmental Security, Colorado Journal Of International Environmental Law And Policy Nov 2010

Agenda: 2010 World Energy Justice Conference: Emerging Solutions For The Energy Poor: Technological, Entrepreneurial And Institutional Challenges, University Of Colorado Boulder. Center For Energy & Environmental Security, Colorado Journal Of International Environmental Law And Policy

2010 World Energy Justice Conference (November 5)

This conference is a sequel to the 2009 World Energy Justice Conference (WEJC 2009) which began examining ways of mainstreaming safe, clean, and efficient energy for the world's Energy Poor (EP). The EP number two and a half billion people living on less than $1-2 a day who have no access to modern energy services. WEJC 2010 more fully develops these themes. WEJC 2010 will explore how the next round of global warming meetings in Cancun could design new flexibility mechanisms that give credits, for example, for the reduction of black carbon by the adoption of cookstoves, and embrace small …


The Uneasy Case For The Inside Director, Lisa Fairfax Nov 2010

The Uneasy Case For The Inside Director, Lisa Fairfax

All Faculty Scholarship

In the wake of recent scandals and the economic meltdown, there is nearly universal support for the notion that corporations must have independent directors. Conventional wisdom insists that independent directors can more effectively monitor the corporation and prevent or otherwise better detect wrongdoing. As the movement to increase director independence has gained traction, inside directors have become an endangered species, relegated to holding a minimal number of seats on the corporate board. This Article questions the popular trend away from inside directors by critiquing the rationales in favor of director independence, and assessing the potential advantages of inside directors. This …


Are Investors’ Gains And Losses From Securities Fraud Equal Over Time? Theory And Evidence, Alicia J. Davis Oct 2010

Are Investors’ Gains And Losses From Securities Fraud Equal Over Time? Theory And Evidence, Alicia J. Davis

Law & Economics Working Papers

Most leading securities regulation scholars argue that compensating securities fraud victims is inefficient. They maintain that because diversified investors that trade frequently are as likely to gain from trading in fraud-tainted stocks as they are to suffer harm from doing so, these investors should have no expected net losses from fraud over the long term. This assertion, which analogizes trading in fraud-tainted stocks to participating in a coin toss game in which players win $1 on heads and lose $1 on tails, is problematic for a number of reasons. First, even if we accept this analogy, probability theory holds that …


Locating The Regulation Of Data Privacy And Data Security, Edward J. Janger Oct 2010

Locating The Regulation Of Data Privacy And Data Security, Edward J. Janger

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Equity Trustee, Kelli A. Alces Oct 2010

The Equity Trustee, Kelli A. Alces

Scholarly Publications

As we reel from the effects of a recent financial disaster, it is apparent that there is a significant gap in corporate governance and accountability for management. One reason we have experienced this financial cataclysm is the inability of shareholders to do the "shareholderj ob. " Shareholders, as the putative owners of corporations, hold a venerated place in corporate governance. They are responsible for electing directors and monitoring management as well as valuing companies through trades in a vigorous market. The shareholder collective action problem and resulting rational apathy have kept shareholders from effectively fulfilling their role in corporate governance. …


The New Financial Deal: Understanding The Dodd-Frank Act And Its (Unintended) Consequences, David A. Skeel Jr. Oct 2010

The New Financial Deal: Understanding The Dodd-Frank Act And Its (Unintended) Consequences, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

Contrary to rumors that the Dodd-Frank Act is an incoherent mess, its 2,319 pages have two very clear objectives: limiting the risk of the shadow banking system by more carefully regulating derivatives and large financial institutions; and limiting the damage caused by a financial institution’s failure. The new legislation also has a theme: government partnership with the largest Wall Street banks. The vision emerged almost by accident from the Bear Stearns and AIG bailouts of 2008 and the commandeering of the bankruptcy process to rescue Chrysler and GM in 2009. Its implications for derivatives regulation could prove beneficial: Dodd-Frank will …


Debt As Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim Oct 2010

Debt As Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

Venture debt, or loans to rapid-growth start-ups, is a puzzle. How are start-ups with no track records, positive cash flows, tangible collateral, or personal guarantees from entrepreneurs able to attract billions of dollars in loans each year? And why do start-ups take on debt rather than rely exclusively on equity investments from angel investors and venture capitalists (VCs), as well-known capital structure theories from corporate finance would seem to predict in this context? Using hand-collected interview data and theoretical contributions from finance, economics, and law, this Article solves the puzzle of venture debt by revealing that a start-up’s VC backing …


