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The Return Of The Ring: Welfare Reform’S Marriage Cure As The Revival Of Post-Bellum Control, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Dec 2005

The Return Of The Ring: Welfare Reform’S Marriage Cure As The Revival Of Post-Bellum Control, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

In 1996, the United States Congress began its imposition of a marital solution to poverty when it enacted the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act ("PRWORA"). Nearly ten years later, Congress has strengthened its commitment to marriage as a cure for welfare dependency with proposals such as the Personal Responsibility, Work, and Family Promotion Act of 2005. If passed, this bill would provide 1.5 billion dollars for pro-marriage programs and require each state to explain how its welfare program will encourage marriage for single mothers who receive public aid. With these proposals, Congress has continued to construct poverty ...


Lochner: Another Time, Another Place Symposium: Lochner Centennial Conference, Larry Yackle Jun 2005

Lochner: Another Time, Another Place Symposium: Lochner Centennial Conference, Larry Yackle

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Lynn Baker's contribution to this symposium' extends her longterm project both to defend and to critique the Supreme Court's decisions on the scope of congressional power.2 I find this work valuable and not a little provocative. If Baker's account of the decisions thus far is even partly right, the Court is poised to assume decision-making responsibility that has long been ceded to Congress. If her proposals for the future are adopted, we are in for a cataclysmic constitutional event that rivals the convulsive period when the nation confronted the judicial arrogation of authority associated (rightly ...


Lochner In Europe: A Comment On Keith Whittington's Congress Before The Lochner Court Symposium: Lochner Centennial Conference, Daniela Caruso Jun 2005

Lochner In Europe: A Comment On Keith Whittington's Congress Before The Lochner Court Symposium: Lochner Centennial Conference, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

In 1904, St. Louis, Missouri was the place to go. In conjunction with its spectacular world's fair, the city also hosted the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, known in academic circles as the foundational event of American comparative law.1 Within a big screen entirely devoted to the Lochner2 centennial, this comment aims at opening a window on another centennial - the hundredth anniversary of comparative law in the United States.Though inspired by the Universal Congress, this comment does not partake in the celebratory spirit of anniversaries.3 Far from espousing a romanticized or universalist conception of comparative ...


For Whom Does The Bell Toll: The Bell Tolls For Brown?, Angela Onwuachi-Willig May 2005

For Whom Does The Bell Toll: The Bell Tolls For Brown?, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

This review essay analyzes Derrick Bell's provocative new book, Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform (2004). In Silent Covenants, Professor Bell reviews Brown v. Board of Education, and inquires "whether another approach than the one embraced by the Brown decision might have been more effective and less disruptive in the always-contentious racial arena." Specifically, Professor Bell joins black conservatives in critiquing what he describes as a misguided focus on achieving racial balance in schools and argues that the quality of education for minority children, in particular Blacks, would have been better ...


Archibald Cox And The Genius Of Our Institutions In Memoriam - Celebration Of The Life Of Archibald, Larry Yackle Apr 2005

Archibald Cox And The Genius Of Our Institutions In Memoriam - Celebration Of The Life Of Archibald, Larry Yackle

Faculty Scholarship

I am confident that historians will write that the trend of decisions during the 1950's and 1960's was in keeping with the mainstream ofAmerican history - a bit progressive but also moderate, a bit humane but not sentimental, a bit idealistic but seldom doctrinaire, and in the long run essentially pragmatic - in short, in keeping with the true genius of our institutions. 1 In the dedication of his classic work Democracy and Distrust2 to Chief Justice Earl Warren, the late John Hart Ely wrote "You don't need many heroes if you choose carefully." 3 For several generations of ...


Law And Public Health: Beyond Emergency Preparedness, Wendy K. Mariner Apr 2005

Law And Public Health: Beyond Emergency Preparedness, Wendy K. Mariner

Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines three questions: What is public health? What is public health law? What roles can lawyers play in public health? It first describes the breadth of public health, highlighting six trends shaping its future: social determinants of health; synergy between medicine and public health; shifts in focus from external (e.g., environmental and social) to internal (behavioral) risks to health; federalization of public health law; globalization of health risks and responses; and bioterrorism. Because the domains of law that apply to public health are equally broad, the Article next offers a conceptual framework for identifying the types of ...