Pennsylvania's Sales And Use Tax: Has Nearly $1 Billion Been 'Zapped' Away In Fraud?, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Oct 2010

Pennsylvania's Sales And Use Tax: Has Nearly $1 Billion Been 'Zapped' Away In Fraud?, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

The Sales and Use Tax is an essential part of Pennsylvania’s revenue profile. Not only is it the State’s second largest revenue source, it has historically played a critical role in reducing the volatility of Pennsylvania’s overall tax collections. The sales tax is also critical to the city of Philadelphia, and Allegheny County. During the current economic downturn both the revenue and structural attributes of this levy should be pushing it to the front of the tax policy line.

The two topics that should rest atop Pennsylvania’s tax policy agenda should be: (1) joining the Streamlined Sales Tax initiative and …


The Power Of Warm Glow, Usha Rodrigues Sep 2010

The Power Of Warm Glow, Usha Rodrigues

Scholarly Works

Professor Brian Galle’s Keep Charity Charitable is a thoughtful contribution to the ongoing conversation about the proper tax treatment of charitable organizations. I largely agree with Galle’s arguments, but I would like to offer two criticisms of his positions: first, Galle overstates the problem posed by for-profit firms offering charitable services; and second, he understates the power of “warm glow” in the nonprofit organization.


Business Taxes And International Competitiveness: Understanding How Taxes Can Distort Capital Ownership And Designing A Nondistortive International Tax System, Michael S. Knoll Jul 2010

Business Taxes And International Competitiveness: Understanding How Taxes Can Distort Capital Ownership And Designing A Nondistortive International Tax System, Michael S. Knoll

All Faculty Scholarship

Around the world, policymakers are obsessed with the competitiveness of their domestic companies and domestically based multinational corporations (MNCs). Such concerns frequently influence policy, especially tax policy. In this paper, I develop a theory of how taxes affect the international competitiveness of businesses. I then use that theory to evaluate basic tax policy decisions, such as the choice between residence- and source-based taxation and the level of tax rates, and to understand the impact various provisions in the U.S. Internal Revenue Code are likely to have on the competitiveness of U.S.-based corporations and MNCs.


Transfer Pricing In Business Restructurings – Reasoning From Implausible Assumptions Issue Note 2 – (Oecd, Discussion Draft), Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Andrew Shact Jul 2010

Transfer Pricing In Business Restructurings – Reasoning From Implausible Assumptions Issue Note 2 – (Oecd, Discussion Draft), Richard Thompson Ainsworth, Andrew Shact

Faculty Scholarship

The OECD’s Center for Tax Policy and Administration roundtable on business restructurings in January 2005 led to a Joint Working Group project later that year on permanent establishments and business restructurings. One of the results was the Discussion Draft on Transfer Pricing Aspects of Business Restructurings that was available for public comment between September 19, 2008 and February 19, 2009.

This paper concerns Issue Note No. 2 in the Discussion Draft – Arm’s Length Compensation for the Restructuring Itself.

Issue Note No. 2 is deeply flawed. It relies on an unproved correlation between structure and performance (profit/loss potential). The Discussion …


The Redemption Puzzle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Jul 2010

The Redemption Puzzle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Following the adoption of partial integration in 2003, there was only a modest increase in dividends during the period 2004-7, from about 300 to about 500 (if 1987 levels are set at 100). Redemptions, however, showed a remarkable increase, jumping from about the same as dividends (300) to 1,800. This, therefore, leads to a new puzzle: Why the sudden sharp increase in redemptions following 2003?