Just Another Brother On The Sct?: What Justice Clarence Thomas Teaches Us About The Influence Of Racial Identity, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Mar 2005

Just Another Brother On The Sct?: What Justice Clarence Thomas Teaches Us About The Influence Of Racial Identity, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

Justice Clarence Thomas has generated the attention that most Justices receive only after they have retired. He has been boycotted by the National Bar Association, caricatured as a lawn jockey in Emerge Magazine, and protested by professors at an elite law school. As a general matter, Justice Thomas is viewed as a "non-race" man, a Justice with a jurisprudence that mirrors the Court's most conservative white member, Justice Antonin Scalia­, in other words, Justice Scalia in "blackface." This Article argues that, although Justice Thomas's ideology differs from the liberalism that is more widely held by Blacks in the ...


Immigration And Constitutional Consequences Of Post-9/11 Policies Involving Arabs And Muslims In The United States: Is Alienage A Distinction Without A Difference?, Susan Akram, Maritza Karmely Mar 2005

Immigration And Constitutional Consequences Of Post-9/11 Policies Involving Arabs And Muslims In The United States: Is Alienage A Distinction Without A Difference?, Susan Akram, Maritza Karmely

Faculty Scholarship

There has been much public and academic discussion on post-9/11 government policies and whether their impact on Arabs and Muslims in the United States is unconstitutional “racial profiling” or legitimate immigration control based on constitutionally permissible nationality distinctions. The main assumption underlying this debate is that the focus of the government's policies in the “war on terror” is noncitizens, even if principally Arabs and Muslims. Thus, the racial profiling issues center on the differences between the constitutional due process analysis applied to noncitizens and that applied to citizens. This Article challenges the above argument and a number of ...


Burning Down The House (And Senate): A Presentment Requirement For Legislative Subpoenas Under The Orders, Resolutions, And Votes Clause, Gary Lawson Jan 2005

Burning Down The House (And Senate): A Presentment Requirement For Legislative Subpoenas Under The Orders, Resolutions, And Votes Clause, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

The Constitution's Orders, Resolutions, and Votes Clause, U.S. Const. Article I, Section 7, Clause 3, requires presentment to the President of every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) . . . before the Same shall take Effect. The conventional wisdom, bred more than 200 years ago by James Madison, holds that this clause simply prevents Congress from evading the presentment requirement for bills in Article I, Section 7, Clause 2 by labeling legislative action something other than a bill. Seth Tillman, however, argues ...


The Willingness To Pay-Willingness To Accept Gap, The 'Endowment Effect,' Subject Misconceptions, And Experimental Procedures For Eliciting Valuations, Charles R. Plott, Kathryn Zeiler Jan 2005

The Willingness To Pay-Willingness To Accept Gap, The 'Endowment Effect,' Subject Misconceptions, And Experimental Procedures For Eliciting Valuations, Charles R. Plott, Kathryn Zeiler

Faculty Scholarship

We conduct experiments to explore the possibility that subject misconceptions, as opposed to a particular theory of preferences referred to as the "endowment effect," account for reported gaps between willingness to pay ("WTP") and willingness to accept ("WTA"). Two facts are evident in the literature. First, there is no consensus regarding the nature or robustness of the WTA-WTP gap. Secondly, while experimenters are very concerned to avoid subject misconceptions, there is no consensus about the fundamental properties of misconceptions or how they might be avoided. Instead, experimenters have revealed different conceptions of the phenomena through different types of experimental procedures ...


Turning From Damage Caps To Information Disclosure: An Alternative To Tort Reform, Kathryn Zeiler Jan 2005

Turning From Damage Caps To Information Disclosure: An Alternative To Tort Reform, Kathryn Zeiler

Faculty Scholarship

Medical malpractice damage caps are among the most popular instruments of tort reform at the state level. Recently the Bush administration proposed a federal damage cap on non-economic damages to quell the rise of medical malpractice insurance premiums despite the paucity of empirical evidence demonstrating that damage caps actually decrease premiums. This Case Study argues that imposing statutory caps on medical malpractice damages is not an effective method of remedying the medical malpractice insurance crisis: therefore, policymakers should consider alternatives to damage caps. In particular, evidence suggests that implementing mandatory disclosure of the contract terms between managed care organizations and ...