Like the dividend puzzle, the redemption puzzle is susceptible to several explanations. For example, Bratton and Wachter note that managers who hold stock options tend to favor redemptions over dividends. But in this case, I …


Revisiting Berle And Rethinking The Corporate Structure, Kelli A. Alces Jul 2010

Revisiting Berle And Rethinking The Corporate Structure, Kelli A. Alces

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


Financing The Next Silicon Valley, Darian M. Ibrahim Jul 2010

Financing The Next Silicon Valley, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

Silicon Valley’s success has led other regions to attempt their own high-tech transformations, yet most imitators have failed. Entrepreneurs may be in short supply in these “non-tech” regions, but some non-tech regions are home to high-quality entrepreneurs who relocate to Silicon Valley due to a lack of local financing for their start-ups. Non-tech regions must provide local finance to prevent entrepreneurial relocation and reap spillover benefits for their communities. This Article compares three possible sources of entrepreneurial finance—private venture capital, state-sponsored venture capital, and angel investor groups—and finds that angel groups have distinct advantages when it comes to funding innovation …


The New Financial Assets: Separating Ownership From Control, Tamar Frankel Jul 2010

The New Financial Assets: Separating Ownership From Control, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

This Article is organized in three parts. Part One examines the nature of financial assets and their transition by market transactions from contracts to property. The discussion highlights the gray areas which financial assets occupy in decoupling, falling within both contract and property law.

Part Two describes four types of decoupled financial assets. The first type separates into two financial assets: ownership benefits and ownership risks. The presumed reduction of owners' risks prompted some academics to justify reducing the owners' protection. I suggest that attempts to protect owners from ownership risk have failed. Therefore, the suggestion was ill-conceived. The second …


The Blameless Corporation, Larry D. Thompson Jul 2010

The Blameless Corporation, Larry D. Thompson

Scholarly Works

This article is a clarification and expansion of the author's previous oral statements published in The American Criminal Law Review 46-4--a Symposium Issue on "Achieving the Right Balance: The Role of Corporate Criminal Law in Ensuring Corporate Compliance."


Securities Intermediaries And The Separation Of Ownership From Control, Jill E. Fisch Jul 2010

Securities Intermediaries And The Separation Of Ownership From Control, Jill E. Fisch

All Faculty Scholarship

The Modern Corporation and Private Property highlighted the evolving separation of ownership and control in the public corporation and the effects of that separation on the allocation of power within the corporation. This essay explores the implications of intermediation for those themes. The article observes that intermediation, by decoupling economic ownership and decision-making authority within the shareholder, creates a second layer of agency issues beyond those identified by Berle and Means. These agency issues are an important consideration in the current debate over shareholder empowerment. The article concludes by considering the hypothetical shareholder construct implicit in the Berle and Means …


Voip Mtic - The Italian Job (Operazione 'Phuncards-Broker'), Richard Thompson Ainsworth Jun 2010

Voip Mtic - The Italian Job (Operazione 'Phuncards-Broker'), Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

On February 8, 2010 a speculative paper on the likelihood that fraudsters proficient in missing trader intra-community (MTIC) fraud might move into voice over internet protocol (VoIP) was submitted to the Boston University School of Law Working Paper Series.

Prior to that paper there was very little (if any) public discussion of VoIP MTIC. There were no assessments, no arrests, and not a hint of litigation. Fifteen days later, and before final publication the financial press exploded with coverage of a massive VoIP MTIC fraud (the Operazione “phuncards-broker” investigation). The Wall Street Journal reported: An [Italian] judge…ordered the arrest of …


Predation Analysis And The Ftc’S Case Against Intel, Daniel A. Crane May 2010

Predation Analysis And The Ftc’S Case Against Intel, Daniel A. Crane

Law & Economics Working Papers

The Federal Trade Commission's pending antitrust case against Intel challenges a number of Intel's discounting and rebating practices. The Commission appears poised to apply a cost-price test to the challenged practices, but proposes to include "fixed sunk costs" in the appropriate measure of cost. This paper explains the importance of using cost-price screens to assess unilaterally imposed prices and analyzes the futility of including sunk costs in the relevant cost measure.


The Effect Of Economic Integration With China On The Future Of American Corporate Law, Joseph Vining Apr 2010

The Effect Of Economic Integration With China On The Future Of American Corporate Law, Joseph Vining

Law & Economics Working Papers

China's development into a world economic power and its continuing integration with the United States economy raise the question whether China's own history and the socialist context of its domestic corporate law may affect the meaning of business terms in use both internationally and in American domestic corporate law. Of particular interest is the question whether China's entry and impact may blunt the late-twentieth century effort in the United States to change the legal sense of the purpose of an American business corporation.