Pharmaceutical Arbitrage: Balancing Access And Innovation In International Prescription Drug Markets, Kevin Outterson Jan 2005

Pharmaceutical Arbitrage: Balancing Access And Innovation In International Prescription Drug Markets, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

While neoclassical economic theory suggests that arbitrage will undermine global differential pricing of pharmaceuticals, the empirical results are more complex. Pharmaceutical regulation, IP laws, global trade agreements, and company policies support differential pricing despite the pressure of arbitrage. For essential access programs in particular, the theoretical threat of pharmaceutical arbitrage is shown to be rarely observed empirically. Counterfeiting is demonstrated to be the more serious threat. These conclusions call for changes in the U.S. PEPFAR program for AIDS and in the implementation of the WTO TRIPS Agreement.

A more fundamental question, however, is whether pharmaceutical differential pricing is appropriate ...


The Scope And Jurisprudence Of The Investment Management Regulation, Tamar Frankel Jan 2005

The Scope And Jurisprudence Of The Investment Management Regulation, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay reviews three periods of investment company regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission. It focuses on the period of 1975 to 2000 in which the Commission granted exemptions on conditions, thus deregulating and reregulating, case by case and finally codifying the exemptions in an exemptive rule. The Essay analyses this form of rule-making and compares it to prosecution, settlements, and initial rule-making that typifies the recent years. The Essay concludes that the common law method of legislation, especially when it involves a "bargain" between the regulators and law-abiding regulated institutions who wish to innovate, is likely to lead ...


The Nature Of Arbitral Authority: A Comment On Lesotho Highlands, William Park Jan 2005

The Nature Of Arbitral Authority: A Comment On Lesotho Highlands, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

Arbitration unfolds within an enclosure created by the contract terms and the applicable arbitration law. Some measure of judicial scrutiny must be imposed to ensure that an award does not fall beyond an arbitrator’s authority. But how should one identify excess of authority? The House of Lords decision in Lesotho Highlands v. Impreglio serves as a prism through which to separate several themes that inhere in the nature of arbitral authority. In rejecting arguments that an error about the currency of an award represented an excess of jurisdiction, their Lordships confirmed a healthy appreciation that arbitrators do not exceed ...


'Oh Lord, Please Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood!': Rediscovering The Mathews V. Eldridge And Penn Central Frameworks, Gary Lawson Jan 2005

'Oh Lord, Please Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood!': Rediscovering The Mathews V. Eldridge And Penn Central Frameworks, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

Mathews v. Eldridge, which addresses the procedures that must be provided for deprivations of life, liberty, or property under the Due Process Clauses, and Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York, which guides inquiry into when governmental regulations rise to the level of takings of property that require just compensation, are decisions with near-canonical status. Mathews and Penn Central have some noteworthy parallels. Each decision is widely regarded as prescribing a three-factor test for resolving questions that arise under its respective domain. Each decision is almost universally decried as unworkable, incomplete, subjective, and incapable of consistent application. And ...


Tragedy & Remedy: Reparations For Disparities In Black Health, Kevin Outterson Jan 2005

Tragedy & Remedy: Reparations For Disparities In Black Health, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

The Tragedy of American health care is the stubborn persistence of disparities in Black health, one hundred and forty years after Emancipation, and more than four decades after the passage of Title VI. Formal legal equality has not translated into actual health equality. This Tragedy is deeper and older than mere legal forms; it has been supported by powerful social institutions, including some governments, charities, market participants, religions, ideologies, and cultures. Black health disparities interact with other vestiges of slavery such as disparities in wealth, education, employment and housing. They have permeated the American health experience. Efforts to eliminate Black ...


Invention, Refinement And Patent Claim Scope: A New Perspective On The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Michael Meurer Jan 2005

Invention, Refinement And Patent Claim Scope: A New Perspective On The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Michael Meurer

Faculty Scholarship

The doctrine of equivalents (DOE) allows courts to expand the scope of patent rights granted by the Patent Office. The doctrine has been justified on fairness grounds, but it lacks a convincing economic justification. The standard economic justification holds that certain frictions block patent applicants from literally claiming appropriately broad rights, and thus, the DOE is available at trial to expand patent scope and overcome these frictions. The friction theory suffers from three main weaknesses. First, the theory is implausible on empirical grounds. Frictions such as limits of language, mistake, and unforeseeability are missing from the leading cases. Second, there ...


'Bend It Like Beckham' And 'Real Women Have Curves': Constructing Identity In Multicultural Coming-Of-Age Stories, Linda C. Mcclain Jan 2005

'Bend It Like Beckham' And 'Real Women Have Curves': Constructing Identity In Multicultural Coming-Of-Age Stories, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

This Article looks at the coming-of-age stories in two recent films, Bend It Like Beckham and Real Women Have Curves, as an avenue to explore the question of constructing identity. Both films, arising out of the filmmakers' experiences, aim to offer representations of particular individuals in minority groups that challenge dominant representations. They also offer aspirational visions of how such individuals might find a way to construct a hybrid identity that allows them to negotiate their place within the various groups that claim them and within the broader society. How, the article asks, do the heroines in these films find ...


I Want To Live: Medicine Betrayed By Ideology In The Political Debate Over Terri Schaivo, George J. Annas Jan 2005

I Want To Live: Medicine Betrayed By Ideology In The Political Debate Over Terri Schaivo, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

The public's view of the political intrusion into the medical care of Theresa Marie Schiavo is well illustrated by two political cartoons. The first, by Tony Auth, reprinted in the Boston Globe shortly after Congress passed a law authorizing intervention by the federal courts, pictures a horde of congressmen charging mindlessly out of the Capitol, all dressed as physicians-one carrying a saw, another an I.V. pole-with the caption, "Coming Soon to a Sickbed Near You . .. [tihe United States Congress." The second, by Tom Toles, published in the Washington Post shortly after the results of the autopsy report were ...


Using The Master’S “Tool” To Dismantle His House: Why Justice Clarence Thomas Makes The Case For Affirmative Action, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Jan 2005

Using The Master’S “Tool” To Dismantle His House: Why Justice Clarence Thomas Makes The Case For Affirmative Action, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

Justice Clarence Thomas, the second black man to sit on the Supreme Court, is famous, or rather infamous, for his opposition to affirmative action. His strongest critics condemn him for attacking the very preferences that helped him reach the Supreme Court. None, however, have considered how Thomas's life itself may be used as a justification for affirmative action. In what ways can the master's "tool" be used to dismantle his house? This Article analyzes Justice Thomas's appointment to the Supreme Court and contends that his nomination to and performance on the Court ironically make the case for ...


The Scopes Trope, Jay Wexler Jan 2005

The Scopes Trope, Jay Wexler

Faculty Scholarship

In his book, Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists and Evolutionists in America, journalist Larry Witham introduces the reader to the various characters involved in the ongoing controversy over evolution and creationism. His account is subtle and nuanced, and he demonstrates that the controversy is more complicated than many believe. Far from caricatures of godless scientists seeking to discard religion in thedustbin of history and reactionary religious fundamentalists decrying Darwinism as the downfall of mankind, Witham gives us the real stories of real people who dwell in shades far more gray than usually recognized. This book review builds upon Witham ...


The Manager's Share, David Walker Jan 2005

The Manager's Share, David Walker

Faculty Scholarship

It is sometimes argued in the corporate governance literature that the total share of corporate value that can be extracted by a manager is fixed and independent of the avenues through which value is extracted. Shareholders need not worry about an activity such as insider trading, the story goes, because any profits achieved by a manager through insider trading will simply offset conventional compensation. This article challenges that idea and argues that whether one views the manager's share as being capped by external market forces, set by an optimal principal/agent contract, or limited by saliency and outrage in ...


The Theory Of Penalties And The Economics Of Criminal Law, Keith Hylton Jan 2005

The Theory Of Penalties And The Economics Of Criminal Law, Keith Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents a model of penalties that reconciles the conflicting accounts optimal punishment by Becker, who argued penalties should internalize social costs, and Posner, who suggested penalties should completely deter offenses. The model delivers specific recommendations as to when penalties should be set to internalize social costs and when they should be set to completely deter offensive conduct. I use the model to generate a positive account of the function and scope of criminal law doctrines, such as intent, necessity, and rules governing the distinction between torts and crimes. The model is also consistent with the history of criminal ...


Bargaining And Distribution In Special Education, Daniela Caruso Jan 2005

Bargaining And Distribution In Special Education, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

The problem of unequal access to educational services in the US has received the attention of courts and legislators for several decades. A traditional source of inequality, increasingly addressed by scholars and law-makers, is the discrimination against students with disabilities, who were once deprived tout court of real educational opportunities.' In this field, legislative intervention has been momentous and political forces across ideological lines have converged to provide children with disabilities proper access to public learning. The reform of special education has achieved tangible results in the last thirty years and has provided children with unprecedented opportunities.


The Republic Of Choice, The Pledge Of Allegiance, The American Taliban, Pnina Lahav Jan 2005

The Republic Of Choice, The Pledge Of Allegiance, The American Taliban, Pnina Lahav

Faculty Scholarship

In two important books, The Republic of Choice and The Horizontal Society, published in 1990 and 1999 respectively, Lawrence M. Friedman presents his theories of a massive social transformation which occurred in the last century. I wish to examine these theories through the prism of two cases: Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow3 and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld,4 both decided in the spring of 2004. Both Newdow and Hamdi have been at the center of public controversy for many months; each case carries many of the ingredients presented in Friedman's The Republic of Choice and The Horizontal Society ...


Sacred Visions Of Law, Robert L. Tsai Jan 2005

Sacred Visions Of Law, Robert L. Tsai

Faculty Scholarship

Around the time of the Bicentennial Celebration of the U.S. Constitution's framing, Professor Sanford Levinson called upon Americans to renew our constitutional faith. This article answers the call by examining how two legal symbols - Marbury v. Madison and Brown v. Board of Education - have been used by jurists over the years to tend the American community of faith. Blending constitutional theory and the study of religious form, the article argues that the decisions have become increasingly linked in the legal imagination even as they have come to signify very different sacred visions of law. One might think that ...


Discretion As Delegation: The 'Proper' Understanding Of The Nondelegation Doctrine, Gary Lawson Jan 2005

Discretion As Delegation: The 'Proper' Understanding Of The Nondelegation Doctrine, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

Does the Constitution limit the extent to which Congress can grant discretion to other actors? The traditional nondelegation doctrine says yes, though advocates of the doctrine strongly disagree about the source of that principle and the location of the line between permissible and impermissible discretion. A number of modern scholars and judges, however, doubt whether the Constitution contains any such principle. This article demonstrates that the Constitution constrains Congress's ability to grant discretion to other actors through the requirement that laws for carrying federal power into execution must be "necessary and proper." The words "necessary" and "proper" have distinct ...


The Vanishing Public Domain: Antibiotic Resistance, Pharmaceutical Innovation And Global Public Health, Kevin Outterson Jan 2005

The Vanishing Public Domain: Antibiotic Resistance, Pharmaceutical Innovation And Global Public Health, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

Penicillin and other antibiotics were the original wonder drugs and laid the foundation of the modern pharmaceutical industry. Human health significantly improved with the introduction of antibiotics. By 1967, the US Surgeon General declared victory over infectious diseases in the US. But pride goes before a fall. The evolutionary pressure of antibiotic use selects for resistant strains with the least fitness cost. Effective drugs should be used. But when they are used, no matter how carefully, evolutionary pressure for resistance is created. The problem is not limited to antibiotics. Variants of the human immunodeficiency (AIDS) virus develop resistance to anti-retroviral ...


Lessons For Patent Policy From Empirical Research On Patent Litigation, Michael Meurer Jan 2005

Lessons For Patent Policy From Empirical Research On Patent Litigation, Michael Meurer

Faculty Scholarship

This Article reviews empirical patent litigation research to reveal patent policy lessons. First, the Article presents facts about patent litigation. Next, it analyzes the patent premium. Patent litigation research reveals little about the magnitude of the patent premium, but the research reveals the strategies firms use to capture the patent premium and the patent policy instruments that determine the patent premium. Next, the Article evaluates the patent prosecution process and notes that making efforts to refine a patent application can affect the value of the patent. The Article then identifies reforms for improving PTO performance. Finally, the Article discusses policy ...


Constitutionalism, Judicial Review, And Progressive Change, Linda C. Mcclain, James Fleming Jan 2005

Constitutionalism, Judicial Review, And Progressive Change, Linda C. Mcclain, James Fleming

Faculty Scholarship

This paper evaluates arguments made in Ran Hirschl's powerful and sobering book, Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism (Harvard, 2004). Studying Canada, Israel, South Africa, and New Zealand, Hirschl aims to dispel what he views as the hollow hopes that constitutionalism and judicial review will bring about progressive change around the world. If Gerald Rosenberg, in his book, The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change, focused on the hollow hopes of liberals for social change securing, e.g., racial equality (Brown) and women's reproductive freedom (Roe), Hirschl focuses on hollow hopes for ...